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Evaluation of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes for Reporting Methicillin‐Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections at a Hospital in Illinois

Melissa K. Schaefer , MD, Katherine Ellingson , PhD, Craig Conover , MD, Alicia E. Genisca , BA, Donna Currie , MSN, RN, Tina Esposito , MBA, RHIA, Laura Panttila , RHIA, Peter Ruestow , MPH, Karen Martin , RN, MPH, Diane Cronin , RHIT, Michael Costello , PhD, Stephen Sokalski , DO, Scott Fridkin , MD and Arjun Srinivasan , MD
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 2010), pp. 463-468
DOI: 10.1086/651665
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/651665
Page Count: 6
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Evaluation of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification Codes for Reporting Methicillin‐Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections at a Hospital in Illinois
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Abstract

Background.  States, including Illinois, have passed legislation mandating the use of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD‐9‐CM) codes for reporting healthcare‐associated infections, such as methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Objective.  To evaluate the sensitivity of ICD‐9‐CM code combinations for detection of MRSA infection and to understand implications for reporting. Methods.  We reviewed discharge and microbiology databases from July through August of 2005, 2006, and 2007 for ICD‐9‐CM codes or microbiology results suggesting MRSA infection at a tertiary care hospital near Chicago, Illinois. Medical records were reviewed to confirm MRSA infection. Time from admission to first positive MRSA culture result was evaluated to identify hospital‐onset MRSA (HO‐MRSA) infections. The sensitivity of MRSA code combinations for detecting confirmed MRSA infections was calculated using all codes present in the discharge record (up to 15); the effect of reviewing only 9 diagnosis codes, the number reported to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, was also evaluated. The sensitivity of the combination of diagnosis codes for detection of HO‐MRSA infections was compared with that for community‐onset MRSA (CO‐MRSA) infections. Results.  We identified 571 potential MRSA infections with the use of screening criteria; 403 (71%) were confirmed MRSA infections, of which 61 (15%) were classified as HO‐MRSA. The sensitivity of MRSA code combinations was 59% for all confirmed MRSA infections when 15 diagnoses were reviewed compared with 31% if only 9 diagnoses were reviewed ( \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage[OT2,OT1]{fontenc} \newcommand\cyr{ \renewcommand\rmdefault{wncyr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{wncyss} \renewcommand\encodingdefault{OT2} \normalfont \selectfont} \DeclareTextFontCommand{\textcyr}{\cyr} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} \landscape $P< .001$ \end{document} ). The sensitivity of code combinations was 33% for HO‐MRSA infections compared with 62% for CO‐MRSA infections ( \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage[OT2,OT1]{fontenc} \newcommand\cyr{ \renewcommand\rmdefault{wncyr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{wncyss} \renewcommand\encodingdefault{OT2} \normalfont \selectfont} \DeclareTextFontCommand{\textcyr}{\cyr} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} \landscape $P< .001$ \end{document} ). Conclusions.  Limiting analysis to 9 diagnosis codes resulted in low sensitivity. Furthermore, code combinations were better at revealing CO‐MRSA infections than HO‐MRSA infections. These limitations could compromise the validity of ICD‐9‐CM codes for interfacility comparisons and for reporting of healthcare‐associated MRSA infections.

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