You are not currently logged in.

Access your personal account or get JSTOR access through your library or other institution:


Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

Phylogenetic Analysis of Trophic Associations

A. R. Ives and H. C. J. Godfray
The American Naturalist
Vol. 168, No. 1 (July 2006), pp. E1-E14
DOI: 10.1086/505157
Stable URL:
Page Count: 14
Subjects: Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Biological Sciences
  • Download PDF
  • Add to My Lists
  • Cite this Item
Phylogenetic Analysis of Trophic Associations
We're having trouble loading this content. Download PDF instead.


Abstract: Ecologists frequently collect data on the patterns of association between adjacent trophic levels in the form of binary or quantitative food webs. Here, we develop statistical methods to estimate the roles of consumer and resource phylogenies in explaining patterns of consumer‐resource association. We use these methods to ask whether closely related consumer species are more likely to attack the same resource species and whether closely related resource species are more likely to be attacked by the same consumer species. We then show how to use estimates of phylogenetic signals to predict novel consumer‐resource associations solely from the phylogenetic position of species for which no other (or only partial) data are available. Finally, we show how to combine phylogenetic information with information about species’ ecological characteristics and life‐history traits to estimate the effects of species traits on consumer‐resource associations while accounting for phylogenies. We illustrate these techniques using a food web comprising species of parasitoids, leaf‐mining moths, and their host plants.

Notes and References

This item contains 52 references.

Literature Cited
  • ['Askew, R. R. 1980. The diversity of insect communities in leaf‐mines and plant galls. Journal of Animal Ecology 49:817–829.']
  • ['Askew, R. R., and M. R. Shaw. 1986. Parasitoid communities: their size, structure and development. Pages 225–264 in J. K. Waage and D. Greathead, eds. Insect parasitoids. Academic Press, London.']
  • ['Blomberg, S. P., and T. Garland. 2002. Tempo and mode in evolution: phylogenetic inertia, adaptation and comparative methods. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 15:899–910.']
  • ['Blomberg, S. P., T. Garland, and A. R. Ives. 2003. Testing for phylogenetic signal in comparative data: behavioral traits are more labile. Evolution 57:717–745.']
  • ['Charleston, M. A. 1998. Jungles: a new solution to the host/parasite phylogeny reconciliation problem. Mathematical Biosciences 149:191–223.']
  • ['Combes, C. 2001. Parasitism. Chicago University Press, Chicago.']
  • ['Efron, B., and R. J. Tibshirani. 1993. An introduction to the bootstrap. Chapman & Hall, New York.']
  • ['Emmet, A. M., I. A. Watkinson, and D. R. Wilson. 1985. Gracillariidae. Pages 244–363 in J. Heath and A. M. Emmet, eds. The moths and butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. 2. Harley, Colchester.']
  • ['Felsenstein, J. 1985. Phylogenies and the comparative method. American Naturalist 125:1–15.']
  • ['———. 2004. Inferring phylogenies. Sinauer, Sunderland, MA.']
  • ['Fuller, W. A. 1996. Introduction to statistical time series. Wiley, New York.']
  • ['Garland, T., and A. R. Ives. 2000. Using the past to predict the present: confidence intervals for regression equations in phylogenetic comparative methods. American Naturalist 155:346–364.']
  • ['Garland, T., A. W. Dickerman, C. M. Janis, and J. A. Jones. 1993. Phylogenetic analysis of covariance by computer simulation. Systematic Biology 42:265–292.']
  • ['Garland, T. J., and R. Díaz‐Uriarte. 1999. Polytomies and phylogenetically independent contrasts: an examination of the bounded degrees of freedom approach. Systematic Biology 48:547–558.']
  • ['Gauld, I. D., and B. Bolton. 1988. The Hymenoptera. Oxford University Press, Oxford.']
  • ['Gautier, N., J. Lasalle, D. L. J. Quicke, and H. C. J. Godfray. 2000. Phylogeny of Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) with a reclassification of Eulophinae and the recognition that Elasmidae are derived eulophids. Systematic Entomology 25:521–539.']
  • ['Godfray, H. C. J. 1994. Parasitoids: behavioral and evolutionary ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.']
  • ['Godfray, H. C. J., D. J. L. Agassiz, D. R. Nash, and J. H. Lawton. 1995. The recruitment of parasitoid species to two invading herbivores. Journal of Animal Ecology 64:393–402.']
  • ['Grafen, A. 1989. The phylogenetic regression. Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 326:119–157.']
  • ['Hansen, T. F., and S. H. Orzack. 2005. Assessing current adaptive and phylogenetic inertia explanations of trait evolution: the need for controlled comparisons. Evolution 59:2063–2072.']
  • ['Harvey, P. H., and M. D. Pagel. 1991. The comparative method in evolutionary biology. Oxford University Press, Oxford.']
  • ['Hawkins, B. A. 1994. Pattern and process in host‐parasitoid interactions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.']
  • ['Hawkins, B. A., and J. H. Lawton. 1987. Species richness for parasitoids of British phytophagous insects. Nature 326:417–423.']
  • ['Henneman, M. L., and J. Memmott. 2001. Infiltration of a Hawaiian community by introduced biological control agents. Science 293:1314–1316.']
  • ['Housworth, E. A., and E. P. Martins. 2001. Random sampling of constrained phylogenies: conducting phylogenetic analyses when the phylogeny is partially known. Systematic Biology 50:628–639.']
  • ['Howarth, F. G. 1991. Environmental impacts of classical biological control. Annual Review of Entomology 36:485–509.']
  • ['Huelsenbeck, J. P., and B. Rannala. 2003. Detecting correlation between characters in a comparative analysis with uncertain phylogeny. Evolution 57:1237–1247.']
  • ['Ives, A. R., and J. Zhu. 2006. Statistics for correlated data: phylogenies, space, and time. Ecological Applications 16:20–33.']
  • ['Judge, G. G., W. E. Griffiths, R. C. Hill, H. Lutkepohl, and T.‐C. Lee. 1985. The theory and practice of econometrics. Wiley, New York.']
  • ['Lewis, O. T., J. Memmott, J. Lasalle, C. H. C. Lyal, C. Whitefoord, and H. C. J. Godfray. 2002. Structure of a diverse tropical forest insect‐parasitoid community. Journal of Animal Ecology 71:855–873.']
  • ['Lopez‐Vaamonde, C., H. C. J. Godfray, and J. M. Cook. 2003. Evolutionary dynamics of host‐plant use in a genus of leaf‐mining moths. Evolution 57:1804–1821.']
  • ['Martins, E. P. 2000. Adaptation and the comparative method. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 15:296–299.']
  • ['Martins, E. P., and T. F. Hansen. 1997. Phylogenies and the comparative method: a general approach to incorporating phylogenetic information into the analysis of interspecific data. American Naturalist 149:646–667 (erratum 153:448).']
  • ['MathWorks. 2005. Matlab, version 7.0. MathWorks, Natick, MA.']
  • ['Mooney, H. A., and J. A. Drake. 1986. Ecology of biological invasions of North America and Hawaii. Springer, New York.']
  • ['Müller, C. B., I. C. T. Adriaanse, R. Belshaw, and H. C. J. Godfray. 1999. The structure of an aphid‐parasitoid community. Journal of Animal Ecology 68:346–370.']
  • ['Orzack, S. H., and E. Sober. 2001. Adaptation, phylogenetic inertia, and the method of controlled comparisons. Pages 45–63 in S. H. Orzack and E. Sober, eds. Adaptationism and optimality. Cambridge University Press, New York.']
  • ['Page, R. D. M. 1994. Parallel phylogenies: reconstructing the history of host‐parasite assemblages. Cladistics 10:155–173.']
  • ['———. 2000. TreeMap for Macintosh, version 2.0 beta.']
  • ['Page, R. D. M., P. L. M. Lee, S. A. Becher, R. Griffiths, and D. H. Clayton. 1998. A different tempo of mitochondrial DNA evolution in birds and their parasitic lice. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9:276–293.']
  • ['Price, P. W. 1980. Parasites. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.']
  • ['Purvis, A., and T. Garland. 1993. Polytomies in comparative analyses of continuous characters. Systematic Biology 42:569–575.']
  • ['Quicke, D. L. J. 1997. Parasitic wasps. Chapman & Hall, London.']
  • ['Rohlf, F. J. 2001. Comparative methods for the analysis of continuous variables: geometric interpretations. Evolution 55:2143–2160.']
  • ['Rothschild, M., and T. Clay. 1952. Fleas, flukes and cuckoos. Collins, London.']
  • ['Rott, A. S., and H. C. J. Godfray. 2000. The structure of a leafminer‐parasitoid community. Journal of Animal Ecology 69:274–289.']
  • ['Sheehan, W., and B. H. Hawkins. 1991. Attack strategy as an indicator of host range in metopiine and pimpline Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera). Ecological Entomology 16:129–131.']
  • ['Soltis, D. E., P. S. Soltis, M. W. Chase, M. E. Mort, D. C. Albach, M. Zanis, V. Savolainen, et al. 2000. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from 18S rDNA, rbcL, and atpB sequences. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 133:381–461.']
  • ['Strong, D. R., J. H. Lawton, and T. R. E. Southwood. 1984. Insects on plants: community patterns and mechanisms. Blackwood, Oxford.']
  • ['van Veen, F. J., R. J. Morris, and H. C. J. Godfray. 2006. Apparent competition, quantitative food webs and the structure of phytophagous insect communities. Annual Review of Entomology 51:187–208.']
  • ['Vinson, S. B. 1997. The behavior of parasitoids. Pages 417–469 in G. A. Kerkut and L. I. Gilbert, eds. Comprehensive insect physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology. Pergamon, New York.']
  • ['Williamson, M. 1996. Biological invasions. Chapman & Hall, London.']