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Journal Article

The Life of a Dead Ant: The Expression of an Adaptive Extended Phenotype

Sandra B. Andersen, Sylvia Gerritsma, Kalsum M. Yusah, David Mayntz, Nigel L. Hywel‐Jones, Johan Billen, Jacobus J. Boomsma and David P. Hughes
The American Naturalist
Vol. 174, No. 3 (September 2009), pp. 424-433
DOI: 10.1086/603640
Stable URL:
Page Count: 10
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Abstract: Specialized parasites are expected to express complex adaptations to their hosts. Manipulation of host behavior is such an adaptation. We studied the fungus Ophiocordyceps unilateralis, a locally specialized parasite of arboreal Camponotus leonardi ants. Ant‐infecting Ophiocordyceps are known to make hosts bite onto vegetation before killing them. We show that this represents a fine‐tuned fungal adaptation: an extended phenotype. Dead ants were found under leaves, attached by their mandibles, on the northern side of saplings ∼25 cm above the soil, where temperature and humidity conditions were optimal for fungal growth. Experimental relocation confirmed that parasite fitness was lower outside this manipulative zone. Host resources were rapidly colonized and further secured by extensive internal structuring. Nutritional composition analysis indicated that such structuring allows the parasite to produce a large fruiting body for spore production. Our findings suggest that the osmotrophic lifestyle of fungi may have facilitated novel exploitation strategies.

Notes and References

This item contains 35 references.

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