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Protein Synthesis and Antioxidant Capacity in Aging Mice: Effects of Long‐Term Voluntary Exercise
Lobke M. Vaanholt, John R. Speakman, Theodore Garland Jr., Gerald E. Lobley and G. Henk Visser
Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: Ecological and Evolutionary Approaches
Vol. 81, No. 2 (March/April 2008), pp. 148-157
Published by: The University of Chicago Press. Sponsored by the Division of Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/525289
Page Count: 10
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Abstract Exercise increases metabolic rate and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but also elevates protein turnover. ROS cause damage to macromolecules (e.g., proteins) and thereby contribute to aging. Protein turnover removes and replaces damaged proteins. The balance between these two responses may underlie beneficial effects of physical activity on aging. Effects of lifelong exercise on antioxidant enzyme activities and fractional synthesis rate of protein (FSRP) were examined at various ages (2–26 mo) in heart, liver, and muscle of mice that had been selectively bred for high wheel‐running activity, housed with (S+) or without (S−) a running wheel, and their random‐bred controls (C+) housed with running wheels. FSRP decreased with age and increased in muscle of young, but not old, activity‐selected mice. Enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased with age and showed a peak at 10 mo of age in liver. Selection for wheel‐running activity did not affect antioxidant enzyme activity. Daily energy expenditure correlated positively with antioxidant levels in liver. This might indicate that oxidative stress (ROS production) increases with metabolic rate, driving upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. Alternatively, the elevated energy expenditure may reflect the energetic cost of elevated protection, consistent with the disposable‐soma hypothesis and with other studies showing positive links between energy expenditure and life span. Long‐term elevations in voluntary exercise did not result in elevations in antioxidant enzyme activities or protein synthesis rates.
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