Your PDF has successfully downloaded.

You may be interested in finding more content on these topics:


You are not currently logged in.

Access JSTOR through your library or other institution:


Log in through your institution.

Journal Article

Why Do Parents Become Involved? Research Findings and Implications

Kathleen V. Hoover‐Dempsey, Joan M. T. Walker, Howard M. Sandler, Darlene Whetsel, Christa L. Green, Andrew S. Wilkins and Kristen Closson
The Elementary School Journal
Vol. 106, No. 2 (November 2005), pp. 105-130
DOI: 10.1086/499194
Stable URL:
Page Count: 26
Were these topics helpful?
See somethings inaccurate? Let us know!

Select the topics that are inaccurate.

  • Download PDF
  • Add to My Lists
  • Cite this Item
We're having trouble loading this content. Download PDF instead.


Abstract A decade ago, Hoover‐Dempsey and Sandler offered a model of the parental involvement process that focused on understanding why parents become involved in their children’s education and how their involvement influences student outcomes. Since then, we and others have conducted conceptual and empirical work to enhance understanding of processes examined in the model. In this article (companion to Walker and colleagues’ article about scale development on the model in this issue), we review recent work on constructs central to the model’s initial question: Why do parents become involved in children’s education? Based on this review, we offer suggestions for (1) research that may deepen understanding of parents’ motivations for involvement and (2) school and family practices that may strengthen the incidence and effectiveness of parental involvement across varied school communities.

Notes and References

This item contains 144 references.

  • ['Adams, K. S., & Christenson, S. L. (1998). Differences in parent and teacher trust levels: Implications for creating collaborative family‐school relationships. Special Services in the Schools, 14(1/2), 1–22.']
  • ['Adams, K. S., & Christenson, S. L. (2000). Trust and the family‐school relationship: An examination of parent‐teacher differences in elementary and secondary grades. Journal of School Psychology, 38, 447–497.']
  • ['Anson, A. R., Cook, T. D., Habib, F., Grady, M. K., Haynes, N., & Comer, J. P. (1991). The Comer School Development Program: A theoretical analysis. Urban Education, 26, 56–82.']
  • ['Balli, S. J., Demo, D. H., & Wedman, J. F. (1998). Family involvement with children’s homework: An intervention in the middle grades. Family Relations, 47(2), 149–157.']
  • ['Balli, S. J., Wedman, J. F., & Demo, D. H. (1997). Family involvement with middle‐grades homework: Effects of differential prompting. Journal of Experimental Education, 66(1), 31–48.']
  • ['Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice‐Hall.']
  • ['Bandura, A. (1989). Regulation of cognitive processes through perceived self‐efficacy. Developmental Psychology, 25(5), 729–735.']
  • ['Bandura, A. (1997). Self‐efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman.']
  • ['Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (1996). Multifacted impact of self‐efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. Child Development, 67, 1206–1222.']
  • ['Barnard, W. M. (2004). Parent involvement in elementary school and educational attainment. Child and Youth Services Review, 26, 39–62.']
  • ['Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monographs, 4(1, Part 2).']
  • ['Baumrind, D. (1991). Parenting styles and adolescent development. In R. M. Lerner, A. C. Petersen, & J. Brooks‐Gunn (Eds.), Encyclopedia of adolescence (Vol. 2, pp. 746–758.) New York: Garland.']
  • ['Biddle, B. J. (1979). Role theory: Expectations, identities, and behavior. New York: Academic Press.']
  • ['Biddle, B. J. (1986). Recent developments in role theory. Annual Review of Sociology, 12, 67–92.']
  • ['Brantlinger, E. (2003). Dividing classes: How the middle class negotiates and rationalizes school advantage. New York: Routledge Falmer.']
  • ['Brantlinger, E., Madj‐Jabbari, M., & Guskin, S. L. (1996). Self‐interest and liberal educational discourse: How ideology works for middle‐class mothers. American Educational Research Journal, 33(3), 571–598.']
  • ['Brody, G. J., Flor, D. L., & Gibson, N. M. (1999). Linking maternal efficacy beliefs, developmental goals, parenting practices, and child competence in rural single‐parent African‐American families. Child Development, 70(5), 1197–1208.']
  • ['Chen, C., & Stevenson, H. W. (1989). Homework: A cross‐cultural examination. Child Development, 60, 551–561.']
  • ['Chrispeels, J., & Rivero, E. (2001). Engaging Latino families for student success: How parent education can reshape parents’ sense of place in the education of their children. Peabody Journal of Education, 76(2), 119–169.']
  • ['Christenson, S. L. (2004). The family‐school partnership: An opportunity to promote the learning competence of all students. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 83–104.']
  • ['Clark, R. (1983). Family life and school achievement: Why poor black children succeed or fail. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.']
  • ['Clark, R. (1993). Homework parenting practices that positively affect student achievement. In N. F. Chavkin (Ed.), Families and schools in a pluralistic society (pp. 53–71). Albany: State University of New York Press.']
  • ['Closson, K. E., Wilkins, A. S., Sandler, H. M., & Hoover‐Dempsey, K. V. (2004, April). Crossing cultural boundaries: Latino parents’ involvement in their children’s education. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.']
  • ['Collignon, F. F., Men, M., & Tan, S. (2001). Finding ways in: Community‐based perspectives on southeast Asian family involvement with schools in a New England state. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 6(1 & 2), 27–44.']
  • ['Collins, W. A., Maccoby, E. E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E. M., & Bornstein, M. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55, 218–232.']
  • ['Comer, J. P. (1985). Empowering black children’s educational environments. In J. P. McAdoo & J. L. McAdoo (Eds.), Black children: Social, educational, and parental environments (pp. 123–138). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.']
  • ['Comer, J. P., & Haynes, N. M. (1991). Parent involvement in schools: An ecological approach. Elementary School Journal, 91, 271–277.']
  • ['Comer, J. P., Haynes, N. M., Joyner, E. T., & Ben‐Avie, M. (Eds.). (1996). Rallying the whole village: The Comer process for reforming education. New York: Teachers College Press.']
  • ['Cooper, H., Lindsay, J. J., & Nye, B. (2000). Homework in the home: How student, family, and parenting style differences relate to the homework process. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 464–487.']
  • ['Corno, L. (2000). Looking at homework differently. Elementary School Journal, 100(5), 529–551.']
  • ['Dauber, S. L., & Epstein, J. L. (1993). Parents’ attitudes and practices of involvement in inner‐city elementary and middle schools. In N. F. Chavkin (Ed.), Families and schools in a pluralistic society (pp. 53–71). Albany: State University of New York Press.']
  • ['Delgado‐Gaitan, C. (1992). School matters in the Mexican‐American home: Socializing children to education. American Educational Research Journal, 29(3), 495–513.']
  • ['Delgado‐Gaitan, C. (2004). Involving Latino families in schools: Raising student achievement through home‐school partnerships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.']
  • ['Desimone, L. (1999). Linking parent involvement with student achievement: Do race and income matter? Journal of Educational Research, 93(1), 11–30.']
  • ['Deslandes, R., Royer, E., Potvin, P., & Leclerc, D. (1999). Patterns of home and school partnership for general and special education students at the secondary level. Exceptional Children, 65(4), 496–506.']
  • ['Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P., Liederman, P., Mont‐Reynaud, R., & Chen, Z. (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Development, 58, 1244–1257.']
  • ['Drummond, K. V., & Stipek, D. (2004). Low‐income parents’ beliefs about their role in children’s academic learning. Elementary School Journal, 104(3), 197–213.']
  • ['Eccles, J. S., & Harold, R. D. (1993). Parent‐school involvement during the early adolescent years. Teachers College Record, 94, 568–587.']
  • ['Eccles, J. S., & Harold, R. D. (1996). Family involvement in children’s and adolescents’ schooling. In A. Booth & J. F. Dunn (Eds.), Family‐school links: How do they affect education outcomes? (pp. 35–44). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.']
  • ['Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchannan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & Mac Iver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage‐environment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and families. American Psychologist, 48(2), 90–101.']
  • ['Entwisle, D. R., & Alexander, K. L. (1990). Beginning school math competence: Minority and majority comparisons. Child Development, 61, 454–471.']
  • ['Epstein, J. L. (1986). Parents’ reactions to teacher practices of parent involvement. Elementary School Journal, 86, 277–294.']
  • ['Epstein, J. L. (1991). Effects on student achievement of teachers’ practices of parent involvement. In S. Silvern (Ed.), Advances in reading/language research: Vol. 5. Literacy through family, community and school interaction (pp. 261–276). Greenwich, CT: JAI.']
  • ['Epstein, J. L. (2001). School, family and community partnerships: Preparing educators and improving schooling. Boulder, CO: Westview.']
  • ['Epstein, J. L., Salinas, K. C., & Jackson, V. E. (1995). Manual for teachers and prototype activities: Teachers Involve Parents in Schoolwork (TIPS) language arts, science/health, and math interactive homework in the middle grades. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Center on School, Family, and Community Partnerships.']
  • ['Epstein, J. L., & Van Voorhis, F. L. (2001). More than minutes: Teachers’ roles in designing homework. Educational Psychologist, 36(3), 181–193.']
  • ['Fan, X., & Chen, M. (1999). Parental involvement and students’ academic achievement: A meta‐analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 1–22.']
  • ['Fantuzzo, J. W., Davis, G. Y., & Ginsburg, M. D. (1995). Effects of parent involvement in isolation on student self‐concept and mathematics achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(2), 272–281.']
  • ['Frome, P. M., & Eccles, J. S. (1998). Parents’ influence on children’s achievement‐related perceptions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 435–452.']
  • ['Garcia, D. C. (2004). Exploring connections between the construct of teacher efficacy and family involvement practices: Implications for urban teacher preparation. Urban Education, 39(3), 290–315.']
  • ['Garcia Coll, C., Akiba, D., Palacios, N., Bailey, B., Silver, R., DiMartino, L., & Chin, C. (2002). Parental involvement in children’s education: Lessons from three immigrant groups. Parenting: Science and Practice, 2(3), 303–324.']
  • ['Ginsberg, G. S., & Bronstein, P. (1993). Family factors related to children’s intrinsic/extrinsic motivational orientation and academic performance. Child Development, 64, 1461–1474.']
  • ['Glasgow, K. L., Dornbusch, S. M., Troyer, L., Steinberg, L., & Ritter, P. L. (1997). Parenting styles, adolescents’ attributions, and educational outcomes in nine heterogeneous high schools. Child Development, 68, 507–529.']
  • ['Gonzalez, A. R., Holbein, M. F. D., & Quilter, S. (2002). High school students’ goal orientations and their relationship to perceived parenting styles. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 450–470.']
  • ['Gonzalez, M., & Chrispeels, J. (2004, April). Do educational programs increase parenting practices at home? Factors influencing Latino parent involvement. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.']
  • ['Gonzalez, N., Andrade, R., Civil, M., & Moll, L. (2001). Bridging funds of distributed knowledge: Creating zones of practice in mathematics. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 6(1–2), 115–132.']
  • ['Graue, E., & Brown, C. P. (2003). Preservice teachers’ notions of families and schooling. Teaching and Teacher Education, 19, 719–735.']
  • ['Graue, M. E., Kroeger, J., & Prager, D. (2001). A Bakhtinian analysis of particular home‐school relations. American Educational Research Journal, 38(3), 467–498.']
  • ['Griffith, J. (1996). Test of a model of the organizational antecedents of parent involvement and satisfaction with public education. Human Relations, 49(12), 1549–1571.']
  • ['Griffith, J. (1998). The relation of school structure and social environment to parent involvement in elementary schools. Elementary School Journal, 99(1), 53–80.']
  • ['Griffith, J. (2001). Principal leadership of parent involvement. Journal of Educational Administration, 39(2), 162–186.']
  • ['Grolnick, W. S., Benjet, C., Kurowski, C. O., & Apostoleris, N. H. (1997). Predictors of parent involvement in children’s schooling. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(3), 538–548.']
  • ['Grolnick, W. S., Kurowski, C. O., Dunlap, K. G., & Hevey, C. (2000). Parental resources and the transition to junior high. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 10(4), 465–488.']
  • ['Grolnick, W. S., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (1991). Inner resources for school achievement: Motivational mediators of children’s perceptions of their parents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(4), 508–517.']
  • ['Grolnick, W. S., & Slowiaczek, M. L. (1994). Parents’ involvement in children’s schooling: A multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model. Child Development, 64, 237–252.']
  • ['Grusec, J. E., (2002). Parenting socialization and children’s acquisition of values. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 5. Practical issues in parenting (pp. 143–167). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.']
  • ['Haynes, N. M., Emmons, C. L., & Woodruff, D. W. (1998). School Development Program effects: Linking implementation to outcomes. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 3(1), 71–85.']
  • ['Henderson, A. T., & Mapp. K. L. (2002). A new wave of evidence: The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.']
  • ['Hill, N. E., & Craft, S. A. (2003). Parent‐school involvement and school performance: Mediated pathways among socioeconomically comparable African American and Euro‐American families. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 74–83.']
  • ['Hoover‐Dempsey, K. V., Bassler, O. C., & Brissie, J. S. (1992). Explorations in parent‐school relations. Journal of Educational Research, 85(5), 287–294.']
  • ['Hoover‐Dempsey, K.V., Bassler, O. C., & Burow, R. (1995). Parents’ reported involvement in students’ homework: Strategies and practices. Elementary School Journal, 95, 435–450.']
  • ['Hoover‐Dempsey, K. V., Battiato, A. C., Walker, J. M. T., Reed, R. P., DeJong, J. M., & Jones, K. P. (2001). Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36, 195–210.']
  • ['Hoover‐Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H. M. (1995). Parental involvement in children’s education: Why does it make a difference? Teachers College Record, 97(2), 310–331.']
  • ['Hoover‐Dempsey, K.V., & Sandler, H. M. (1997). Why do parents become involved in their children’s education? Review of Educational Research, 67(1), 3–42.']
  • ['Hoover‐Dempsey, K. V., & Sandler, H. M. (2005, March). The social context of parental involvement: A path to enhanced achievement. Final performance report for the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (Grant No. R305T010673). Presented to Project Monitor, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.']
  • ['Hoover‐Dempsey, K. V., & Walker, J. M. T. (2002, March). Family‐school communication: A report for the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University, Department of Psychology and Human Development. ( ).']
  • ['Hoover‐Dempsey, K.V., Walker, J. M., Jones, K. P., & Reed, R.P. (2002). Teachers Involving Parents (TIP): An in‐service teacher education program for enhancing parental involvement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(7), 843–867.']
  • ['Hoover‐Dempsey, K.V., Wilkins, A. S., Sandler, H. M., & O’Connor, K. P. J. (2004, April). Parental role construction for involvement: Interactions among theoretical, measurement, and pragmatic issues in instrument development. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.']
  • ['Horvat, E. M., Weininger, E. B., & Lareau, A. (2003). From social ties to social capital: Class differences in the relations between schools and parent networks. American Educational Research Journal, 40(2), 319–351.']
  • ['Izzo, C., Weiss, L., Shanahan, T., & Rodriguez‐Brown, F. (2000). Parental self‐efficacy and social support as predictors of parenting practices and children’s socioemotional adjustment in Mexican immigrant families. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, 20(1/2), 197–213.']
  • ['Izzo, C. V., Weissberg, R. P., Kasprow, W. J., & Fendrich, M. (1999). A longitudinal assessment of teacher perceptions of parent involvement in children’s education and school performance. American Journal of Community Psychology, 27(6), 817–839.']
  • ['Jeynes, W. H. (2003). A meta‐analysis: The effects of parental involvement on minority children’s academic achievement. Education and Urban Society, 35(2), 202–218.']
  • ['Kay, P. J., Fitzgerald, M., Paradee, C., & Mellencamp, A. (1994). Making homework work at home: The parents’ perspective. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 550–561.']
  • ['Kohl, G. W., Lengua, L. J., & McMahon, R. J. (2002). Parent involvement in school: Conceptualizing multiple dimensions and their relations with family and demographic risk factors. Journal of School Psychology, 38(6), 501–523.']
  • ['Lareau, A. (1987). Social class differences in family‐school relationships: The importance of cultural capital. Sociology of Education, 60, 73–85.']
  • ['Lareau, A. (1989). Home advantage: Social class and parental involvement in elementary education. New York: Basic.']
  • ['Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life. Berkeley: University of California Press.']
  • ['Lareau, A., & Horvat, E. M. (1999). Moments of social inclusion and exclusion: Race, class, and cultural capital in family‐school relationships. Sociology of Education, 72(1), 37–53.']
  • ['Lawson, M. A. (2003). School‐family relations in context: Parent and teacher perceptions of parent involvement. Urban Education, 38(1), 77–133.']
  • ['Levin, I., Levy‐Shiff, R., Appelbaum‐Peled, T., Katz, I., Komar, M., & Meiran, N. (1997). Antecedents and consequences of maternal involvement in children’s homework: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 18, 207–227.']
  • ['Lopez, G. R. (2001). The value of hard work: Lessons on parent involvement from an (im)migrant household. Harvard Educational Review, 71(3), 416–437.']
  • ['Lopez, G. R., Scribner, J. D., & Mahitivanichcha, K. (2001). Redefining parental involvement: Lessons from high‐performing migrant‐impacted schools. American Educational Research Journal, 38(2), 253–288.']
  • ['Lopez, L. C., Sanchez, V. V., & Hamilton, M. (2000). Immigrant and native‐born Mexican‐American parents’ involvement in a public school: A preliminary study. Psychological Reports, 86, 521–525.']
  • ['Ma, X. (1999). Dropping out of advanced mathematics: The effects of parental involvement. Teachers College Record, 101(1), 60–81.']
  • ['Machida, S., Taylor, A. R., & Kim, J. (2002). The role of maternal beliefs in predicting home learning activities in Head Start families. Family Relations, 51(2), 176–184.']
  • ['Marcon, R. A. (1999). Positive relationships between parent school involvement and public school inner‐city preschoolers’ development and academic performance. School Psychology Review, 28(3), 395–412.']
  • ['Mattingly, D. J., Prislin, R., McKenzie, T. L., Rodriguez, J. L., & Kayzar, B. (2002). Evaluating evaluations: The case of parent involvement programs. Review of Educational Research, 72(4), 549–576.']
  • ['McCaslin, M., & Murdock, T. (1991). The emergent interaction of home and school in the development of students’ adaptive learning. In M. Maehr & P. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Vol. 7. Motivation‐enhancing environments (pp. 213–259). Greenwich, CT: JAI.']
  • ['McNamara, K., Telzrow, C., & DeLamatre, J. (1999). Parent reactions to implementation of intervention‐based assessment. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 10(4), 343–362.']
  • ['Miedel, W. T., & Reynolds, A. J. (1999). Parent involvement in early intervention for disadvantaged children: Does it matter? Journal of School Psychology, 37(4), 379–402.']
  • ['Moll, L., Amanti, C., Neff, D., & Gonzalez, N. (1992). Funds of knowledge for teaching: Using a qualitative approach to connect homes and classrooms. Theory into Practice, 31, 132–141.']
  • ['Morris, V. G., & Taylor, S. I. (1998). Alleviating barriers to family involvement in education: The role of teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 14(2), 219–231.']
  • ['Ng, F. F., Kenney‐Benson, G. A., & Pomerantz, E. M. (2004). Children’s achievement moderates the effects of mothers’ use of control and autonomy support. Child Development, 75(3), 764–780.']
  • ['Okagaki, L. (2001). Triarchic model of minority children’s school achievement. Educational Psychologist, 36(1), 9–20.']
  • ['Okagaki, L., & Frensch, P. A. (1998). Parenting and children’s school achievement: A multiethnic perspective. American Educational Research Journal, 35(1), 123–144.']
  • ['Pang, I. W., & Watkins, D. (2000). Towards a psychological model of teacher‐parent communication in Hong Kong primary schools. Educational Studies, 26(2), 141–163.']
  • ['Patrikakou, E. N., & Weissberg, R. P. (2000). Parents’ perceptions of teacher outreach and parent involvement in children’s education. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community, 20(1–2), 103–119.']
  • ['Pena, D. C. (2000). Parent involvement: Influencing factors and implications. Journal of Educational Research, 94(1), 42–45.']
  • ['Pomerantz, E. M., & Eaton, M. M. (2001). Maternal intrusive support in the academic context: Transactional socialization processes. Developmental Psychology, 37, 174–186.']
  • ['Pratt, M. W., Green, D., MacVicar, J., & Bountrogianni, M. (1992). The mathematical parent: Parental scaffolding, parenting style, and learning outcomes in long‐division mathematics homework. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 13, 17–34.']
  • ['Reese, L., Balzano, S., Gallimore, R., & Goldenberg, C. (1995). The concept of educacion: Latino family values and American schooling. International Jouranl of Educational Research, 23, 57–81.']
  • ['Sanders, M. G. (1998). The effects of school, family, and community support on the academic achievement of African‐American adolescents. Urban Education, 33, 385–409.']
  • ['Sanders, M. G., & Epstein, J. L. (2000). Building school‐family‐community partnerships in middle and high school. In M. G. Sanders (Ed.), Schooling students placed at risk: Research, policy and practice in the education of poor and minority adolescents (pp. 339–361). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.']
  • ['Sanders, M. G., & Harvey, A. (2002). Beyond the school walls: A case study of principal leadership for school‐community collaboration. Teachers College Record, 104(7), 1345–1386.']
  • ['Scott‐Jones, D. (1987). Mother‐as‐teacher in the families of high‐ and low‐achieving low‐income black first graders. Journal of Negro Education, 56(1), 21–34.']
  • ['Scott‐Jones, D. (1995). Parent‐child interactions and school achievement. In B. A. Ryan, G. R. Adams, T. P. Gullotta, R. P. Weissberg, & R. L. Hampton (Eds.), The family‐school connection: Theory, research, and practice (Vol. 2, pp. 75–107). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.']
  • ['Scribner, J. D., Young, M. D., & Pedroza, A. (1999). Building collaborative relationships with parents. In J. D. Scribner & A. Paredes‐Scribner (Eds.), Lessons from high‐performing Hispanic schools: Creating learning communities (pp 36–60). New York: Teachers College Press.']
  • ['Seefeldt, C., Denton, K., Galper, A., & Younoszai, T. (1998). Former Head Start parents’ characteristics, perceptions of school climate, and involvement in their children’s education. Elementary School Journal, 98(4), 339–349.']
  • ['Seginer, R. (1983). Parents’ educational expectations and children’s academic achievements: A literature review. Merrill‐Palmer Quarterly, 29, 1–23.']
  • ['Shaver, A. V., & Walls, R. T. (1998). Effect of Title I parent involvement on student reading and mathematics achievement. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 31(2), 90–97.']
  • ['Sheldon, S. B. (2002). Parents’ social networks and beliefs as predictors of parent involvement. Elementary School Journal, 102(4), 301–316.']
  • ['Sheldon, S. B. (2003). Linking school‐family‐community partnerships in urban elementary schools to student achievement on state tests. Urban Review, 35(2), 149–165.']
  • ['Sheldon, S. B., & Epstein, J. L. (2002). Improving student behavior and school discipline with family and community involvement. Education and Urban Society, 35(1), 4–26.']
  • ['Shumow, L. (1998). Promoting parental attunement to children’s mathematical reasoning through parent education. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19(1), 109–127.']
  • ['Shumow, L., & Lomax, R. (2002). Parental efficacy: Predictor of parenting behavior and adolescent outcomes. Parenting: Science and Practice, 2, 127–150.']
  • ['Simon, B. S. (2004). High school outreach and family involvement. Social Psychology of Education, 7, 185–209.']
  • ['Soodak, L. C., & Erwin, E. J. (2000). Valued member or tolerated participant: Parents’ experiences in inclusive early childhood settings. Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 25(1), 29–41.']
  • ['Soodak, L. C., Erwin, E. J., Winton, P., Brotherson, M. J., Turnbull, A. P., Hanson, M. J., & Brault, L. M. J. (2002). Implementing inclusive early childhood education: A call for professional empowerment. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22(2), 91–102.']
  • ['Starkey, P., & Klein, A. (2000). Fostering parental support for children’s mathematical development: An intervention with Head Start families. Early Education and Development, 11(5), 659–680.']
  • ['Steinberg, L., Elmen, J. D., & Mounts, N. S. (1989). Authoritative parenting, psychosocial maturity, and academic success among adolescents. Child Development, 60, 1424–1436.']
  • ['Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S. D., Dornbusch, S. M., & Darling, N. (1992). Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement: Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Child Development, 63, 1266–1281.']
  • ['Sui‐Chu, E. H., & Willms, J. D. (1996). Effects of parent involvement on eighth‐grade achievement. Sociological Quarterly, 69(2), 126–141.']
  • ['Trevino, R. E. (2004, April). Parent involvement and remarkable student achievement: A study of Mexican‐origin families of migrant high achievers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.']
  • ['Trusty, J. (1999). Effects of eighth‐grade parental involvement on late adolescents’ educational experiences. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 32(4), 224–233.']
  • ['Trusty, J., & Lampe, R. E. (1997). Relationship of high‐school seniors’ perceptions of parental involvement and control to seniors’ locus of control. Journal of Counseling and Development, 75, 375–384.']
  • ['Walker, J. M. T., Wilkins, A. S., Dallaire, J. P., Sandler, H. M., & Hoover‐Dempsey, K. V. (2005). Parental involvement: Model revision through scale development. Elementary School Journal, 106, 85–104.']
  • ['Wang, J., Wildman, L., & Calhoun, G. (1996). The relationships between parental influence and student achievement in seventh‐grade mathematics. School Science and Mathematics, 96, 395–399.']
  • ['Weeden, C. (2001). Parental involvement in education: Why parents do what they do. Undergraduate honors thesis in child development, Department of Psychology and Human Development, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.']
  • ['Weiss, H. B., Mayer, E., Kreider, H., Vaughan, M., Dearing, E., Hencke, R., & Pinto, K. (2003). Making it work: Low‐income working mothers’ involvement in their children’s education. American Educational Research Journal, 40(4), 879–901.']
  • ['Wells, A. S., & Serna, I. (1996). The politics of culture: Understanding local political resistance to detracking in racially mixed schools. Harvard Educational Review, 66(1), 93–118.']
  • ['Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Parents’ aspirations for children’s educational attainments: Relations to parental beliefs and social address variables. Merrill‐Palmer Quarterly, 44(1), 20–37.']
  • ['White, K. R., Taylor, M. J., & Moss, V. T. (1992). Does research support claims about the benefits of involving parents in early intervention programs? Review of Educational Research, 62, 91–125.']
  • ['Xu, J., & Corno, L. (1998). Case studies of families doing third‐grade homework. Teachers College Record, 100, 402–436.']
  • ['Xu, J., & Corno, L. (2003). Family help and homework management reported by middle school students. Elementary School Journal, 103(5), 503–536.']