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Epidemiology and Clonality of Methicillin‐Resistant and Methicillin‐Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bacteremia in a Tertiary‐Care Hospital in Spain

Fernando Chaves , MD, Jesus García‐Martínez , MD, Sonia de Miguel , MD, Francisca Sanz , MD and Joaquín R. Otero , MD
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Vol. 26, No. 2 (February 2005), pp. 150-156
DOI: 10.1086/502519
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/502519
Page Count: 7
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Epidemiology and Clonality of Methicillin‐Resistant and Methicillin‐Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Causing Bacteremia in a Tertiary‐Care Hospital in Spain
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Abstract

OBJECTIVES.  To describe the relative proportions of nosocomial and community‐onset Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia at our institution and the epidemiologic characteristics and clonal diversity of S. aureus isolates, as determined by pulsed‐field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial resistance patterns. DESIGN.  Retrospective cohort study of all cases of S. aureus bacteremia between October 2001 and October 2002. SETTING.  A 1,300‐bed, tertiary‐care hospital. RESULTS.  One hundred sixty‐two unique episodes of S. aureus bacteremia were identified. Forty‐three cases (26.5%) were caused by methicillin‐resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Most cases of S. aureus bacteremia, whether MRSA or methicillin susceptible (MSSA), were nosocomial in origin (77.2%) or were otherwise associated with the healthcare system (16%). Only 11 (6.8%) of the cases (all MSSA) were strictly community acquired. Thirty‐five unique macrorestriction patterns were identified among the 154 isolates that were typed by PFGE. Four major genotypes were defined among the isolates of MRSA, with 36 (85.7%) represented by a single PFGE type. Of the isolates within this major clone, all (100%) were ciprofloxacin resistant and 77.8% were erythromycin resistant. In contrast, the 112 isolates of MSSA comprised 31 different PFGE types, 3 of which represented 42.9% of all MSSA isolates and were associated with both nosocomial and community‐onset bacteremia. CONCLUSIONS.  Most cases of S. aureus bacteremia in our healthcare region are nosocomial in origin or are acquired through contact with the healthcare system and are thus potentially preventable. To preclude dissemination of pathogenic clones, it is therefore necessary to redouble preventive measures in both the hospital and the community.

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