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Risk Factors for Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infection in Pediatric Intensive Care Units

Matthew C. Wylie , MD, Dionne A. Graham , PhD, Gail Potter‐Bynoe , BS, CIC, Monica E. Kleinman , MD, Adrienne G. Randolph , MD, John M. Costello , MD, MPH and Thomas J. Sandora , MD, MPH
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Vol. 31, No. 10 (October 2010), pp. 1049-1056
DOI: 10.1086/656246
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/656246
Page Count: 8
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Risk Factors for Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infection in Pediatric Intensive Care Units
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Abstract

Objective.  We sought to identify risk factors for central line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) to describe children who might benefit from adjunctive interventions. Design.  Case‐control study of children admitted to the medical‐surgical intensive care unit (ICU) or cardiac ICU from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2007. Setting.  Children’s Hospital Boston is a freestanding, 396‐bed quaternary care pediatric hospital with a 29‐bed medical‐surgical ICU and a 24‐bed cardiac ICU. Patients.  Case patients were patients with CLABSI who were identified by means of prospective surveillance. Control subjects were patients with a central venous catheter who were matched by ICU admission date. Methods.  Multivariate conditional logistic regression models were used to identify independent risk factors for CLABSI and to derive and to validate a prediction rule. Results.  Two hundred three case patients were matched with 406 control subjects. Independent predictors of CLABSI included duration of ICU central access (odds ratio [OR] for 15 or more days, 18.41 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.10–82.56]; \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage[OT2,OT1]{fontenc} \newcommand\cyr{ \renewcommand\rmdefault{wncyr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{wncyss} \renewcommand\encodingdefault{OT2} \normalfont \selectfont} \DeclareTextFontCommand{\textcyr}{\cyr} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} \landscape $P< .001$ \end{document} ), central venous catheter placement in the ICU (OR for 2 or more ICU‐placed catheters, 8.63 [95% CI, 2.63–28.38]; \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage[OT2,OT1]{fontenc} \newcommand\cyr{ \renewcommand\rmdefault{wncyr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{wncyss} \renewcommand\encodingdefault{OT2} \normalfont \selectfont} \DeclareTextFontCommand{\textcyr}{\cyr} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} \landscape $P=.001$ \end{document} ), nonoperative cardiovascular disease (OR, 7.44 [95% CI, 2.13–25.98]; \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage[OT2,OT1]{fontenc} \newcommand\cyr{ \renewcommand\rmdefault{wncyr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{wncyss} \renewcommand\encodingdefault{OT2} \normalfont \selectfont} \DeclareTextFontCommand{\textcyr}{\cyr} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} \landscape $P=.012$ \end{document} ), presence of gastrostomy tube (OR, 3.48 [95% CI, 1.55–7.79]; \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage[OT2,OT1]{fontenc} \newcommand\cyr{ \renewcommand\rmdefault{wncyr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{wncyss} \renewcommand\encodingdefault{OT2} \normalfont \selectfont} \DeclareTextFontCommand{\textcyr}{\cyr} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} \landscape $P=.003$ \end{document} ), receipt of parenteral nutrition (OR, 3.12 [95% CI, 1.55–6.32]; \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage[OT2,OT1]{fontenc} \newcommand\cyr{ \renewcommand\rmdefault{wncyr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{wncyss} \renewcommand\encodingdefault{OT2} \normalfont \selectfont} \DeclareTextFontCommand{\textcyr}{\cyr} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} \landscape $P=.002$ \end{document} ), and receipt of blood transfusion (OR, 2.55 [95% CI, 1.21–5.36]; \documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage[OT2,OT1]{fontenc} \newcommand\cyr{ \renewcommand\rmdefault{wncyr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{wncyss} \renewcommand\encodingdefault{OT2} \normalfont \selectfont} \DeclareTextFontCommand{\textcyr}{\cyr} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} \landscape $P=.014$ \end{document} ). By use of risk factors known before central venous catheter placement, our model predicted CLABSI with a positive predictive value of 54% and a negative predictive value of 79%. Conclusions.  Duration of central access, receipt of parenteral nutrition, and receipt of blood transfusion were confirmed as risk factors for CLABSI among children in the ICU. Newly identified risk factors include presence of gastrostomy tube, nonoperative cardiovascular disease, and ICU placement of central venous catheter. Children with these risk factors may be candidates for adjunctive interventions for CLABSI prevention.

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