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Catheter‐Related Polymicrobial Bloodstream Infections among Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Outpatients—Atlanta, Georgia, 2007

Petra Wiersma , MD, Sarah Schillie , MD, MPH, MBA, Harry Keyserling , MD, J. Renee Watson , RN, CIC, Anindya De , PhD, Shailendra N. Banerjee , PhD, Cherie L. Drenzek , DVM, MS, Kathryn E. Arnold , MD, Christina Shivers , DVM, Lea Kendrick , LPN, CIC, Lydia Gonzalez Ryan , MS, PNP, Bette Jensen , MMSc, Judith Noble‐Wang , PhD and Arjun Srinivasan , MD
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Vol. 31, No. 5 (May 2010), pp. 522-527
DOI: 10.1086/651668
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/651668
Page Count: 6
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Catheter‐Related Polymicrobial Bloodstream Infections among Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplant Outpatients—Atlanta, Georgia, 2007
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Abstract

Objective.  To identify risk factors for polymicrobial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in pediatric bone marrow transplant (BMT) outpatients attending a newly constructed clinic affiliated with a children’s hospital. Methods.  All 30 outpatients treated at a new BMT clinic during September 10–21, 2007, were enrolled in a cohort study. The investigation included interviews, medical records review, observations, and bacterial culture and molecular typing of patient and environmental isolates. Data were analyzed using exact conditional logistic regression. Results.  Thirteen patients experienced BSIs caused by 16 different, predominantly gram‐negative organisms. Presence of a tunneled catheter (odds ratio [OR], 19.9 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.4–∞), catheter access (OR, 13.7 [95% CI, 1.8–∞]), and flushing of a catheter with predrawn saline (OR, 12.9 [95% CI, 1.0–766.0]) were independently associated with BSI. The odds of experiencing a BSI increased by a factor of 16.8 with each additional injection of predrawn saline (95% CI, 1.8–827.0). Although no environmental source of pathogens was identified, interviews revealed breaches in recommended infection prevention practice and medication handling. Saline flush solutions were predrawn, and multiple doses were obtained from single‐dose preservative‐free vials to avoid delays in patient care. Conclusion.  We speculate that infection prevention challenges in the new clinic, combined with successive needle punctures of vials, facilitated extrinsic contamination and transmission of healthcare‐associated pathogens. We recommend that preservative‐free single‐use vials not be punctured more than once. Use of single‐use prefilled saline syringes might prevent multiuse of single‐use saline vials. Storage of saline outside a medication supply system might be advisable. Before opening new clinic facilities, hospitals should consider conducting a mock patient flow exercise to identify infection control challenges.

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