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Journal Article

Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 4 Outbreak in a Home for the Aged: Report and Review of Recent Outbreaks

Sheldon Gleich , MD, Yosef Morad , MD, Ramon Echague , MD, James R. Miller , MD, MPH, John Kornblum , PhD, Jacquelyn S. Sampson , PhD and Jay C. Butler , MD
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Vol. 21, No. 11 (November 2000), pp. 711-717
DOI: 10.1086/501717
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Page Count: 7
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Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 4 Outbreak in a Home for the Aged: Report and Review of Recent Outbreaks
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OBJECTIVE.  To describe a pneumonia outbreak caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae among residents of a home for aged and to review contemporary pneumococcal outbreaks. DESIGN.  Epidemiological investigation. METHODS.  S pneumoniae isolates were serotyped and analyzed by pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis. Paired sera were tested for antibodies to pneumococcal surface adhesin A protein (PsaA, a 37‐kDa cell‐wall protein). Pneumococcal outbreaks reported in the last decade in English were reviewed. RESULTS.  Pneumonia developed in 18 of 200 residents. In 11 (61%), a pneumococcal etiology was demonstrated. S pneumoniae, serotype 4, was isolated from the blood cultures of 3 patients; all isolates were indistinguishable by pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis. Pneumococcal involvement was established in 2 by sputum culture and latex agglutination of parapneumonic fluid and in 6 others by a twofold rise in optical density of serum antibody reactive to PsaA. Pneumococcal immunization had not previously been received by any patient; mortality was 22%. No additional cases were noted following administration of pneumococcal vaccine and antibiotic prophylaxis with penicillin or erythromycin. Twenty‐six outbreaks of invasive pneumococcal disease since 1990 were reviewed. Twelve occurred in the United States, and serotypes 23F, 14, and 4 accounted for 8 (67%) of 12 outbreaks. All confirmed serotypes in US outbreaks are included in the 23‐ valent vaccine. More than one half of pneumococcal outbreaks worldwide involved elderly persons in hospitals or longterm –care facilities. CONCLUSIONS .  A pneumococcal pneumonia outbreak occurred among unvaccinated residents of a residential facility for the aged. Institutionalized elderly persons are at risk of outbreaks of pneumococcal disease and should be vaccinated (Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2000;21:711‐717).

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