Your PDF has successfully downloaded.

You may be interested in finding more content on these topics:


You are not currently logged in.

Access JSTOR through your library or other institution:


Log in through your institution.

Journal Article

Early Agriculture and Plant Domestication in New Guinea and Island Southeast Asia

Tim Denham
Current Anthropology
Vol. 52, No. S4, The Origins of Agriculture: New Data, New Ideas (October 2011), pp. S379-S395
DOI: 10.1086/658682
Stable URL:
Page Count: 17
Were these topics helpful?
See something inaccurate? Let us know!

Select the topics that are inaccurate.

  • Download PDF
  • Add to My Lists
  • Cite this Item
We're having trouble loading this content. Download PDF instead.


A multidimensional conceptual framework is advanced that characterizes early agriculture as a subset of human-environment interactions. Three cross-articulating dimensions of human-environment interaction are considered that accommodate the varied expressions of early agriculture in different parts of the world: spatial scales, transformative mechanisms, and temporalities of associated phenomena. These ideas are applied and exemplified at two different scales of resolution—contextual and comparative—in terms of early agricultural development in the highlands of New Guinea and the dispersal of domesticates from New Guinea into Island Southeast Asia.

Notes and References

This item contains 146 references.

References Cited
  • ['Asch, D. L., and J. P. Hart. 2004. Crop domestication in prehistoric eastern North America. In Encyclopedia of plant and crop science. R. M. Goodman, ed. Pp. 314–319. New York: Dekker.']
  • ['Ballard, C. 1995. The death of a great land: ritual, history and subsistence revolution in the Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. PhD thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.']
  • ['———. 2001. Wetland drainage and agricultural transformations in the southern highlands of Papua New Guinea. Asia Pacific Viewpoint 42:287–304.']
  • ['Barker, G. 2006. The agricultural revolution in prehistory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.']
  • ['Barrau, J. 1955. Subsistence agriculture in Melanesia. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission.']
  • ['Barton, H. 2005. The case for rainforest foragers: the starch record at Niah cave, Sarawak. Asian Perspectives 44:56–72.']
  • ['Barton, H., and T. P. Denham. Forthcoming. Prehistoric vegeculture and social life in Island Southeast Asia and Melanesia. In Why cultivate? anthropological and archaeological perspectives on foraging-farming transitions in Island Southeast Asia. G. Barker and M. Janowski, eds. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monograph.']
  • ['Barton, H., and V. Paz. 2007. Subterranean diets in the tropical rain forests of Sarawak, Malaysia. In Rethinking agriculture: archaeological and ethnoarchaeological perspectives. T. P. Denham, J. Iriarte, and L. Vrydaghs, eds. Pp. 50–77. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast.']
  • ['Barton, H., and J. P. White. 1993. Use of stone and shell artefacts at Balof 2, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Asian Perspectives 32:169–181.']
  • ['Bayliss-Smith, T. P., and J. Golson. 1992a. A Colocasian revolution in the New Guinea Highlands? insights from Phase 4 at Kuk. Archaeology in Oceania 27:1–21.']
  • ['———. 1992b. Wetland agriculture in New Guinea Highlands prehistory. In The wetland revolution in prehistory. B. Coles, ed. Pp. 15–27. Exeter, UK: Prehistoric Society and Wetland Archaeological Research Project.']
  • ['———. 1999. The meaning of ditches: deconstructing the social landscapes of drainage in New Guinea, Kuk, Phase 4. In The prehistory of food: appetites for change. C. Gosden and J. Hather, eds. Pp. 199–231. London: Routledge.']
  • ['Bellwood, P. 2005. First farmers. Oxford: Blackwell.']
  • ['Blust, R. 1984–1985. The Austronesian homeland: a linguistic perspective. Asian Perspectives 20:45–67.']
  • ['Bourke, R. M. 2001. Intensification of agricultural systems in Papua New Guinea. Asia Pacific Viewpoint 42:219–236.']
  • ['Bourke, R. M., and T. Harwood, eds. 2009. Food and agriculture in Papua New Guinea. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: ANU E Press.']
  • ['Bulbeck, D. 2008. An integrated perspective on the Austronesian diaspora: the switch from cereal agriculture to maritime foraging in the colonisation of Island Southeast Asia. Australian Archaeology 67:31–51.']
  • ['Bulmer, S. 1975. Settlement and economy in prehistoric Papua New Guinea: a review of the archaeological evidence. Journal de la Société des Océanistes 31:7–75.']
  • ['———. 1977. Between the mountain and the plain: prehistoric settlement and environment in the Kaironk Valley. In The Melanesian environment. J. H. Winslow, ed. Pp. 61–73. Canberra: ANU Press.']
  • ['Caballero, J. 2004. Patterns in human-plant interaction: an evolutionary perspective. Paper presented at the International Society of Ethnobiology, Ninth International Congress, Canterbury.']
  • ['Cauvin, J. 2000. The birth of the gods and the origins of agriculture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.']
  • ['Christensen, O. A. 1975. Hunters and horticulturalists: a preliminary report of the 1972–4 excavations in the Manim Valley, Papua New Guinea. Mankind 10:24–36.']
  • ['Coulter, S., T. P. Denham, C. Turney, and V. Hall. 2009. The geochemical characterisation and correlation of locally distributed late Holocene tephra layers at Ambra Crater and Kuk Swamp, Papua New Guinea. Geological Journal 44:568–592.']
  • ['Coursey, D. G. 1972. The civilizations of the yam: interrelationships of man and yams in Africa and the Indo-Pacific region. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 7:215–233.']
  • ['———. 1976. Yams: Dioscorea spp. (Dioscoreaceae). In Evolution of crop plants. N. W. Simmonds, ed. Pp. 70–74. London: Longman.']
  • ['Daniels, J., and C. Daniels. 1993. Sugarcane in prehistory. Archaeology in Oceania 28:1–7.']
  • ['De Candolle, A. 1884. Origin of cultivated plants. London: Kegan Paul.']
  • ['De Langhe, E., L. Vrydaghs, P. de Maret, X. Perrier, and T. P. Denham. 2009. Why bananas matter: an introduction to the history of banana domestication. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 7:165–177.']
  • ['Denham, T. P. 2003a. Archaeological evidence for mid-Holocene agriculture in the interior of Papua New Guinea: a critical review. Special issue, Archaeology in Oceania 38:159–176.']
  • ['———. 2003b. The Kuk morass: multi-disciplinary investigations of early to mid Holocene plant exploitation at Kuk Swamp, Wahgi Valley, Papua New Guinea. PhD thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.']
  • ['———. 2004a. Early agriculture in the highlands of New Guinea: an assessment of Phase 1 at Kuk Swamp. In A Pacific odyssey: archaeology and anthropology in the western Pacific: papers in honour of Jim Specht. V. Attenbrow and R. Fullagar, eds. Pp. 47–57. Records of the Australian Museum, suppl. 29. Sydney: Australian Museum.']
  • ['———. 2004b. The roots of agriculture and arboriculture in New Guinea: looking beyond Austronesian expansion, Neolithic packages and indigenous origins. World Archaeology 36:610–620.']
  • ['———. 2005a. Agricultural origins and the emergence of rectilinear ditch networks in the highlands of New Guinea. In Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. A. Pawley, R. Attenborough, J. Golson, and R. Hide, eds. Pp. 329–361. Pacific Linguistics 572. Canberra: RSPAS, ANU.']
  • ['———. 2005b. Envisaging early agriculture in the highlands of New Guinea: landscapes, plants and practices. World Archaeology 37:290–306.']
  • ['———. 2006. The origins of agriculture in New Guinea: evidence, interpretation and reflection. In Blackwell guide to archaeology in Oceania: Australia and the Pacific Islands. I. Lilley, ed. Pp. 160–188. Oxford: Blackwell.']
  • ['———. 2007. Thinking about plant exploitation in New Guinea: towards a contingent interpretation of agriculture. In Rethinking agriculture: archaeological and ethnoarchaeological perspectives. T. P. Denham, J. Iriarte, and L. Vrydaghs, eds. Pp. 78–108. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast.']
  • ['———. 2008. Environmental archaeology: interpreting practices-in-the-landscape through geoarchaeology. In Handbook of landscape archaeology. B. David and J. Thomas, eds. Pp. 468–481. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast.']
  • ['———. 2009. A practice-centred method for charting the emergence and transformation of agriculture. Current Anthropology 50:661–667.']
  • ['———. 2010. From domestication histories to regional prehistory: using plants to re-evaluate early and mid-Holocene interaction between New Guinea and Southeast Asia. Food and History 8:3–22.']
  • ['Denham, T. P., and M. Donohue. 2009. Pre-Austronesian dispersal of banana cultivars west from New Guinea: linguistic relics from eastern Indonesia. Archaeology in Oceania 44:18–28.']
  • ['Denham, T. P., M. Donohue, and S. Booth. 2009. Revisiting an old hypothesis: horticultural experimentation in northern Australia. Antiquity 83:634–648.']
  • ['Denham, T. P., R. Fullagar, and L. Head. 2009. Plant exploitation on Sahul: from colonisation to the emergence of regional specialisation during the Holocene. Quaternary International 202:29–40.']
  • ['Denham, T. P., J. Golson, and P. J. Hughes. 2004. Reading early agriculture at Kuk (Phases 1–3), Wahgi Valley, Papua New Guinea: the wetland archaeological features. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 70:259–298.']
  • ['Denham, T. P., and S. G. Haberle. 2008. Agricultural emergence and transformation in the Upper Wahgi Valley during the Holocene: theory, method and practice. Holocene 18:499–514.']
  • ['Denham, T. P., S. G. Haberle, and C. Lentfer. 2004. New evidence and interpretations for early agriculture in highland New Guinea. Antiquity 78:839–857.']
  • ['Denham, T. P., S. G. Haberle, C. Lentfer, R. Fullagar, J. Field, M. Therin, N. Porch, and B. Winsborough. 2003. Origins of agriculture at Kuk Swamp in the highlands of New Guinea. Science 301:189–193.']
  • ['Denham, T. P., S. G. Haberle, and A. Pierret. 2009. A multi-disciplinary method for the investigation of early agriculture: learning lessons from Kuk. In New directions in archaeological science. A. Fairbairn, S. O’Connor, and B. Marwick, eds. Pp. 139–154. Terra Australis 28. Canberra: ANU E Press.']
  • ['Denham, T. P., J. Iriarte, and L. Vrydaghs, eds. 2007. Rethinking agriculture: archaeological and ethnoarchaeological perspectives. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast.']
  • ['Denham, T. P., K. Sniderman, K. Saunders, B. Winsborough, and A. Pierret. 2009. Contiguous multi-proxy analyses (x-radiography, diatom, pollen and microcharcoal) of Holocene archaeological features at Kuk Swamp, Upper Wahgi Valley, Papua New Guinea. Geoarchaeology 24:715–742.']
  • ['Diamond, J. 2002. Evolution, consequences and future of animal and plant domestication. Nature 418:700–707.']
  • ['Donoghue, D. 1989. Carbonised plant fossils. In Plants in Australian archaeology. W. Beck, A. Clarke, and L. Head, eds. Pp. 90–100. Tempus 1. St. Lucia: University of Queensland.']
  • ['Donohue, M., and T. P. Denham. 2009. Banana (Musa spp.) domestication in the Asia-Pacific region: linguistic and archaeological perspectives. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 7:293–332.']
  • ['———. 2010. Island Southeast Asia during the mid-Holocene: reframing Austronesian history. Current Anthropology 51:223–256.']
  • ['Fullagar, R., J. Field, T. P. Denham, and C. Lentfer. 2006. Early and mid-Holocene processing of taro (Colocasia esculenta) and yam (Dioscorea sp.) at Kuk Swamp in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Journal of Archaeological Science 33:595–614.']
  • ['———. 2008. Stone tools and early agriculture at Kuk Swamp, Papua New Guinea. In “Prehistoric Technology” 40 years later: functional studies and the Russian legacy. L. Longo and N. Skakun with M. Saracino and M. Dalla Riva, eds. Pp. 395–398. BAR S1783. Oxford: Archaeopress.']
  • ['Fuller, D. Q., R. Korisettar, P. C. Venkatasubbaiah, and M. K. Jones. 2004. Early plant domestication in southern India: some preliminary archaeobotanical results. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 13:115–129.']
  • ['Fuller, D. Q., and M. Madella. 2009. Banana cultivation in South Asia and East Asia: a review of the evidence from archaeology and linguistics. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 7:333–351.']
  • ['Giddens, A. 1984. The constitution of society. Cambridge: Polity.']
  • ['Gillieson, D., P. Gorecki, J. Head, and G. Hope. 1987. Soil erosion and agricultural history in the central highlands of Papua New Guinea. In International geomorphology, pt. 2. V. Gardiner, ed. Pp. 507–522. London: Wiley.']
  • ['Gillieson, D., P. Gorecki, and G. Hope. 1985. Prehistoric agricultural systems in a lowland swamp, Papua New Guinea. Archaeology in Oceania 20:32–37.']
  • ['Golson, J. 1977. No room at the top: agricultural intensification in the New Guinea Highlands. In Sunda and Sahul. J. Allen, J. Golson, and R. Jones, eds. Pp. 601–638. London: Academic Press.']
  • ['———. 1982. The Ipomoean revolution revisited: society and sweet potato in the Upper Wahgi Valley. In Inequality in New Guinea Highland societies. A. Strathern, ed. Pp. 109–136. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.']
  • ['———. 1991. The New Guinea Highlands on the eve of agriculture. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 11:82–91.']
  • ['———. 1997. The Tambul spade. In Work in progress: essays in New Guinea Highlands ethnography in honour of Paula Brown Glick. H. Levine and A. Ploeg, eds. Pp. 142–171. Oxford: Lang.']
  • ['———. 2002. Gourds in New Guinea, Asia and the Pacific. In Fifty years in the field: essays in honour and celebration of Richard Shutler Jr.’s archaeological career. S. Bedford, C. Sand, and D. Burley, eds. Pp. 69–78. New Zealand Archaeological Journal Monograph 25. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland Museum.']
  • ['Golson, J., and D. Gardner. 1990. Agriculture and socio-political organisation in New Guinea Highlands prehistory. Annual Review of Anthropology 19:395–417.']
  • ['Golson, J., and P. J. Hughes. 1980. The appearance of plant and animal domestication in New Guinea. Journal de la Société des Océanistes 36:294–303.']
  • ['Golson, J., R. J. Lampert, J. M. Wheeler, and W. R. Ambrose. 1967. A note on carbon dates for horticulture in the New Guinea Highlands. Journal of the Polynesian Society 76:369–371.']
  • ['Gorecki, P., and D. S. Gillieson. 1984. The highland fringes as a key zone for prehistoric developments in Papua New Guinea: a progress report. Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association 5:93–103.']
  • ['———. 1989. A crack in the spine: prehistory and ecology of the Jimi-Yuat River, Papua New Guinea. Townsville, Queensland: James Cook University.']
  • ['Gremillion, K. J., and D. Piperno. 2009. Human behavioral ecology, phenotypic (developmental) plasticity, and agricultural origins: insights from the emerging evolutionary synthesis. Current Anthropology 50:615–619.']
  • ['Grivet, L., C. Daniels, J. C. Glaszman, and A. D’Hont. 2004. A review of recent molecular genetics evidence for sugarcane evolution and domestication. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 2:9–17.']
  • ['Haberle, S. G. 1993. Late Quaternary environmental history of the Tari Basin, Papua New Guinea. PhD thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.']
  • ['———. 1994. Anthropogenic indicators in pollen diagrams: problems and prospects for late Quaternary palynology in New Guinea. In Tropical archaeobotany: applications and new developments. J. G. Hather, ed. Pp. 172–201. London: Routledge.']
  • ['———. 1995. Identification of cultivated Pandanus and Colocasia in pollen records and the implications for the study of early agriculture in New Guinea. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 4:195–210.']
  • ['———. 2003. The emergence of an agricultural landscape in the highlands of New Guinea. Archaeology in Oceania 38:149–158.']
  • ['———. 2005. A 22 Ka pollen record from Lake Euramoo, wet tropics of northeast Queensland, Australia. Quaternary Research 64:343–356.']
  • ['———. 2007. Prehistoric human impact on rainforest biodiversity in Highland New Guinea. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 362:219–228.']
  • ['Haberle, S. G., and A. Chepstow-Lusty. 2000. Can climate influence cultural development? a view through time. Environmental History 6:349–369.']
  • ['Harris, D. R. 2007. Agriculture, cultivation and domestication: exploring the conceptual framework of early food production. In Rethinking agriculture: archaeological and ethnoarchaeological perspectives. T. P. Denham, J. Iriarte, and L. Vrydaghs, eds. Pp. 16–35. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast.']
  • ['Harris, E. C., and P. J. Hughes. 1978. An early agricultural system at Mugumamp Ridge, Western Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea. Mankind 11:437–445.']
  • ['Heidegger, M. 1962. Being and time. J. Macquarrie and E. Robinson, trans. Oxford: Blackwell.']
  • ['Hillman, G. C., and M. S. Davies. 1990. Measured domestication rates in wild wheats and barley under primitive cultivation, and their archaeological implications. Journal of World Prehistory 4:157–222.']
  • ['Hodder, I. 1999. The archaeological process: an introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.']
  • ['Hope, G. S., and J. Golson. 1995. Late Quaternary change in the mountains of New Guinea. Antiquity 69:818–830.']
  • ['Hope, G. S., and S. G. Haberle. 2005. The history of the human landscapes of New Guinea. In Papuan pasts: cultural, linguistic and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. A. Pawley, R. Attenborough, J. Golson, and R. Hide, eds. Pp. 541–554. Pacific Linguistics 572. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: RSPAS, ANU.']
  • ['Ingold, T. 2000. The perception of the environment: essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. London: Routledge.']
  • ['Irwin, S. V., P. Kaufusi, K. Banks, R. de la Pena, and J. J. Cho. 1998. Molecular characterisation of taro (Colocasia esculenta) using RAPD markers. Euphytica 99:183–189.']
  • ['Jones, M. K., and T. Brown. 2007. Selection, cultivation and reproductive isolation: a reconsideration of the morphological and molecular signals of domestication. In Rethinking agriculture: archaeological and ethnoarchaeological perspectives. T. P. Denham, J. Iriarte, and L. Vrydaghs, eds. Pp. 36–49. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast.']
  • ['Jones, R., and B. Meehan. 1989. Plant foods of the Gidjingal: ethnographic and archaeological perspectives from northern Australia on tuber and seed exploitation. In Foraging and farming: the evolution of plant exploitation. D. R. Harris and G. C. Hillman, eds. Pp. 120–135. London: Unwin Hyman.']
  • ['Kahlheber, S., and K. Neumann. 2007. The development of plant cultivation in semi-arid West Africa. In Rethinking agriculture: archaeological and ethnoarchaeological perspectives. T. P. Denham, J. Iriarte, and L. Vrydaghs, eds. Pp. 320–346. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast.']
  • ['Kennedy, J. 2008. Pacific bananas: complex origins, multiple dispersals? Asian Perspectives 47:75–94.']
  • ['Kennedy, J., and W. Clarke. 2004. Cultivated landscapes of the Southwest Pacific. RMAP Working Paper 50. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: RSPAS ANU.']
  • ['Kjær, A., A. S. Barfod, C. B. Amussen, and O. Seberg. 2004. Investigation of genetic and morphological variation in the sago palm (Metroxylon sagu; Arecaceae) in Papua New Guinea. Annals of Botany 94:109–117.']
  • ['Kurvilla, K. M., and A. Singh. 1981. Karyotypic and electrophoretic studies on taro and its origin. Euphytica 30:405–413.']
  • ['Ladizinsky, G. 1998. Plant evolution under domestication. Dordrecht: Kluwer.']
  • ['Lampert, R. J. 1967. Horticulture in the New Guinea Highlands: C14 dating. Antiquity 41:307–309.']
  • ['———. 1970. Appendix 5: archaeological report of the Minjigina site. In The impact of man on the vegetation of the Mount Hagen region, New Guinea. J. M. Powell. PhD thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.']
  • ['Lebot, V. 1999. Biomolecular evidence for plant domestication in Sahul. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 46:619–628.']
  • ['Lebot, V., and K. M. Aradhya. 1991. Isozyme variation in taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) from Asia and Oceania. Euphytica 56:55–66.']
  • ['Lebot, V., M. S. Prana, N. Kreike, H. van Heck, J. Pardales, T. Okpul, T. Gendua, et al. 2004. Characterisation of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) genetic resources in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 51:381–392.']
  • ['Lebot, V., B. Trilles, J. L. Noyer, and J. Modesto. 1998. Genetic relationships between Dioscorea alata L. cultivars. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 45:499–509.']
  • ['Lentfer, C. 2009. Tracing domestication and cultivation of bananas from phytoliths: an update from New Guinea. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 7:247–270.']
  • ['Loy, T., M. Spriggs, and S. Wickler. 1992. Direct evidence for human use of plants 28,000 years ago: starch residues on stone artefacts from northern Solomon Islands. Antiquity 66:898–912.']
  • ['Malapa, R., G. Arnau, J. L. Noyer, and V. Lebot. 2005. Genetic diversity of the greater yam (Dioscorea alata L.) and relatedness to D. nummularia Lam. and D. transversa Br. as revealed with AFLP markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 52:919–929.']
  • ['Marshall, F. 2007. African pastoral perspectives on domestication of the donkey: a first synthesis. In Rethinking agriculture: archaeological and ethnoarchaeological perspectives. T. P. Denham, J. Iriarte, and L. Vrydaghs, eds. Pp. 371–407. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast.']
  • ['Martin, F. W., and A. M. Rhodes. 1977. Intra-specific classification of Dioscorea alata. Tropical Agriculture 54:1–13.']
  • ['Matthews, P. J. 1991. A possible wild type taro: Colocasia esculenta var. aquatilis. Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association Bulletin 11:69–81.']
  • ['———. 1995. Aroids and Austronesians. Tropics 4:105–126.']
  • ['———. 2003. Taro planthoppers (Tarophagus spp.) in Australia and the origins of taro (Colocasia esculenta) in Oceania. Archaeology in Oceania 38:159–176.']
  • ['Mbida Mindzie, C., H. Doutrelpont, L. Vrydaghs, R. L. Sewennen, R. J. Swennen, H. Beeckman, E. de Langhe, and P. de Maret. 2001. First archaeological evidence of banana cultivation in central Africa during the third millennium before present. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 10:1–6.']
  • ['Muke, J., and H. Mandui. 2003. In the shadows of Kuk: evidence for prehistoric agriculture at Kana, Wahgi Valley, Papua New Guinea. Archaeology in Oceania 38:177–185.']
  • ['Neumann, K., and E. Hildebrand. 2009. Early bananas in Africa: the state of the art. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 7:353–362.']
  • ['Pawley, A. 2007. The origins of early Lapita culture: the testimony of historical linguistics. In Oceanic explorations: Lapita and Western Pacific settlement. S. Bedford, C. Sand, and S. P. Connaughton, eds. Pp. 17–49. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: ANU.']
  • ['Paz, V. 2005. Rock shelters, caves, and archaeobotany in Island Southeast Asia. Asian Perspectives 44:107–118.']
  • ['Pearsall, D. M. 2007. Modelling prehistoric agriculture through the palaeoenvironmental record: theoretical and methodological issues. In Rethinking agriculture: archaeological and ethnoarchaeological perspectives. T. P. Denham, J. Iriarte, and L. Vrydaghs, eds. Pp. 210–230. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast.']
  • ['Perrier, X., F. Bakry, F. Carreel, C. Jenny, J.-P. Horry, V. Lebot, and I. Hippolyte. 2009. Combining biological approaches to shed light on the evolution of edible bananas. Ethnobotany Research and Applications 7:199–216.']
  • ['Piggott, S. 1954. The Neolithic cultures of the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.']
  • ['Powell, J. M. 1970. The impact of man on the vegetation of the Mount Hagen region, New Guinea. PhD thesis, Australian National University, Canberra.']
  • ['———. 1982. The history of plant use and man’s impact on the vegetation. In Biogeography and ecology of New Guinea, vol. 1. J. L. Gressitt, ed. Pp. 207–227. The Hague, Netherlands: Junk.']
  • ['Renfrew, C. 1973. Before civilization: the radiocarbon revolution and prehistoric Europe. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.']
  • ['———. 2002. “The emerging synthesis”: the archaeogenetics of farming/language dispersals and other spread zones. In Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis. P. Bellwood and C. Renfrew, eds. Pp. 3–16. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.']
  • ['Richerson, P. J., R. Boyd, and R. L. Bettinger. 2001. Was agriculture impossible during the Pleistocene but mandatory during the Holocene? a climate change hypothesis. American Antiquity 66:387–411.']
  • ['Roscoe, P. 2002. The hunters and gatherers of New Guinea. Current Anthropology 43:153–162.']
  • ['Sayer, A. 1984. Method in social science: a realist approach. London: Hutchinson.']
  • ['Scarre, C. 1988. Past worlds: the Times atlas of archaeology. London: The Times.']
  • ['Sharrock, S. 2001. Diversity in the genus Musa: focus on Australimusa. INIBAP annual report 2000. Pp. 14–19. Montpellier, France: INIBAP.']
  • ['Simmonds, N. W. 1976a. Bananas: Musa (Musaceae). In Evolution of crop plants. N. W. Simmonds, ed. Pp. 211–215. London: Longman.']
  • ['———. 1976b. Sugarcanes: Saccharum (Gramineae-Andropogoneae). In Evolution of crop plants. N. W. Simmonds, ed. Pp. 104–108. London: Longman.']
  • ['Smith, B. D. 2001. Low-level food production. Journal of Archaeological Research 9:1–43.']
  • ['Sniderman, J. M. K., J. Finn, and T. P. Denham. 2009. A late Holocene palaeoecological record from Ambra Crater in the highlands of Papua New Guinea and implications for agricultural history. Holocene 19:449–458.']
  • ['Stover, R. H., and N. W. Simmonds, eds. 1987. Bananas. 3rd edition. Tropical Agriculture Series. Harlow, UK: Longman.']
  • ['Tanno, K.-I., and G. Willcox. 2006. How fast was wild wheat domesticated? Science 311:1886.']
  • ['Terrell, J. E. 2002. Tropical agroforestry, coastal lagoons and Holocene prehistory in Greater Near Oceania. In Proceedings of the International Area Studies Conference VII: vegeculture in Eastern Asia and Oceania. Y. Shuji and P. J. Matthews, eds. Pp. 195–216. Osaka, Japan: National Museum of Ethnology.']
  • ['Thomas, J. 1996. The cultural context of the first use of domesticates in continental Central and Northwest Europe. In The origins and spread of agriculture and pastoralism in Eurasia. D. R. Harris, ed. Pp. 310–322. London: University College London Press.']
  • ['Watson, J. B. 1964. A previously unreported root crop from the New Guinea Highlands. Ethnology 3:1–5.']
  • ['Watson, V. D., and J. D. Cole. 1977. Prehistory of the eastern highlands of New Guinea. Seattle: University of Washington Press.']
  • ['White, J. P. 1972. Ol Tumbuna: archaeological excavations in the eastern central highlands, Papua New Guinea. Terra Australis 2. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University.']
  • ['Yen, D. 1973. The origins of Oceanic agriculture. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 8:68–85.']
  • ['———. 1985. Wild plants and domestication in Pacific islands. In Recent advances in Indo-Pacific prehistory. V. N. Misra and P. Bellwood, eds. Pp. 315–326. New Dehli: Oxford and IBH.']
  • ['———. 1991. Domestication: the lessons from New Guinea. In Man and a half: essays in Pacific anthropology and ethnobiology in honour of Ralph Bulmer. A. Pawley, ed. Pp. 558–569. Auckland: Polynesian Society.']
  • ['———. 1995. The development of Sahul agriculture with Australia as bystander. Antiquity 69:831–847.']
  • ['———. 1996. Melanesian arboriculture: historical perspectives with emphasis on the genus Canarium. In South Pacific indigenous nuts. B. R. Evans, R. M. Bourke, and P. Ferrar, eds. Pp. 36–44. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: ACIAR.']
  • ['———. 1998. Subsistence to commerce in Pacific agriculture: some four thousand years of plant exchange. In Plants for food and medicine. H. D. V. Pendergast, N. L. Etkin, D. R. Harris, and P. J. Houghton, eds. Pp. 161–183. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.']
  • ['———. 2003. The nature of domestication in agricultural formation. Paper presented at World Archaeological Congress 5, Washington, DC.']
  • ['Zerega, N. J. C., D. Ragone, and T. J. Motley. 2004. Complex origins of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): implications for human migrations in the Pacific. American Journal of Botany 91:760–766.']
Part of Sustainability