Access

You are not currently logged in.

Access your personal account or get JSTOR access through your library or other institution:

login

Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

Climatic Fluctuations and Early Farming in West and East Asia

Ofer Bar-Yosef
Current Anthropology
Vol. 52, No. S4, The Origins of Agriculture: New Data, New Ideas (October 2011), pp. S175-S193
DOI: 10.1086/659784
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/659784
Page Count: 19
  • Download PDF
  • Cite this Item
Climatic Fluctuations and Early Farming in West and East Asia
We're having trouble loading this content. Download PDF instead.

Abstract

This paper presents a Levantine model for the origins of cultivation of various wild plants as motivated by the vagaries of the climatic fluctuation of the Younger Dryas within the context of the mosaic ecology of the region that affected communities that were already sedentary or semisedentary. In addition to holding to their territories, these communities found ways to intensify their food procurement strategy by adopting intentional growth of previously known annuals, such as a variety of cereals. The Levantine sequence, where Terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene Neolithic archaeology is well known, is employed as a model for speculating on the origins of millet cultivation in northern China, where both the archaeological data and the dates are yet insufficient to document the evolution of socioeconomic changes that resulted in the establishment of an agricultural system.

Notes and References

This item contains 171 references.

References Cited
  • ['Bandy, Matthew S. 2004. Fissioning, scalar stress, and social evolution in early village societies. American Anthropologist 106(2):322–333.']
  • ['Bar-Matthews, Miryam, and Avner Ayalon. 2003. Climatic conditions in the eastern Mediterranean during the Last Glacial (60–10 ky) and their relations to the Upper Palaeolithic in the Levant as inferred from oxygen and carbon isotope systematics of cave deposits. In More than meets the eye: studies on Upper Palaeolithic diversity in the Near East. A. Nigel Goring-Morris and Anna Belfer-Cohen, eds. Pp. 13–18. Oxford: Oxbow.']
  • ['Bar-Matthews, Miryam, Avner Ayalon, Aaron Kaufman, and Gerald J. Wasserburg. 1999. The Eastern Mediterranean region paleoclimate as a reflection of regional events: Soreq Cave, Israel. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 166(1–2):85–95.']
  • ['Barton, Loukas, Seth D. Newsome, Fa-Hu Chen, Hui Wang, Thomas P. Guilderson, and Robert L. Bettinger. 2009. Agricultural origins and the isotopic identity of domestication in northern China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106(14):5523–5528.']
  • ['Bartov, Yuval, Mordechai Stein, Yehouda Enzel, Amotz Agnon, and Ze’ev Reches. 2002. Lake levels and sequence stratigraphy of Lake Lisan, the Late Pleistocene precursor of the Dead Sea. Quaternary Research 57(1):9–21.']
  • ['Bar-Yosef, Ofer. 1998. The Natufian culture in the Levant: threshold to the origins of agriculture. Evolutionary Anthropology 6(5):159–177.']
  • ['———. 2002. The Natufian culture and the Early Neolithic: social and economic trends in southwestern Asia. In Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis. Peter Bellwood and Colin Renfrew, eds. Pp. 113–126. McDonald Institute Monographs. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.']
  • ['Bar-Yosef, Ofer, and Anna Belfer-Cohen. 1989. The origins of sedentism and farming communities in the Levant. Journal of World Prehistory 3(4):447–498.']
  • ['Bar-Yosef, Ofer, and François Valla, eds. 1991. The Natufian culture in the Levant. Archaeological Series 1. Ann Arbor, MI: International Monographs in Prehistory.']
  • ['Bar-Yosef Mayer, Daniella E., and Naomi Porat. 2008. Green stone beads at the dawn of agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105(25):8548–8551.']
  • ['Belfer-Cohen, Anna. 1995. Rethinking social stratification in the Natufian culture: the evidence from burials. In The archaeology of death in the ancient Near East. Stuart Campbell and Anthony Green, eds. Pp. 9–16. Oxbow Monograph 51. Oxford: Oxbow.']
  • ['Belfer-Cohen, Anna, and Ofer Bar-Yosef. 2000. Early sedentism in the Near East: a bumpy ride to village life. In Life in Neolithic farming communities: social organization, identity, and differentiation. Ian Kuijt, ed. Pp. 19–37. New York: Plenum.']
  • ['Belfer-Cohen, Anna, and Erella Hovers. 2005. The ground stone assemblages of the Natufian and Neolithic societies in the Levant: a brief review. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 35:299–308.']
  • ['Belfer-Cohen, Anna, and A. Nigel Goring-Morris. 2011. Becoming farmers: the inside story. Current Anthropology 52(suppl. 4):S209–S220.']
  • ['Bell, Barbara. 1971. The Dark Ages in ancient history. I. The first Dark Age in Egypt. American Journal of Archaeology 75(1):1–26.']
  • ['Berger, Jean-François, and Jean Guilaine. 2009. The 8200 cal BP abrupt environmental change and the Neolithic transition: a Mediterranean perspective. Quaternary International 200(1):31–49.']
  • ['Bettinger, Robert L., Loukas Barton, and Christopher Morgan. 2010. The origins of food production in North China: a different kind of agricultural revolution. Evolutionary Anthropology 19(1):9–21.']
  • ['Bettinger, Robert L., Loukas Barton, Peter J. Richerson, Robert Boyd, Wang Hui, and Choi Won. 2007. The transition to agriculture in northwestern China. In Late Quaternary climate change and human adaptation in arid China. David B. Madsen, Fa-Hu Chen, and Xing Gao, eds. Pp. 83–101. Developments in Quaternary Science 9. Amsterdam: Elsevier.']
  • ['Binford, Lewis R. 1968. Post-Pleistocene adaptations. In New perspectives in archaeology. Sally R. Binford and Lewis R. Binford, eds. Pp. 313–341. Chicago: Aldine.']
  • ['———. 2006. Bands as characteristic of “mobile hunter-gatherers” may exist only in the history of anthropology. In Archaeology and ethnoarchaeology of mobility. Frédéric Sellet, Russell Greaves, and Pei-Lin Yu, eds. Pp. 3–22. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.']
  • ['Boaretto, Elisabetta, Xiaohong Wu, Jiarong Yuan, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Vikki Chu, Yan Pan, Kexin Liu, et al. 2009. Radiocarbon dated early pottery at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106(24):9595–9600.']
  • ['Bocquet-Appel, Jean-Pierre. 2011. The agricultural demographic transition during and after the agriculture inventions. Current Anthropology 52(suppl. 4):S497–S510.']
  • ['Bocquet-Appel, Jean-Pierre, and Ofer Bar-Yosef, eds. 2008. The Neolithic demographic transition and its consequences. Dordrecht: Springer.']
  • ['Braidwood, Robert J. 1952. The Near East and the foundations for civilization. Condon Lectures. Eugene: Oregon State System of Higher Education.']
  • ['Byrd, Brian F. 2005. Reassessing the emergence of village life in the Near East. Journal of Archaeological Research 13(3):231–290.']
  • ['Cai, Yanjun, Liangcheng Tan, Hai Cheng, Zhisheng An, R. Lawrence Edwards, Megan J. Kelly, Xinggong Kong, and Xianfeng Wang. 2010. The variation of summer monsoon precipitation in central China since the last deglaciation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 291(1–4):21–31.']
  • ['Cauvin, Jacques. 2000. The birth of the gods and the origins of agriculture. Trevor Watkins, trans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.']
  • ['Chang, Kwang-Chih. 1986. The archaeology of ancient China. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.']
  • ['Chen, Chun. 1984. The Microlithic in China. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 3(2):79–115.']
  • ['———. 2007. Techno-typological comparison of microblade cores from East Asia and North America. In Origin and spread of microblade technology in northern Asia and North America. Yaraslov V. Kuzmin, Susan G. Keates, and Chen Shen, eds. Pp. 7–38. Burnaby, British Columbia: Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University.']
  • ['Chen, Zhongyuan, Yongqiang Zong, Zhanghua Wang, Hui Wang, and Jing Chen. 2008. Migration patterns of Neolithic settlements on the abandoned Yellow and Yangtze River deltas of China. Quaternary Research 70(2):301–314.']
  • ['Cohen, David Joel. 2003. Microblades, pottery, and the nature and chronology of the Palaeolithic-Neolithic transition in China. Review of Archaeology 24(2):21–36.']
  • ['———. 2011. The beginnings of agriculture in China: a multiregional view. Current Anthropology 52(suppl. 4):S273–S293.']
  • ['Colledge, Sue. 2001. Plant exploitation on Epipaleolithic and Early Neolithic sites in the Levant. BAR International Series 986. Oxford: Hedges.']
  • ['Cosford, Jason Cosford, Hairuo Qing, Bruce Eglington, Dave Mattey, Daoxiang Yuan, Meiliang Zhang, and Hai Cheng. 2008. East Asian monsoon variability since the Mid-Holocene recorded in a high-resolution, absolute-dated aragonite speleothem from eastern China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 275(3–4):296–307.']
  • ['Crawford, Gary W. 2006. East Asian plant domestication. In Archaeology of Asia. Miriam T. Stark, ed. Pp. 77–95. Blackwell Studies in Global Archaeology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.']
  • ['———. 2008. The Jomon in early agriculture discourse: issues arising from Matsui, Kanehara and Pearson. World Archaeology 40(4):445–465.']
  • ['———. 2009. Agricultural origins in North China pushed back to Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106(18):7271–7272.']
  • ['Crawford, Gary W., Xuexiang Chen, and J. H. Wang. 2006. Houli culture rice from the Yuezhuang site, Jinan. East Asia Archaeology 3:247–251. [In Chinese.]']
  • ['Denham, Timothy P., Simon G. Haberle, Carol Lentfer, Richard Fullagar, Judith Field, Michael Therin, Nicholas Porch, and Barbara Winsborough. 2003. Origins of agriculture at Kuk Swamp in the highlands of New Guinea. Science 301(5630):189–193.']
  • ['Dykoski, Carolyn A., R. Lawrence Edwards, Hai Cheng, Daoxian Yuan, Yanjun Cai, Meiliang Zhang, Yushi Lin, Jiaming Qing, Zhisheng An, and Justin Revenaugh. 2005. A high-resolution absolute dated Holocene and deglacial Asian monsoon record from Dongge Cave, China. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 233(1–2):71–86.']
  • ['Edwards, Philip C. 2007. A 14 000 year-old hunter-gatherer’s toolkit. Antiquity 81(314):865–876.']
  • ['Enzel, Yehouda, Rivka Amit, Uri Dayan, Onn Crouvi, Ron Kahana, Baruch Ziv, and David Sharon. 2008. The climatic and physiographic controls of the eastern Mediterranean over the Late Pleistocene climates in the southern Levant and its neighboring deserts. Global and Planetary Change 60(3–4):165–192.']
  • ['Flad, Rowan K., Jing Yuan, and Shuicheng Li. 2007. Zooarchaeological evidence for animal domestication in Northwest China. In Late Quaternary climate change and human adaptation in arid China. David B. Madsen, Fa-Hu Chen, and Xing Gao, eds. Pp. 167–204. Developments in Quaternary Science 9. Amsterdam: Elsevier.']
  • ['Flannery, Kent V. 1973. The origins of agriculture. Annual Review of Anthropology 2:271–310.']
  • ['Frumkin, Amos, Derek C. Ford, and Henry P. Schwarcz. 2000. Paleoclimate and vegetation of the last glacial cycles in Jerusalem from a speleothem record. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14(3):863–870.']
  • ['Fuller, Dorian Q. 2007. Contrasting patterns in crop domestication and domestication rates: recent archaeobotanical insights from the Old World. Annals of Botany 100(5):903–924.']
  • ['Fuller, Dorian Q, Emma Harvey, and Ling Qin. 2007. Presumed domestication? evidence for wild rice cultivation and domestication in the fifth millennium BC of the Lower Yangtze region. Antiquity 81(312):316–331.']
  • ['Fuller, Dorian Q, Ling Qin, Yunfei Zheng, Zhijun Zhao, Xugao Chen, Leo Aoi Hosoya, and Guo-Ping Sun. 2009. The domestication process and domestication rate in rice: spikelet bases from the lower Yangtze. Science 323(5921):1607–1610.']
  • ['Glantz, Michael H., David G. Streets, Thomas R. Stewart, N. Bhatti, Christopher M. Moore, and C. H. Rosa. 1998. Exploring the concept of climate surprises: a review of the literature on the concept of surprise and how it is related to climate change. ANL/DIS/TM-46. Argonne, IL: Decision and Information Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, U. S. Department of Energy.']
  • ['Goring-Morris, A. Nigel. 1991. The Harifian of the southern Levant. In The Natufian culture in the Levant. O. Bar-Yosef and François R. Valla, eds. Pp. 173–216. Archaeological Series 1. Ann Arbor, MI: International Monographs in Prehistory.']
  • ['———. 1995. Complex hunter-gatherers at the end of the Palaeolithic (20,000–10,000 B.P.). In The archaeology of society in the Holy Land. Thomas E. Levy, ed. Pp. 141–168. London: Leicester University Press.']
  • ['Goring-Morris, A. Nigel, and Anna Belfer-Cohen. 2011. Neolithization processes in the Levant: the outer envelope. Current Anthropology 52(suppl. 4):S195–S208.']
  • ['Grosman, Liore, Natalie D. Munro, and Anna Belfer-Cohen. 2008. A 12,000-year-old Shaman burial from the southern Levant (Israel). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105(46):17665–17669.']
  • ['Hao, Shou-Gang, Xue-Ping Ma, Si-Xun Yuan, and John Southon. 2001. The Donghulin woman from western Beijing: 14C age and associated compound shell necklace. Antiquity 75(289):517–522.']
  • ['Harris, David R. 2007. Agriculture, cultivation, and domestication: exploring the conceptual framework of early food production. In Rethinking agriculture: archaeological and ethnoarchaeological perspectives. Timothy Denham, Jose Iriarte, and Luc Vrydaghs, eds. Pp. 16–35. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast.']
  • ['Hassan, Fekri A. 2002. Droughts, food and culture: ecological change and food security in Africa’s later prehistory. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.']
  • ['Hawkes, Kristen, and Richard R. Paine, eds. 2007. The evolution of human life history. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.']
  • ['Henry, Donald O. 1989. From foraging to agriculture: the Levant at the end of the Ice Age. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.']
  • ['Hillman, Gordon C. 2000. Abu Hureyra I: the Epipaleolithic. In Village on the Euphrates: from foraging to farming at Abu Hureyra. Andrew M. T. Moore, Gordon C. Hillman, and Anthony J. Legge, eds. Pp. 327–398. Oxford: Oxford University Press.']
  • ['Hillman, Gordon C., Robert Hedges, Andrew Moore, Susan Colledge, and Paul Pettitt. 2001. New evidence of Lateglacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates. Holocene 11(4):383–393.']
  • ['Hodder, Ian. 2007. Çatalhöyük in the context of the Middle Eastern Neolithic. Annual Review of Anthropology 36:105–120.']
  • ['Hu, Chaoyong, Junhua Huang, Nianqiao Fang, Shucheng Xie, Gideon M. Henderson, and Yanjun Cai. 2005. Absorbed silica in stalagmite carbonate and its relationship to past rainfall. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69(9):2285–2292.']
  • ['Hu, Yaowu, Stanley H. Ambrose, and Changsui Wang. 2006. Stable isotopic analysis of human bones from Jiahu site, Henan, China: implications for the transition to agriculture. Journal of Archaeological Science 33(9):1319–1330.']
  • ['Hu, Yaowu, Shougong Wang, Fengshi Luan, Changsui Wang, and Michael P. Richards. 2008. Stable isotope analysis of humans from Xiaojingshan site: implications for understanding the origin of millet agriculture in China. Journal of Archaeological Science 35(11):2960–2965.']
  • ['Ibáñez, Juan José, ed. 2008. Le site néolithique de Tell Mureybet (Syrie du Nord): en hommage à Jacques Cauvin. BAR International Series 1843. Oxford: Archaeopress.']
  • ['Johnson, Gregory A. 1982. Organizational structure and scalar stress. In Theory and explanation in archaeology. A. Colin Renfrew, Michael J. Rowlands, and Barbara A. Segraves, eds. Pp. 389–421. London: Academic Press.']
  • ['Kadosh, Dafna, Dorit Sivan, Haim Kutiel, and Mina Weinstein-Evron. 2004. A Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental sequence from Dor, Carmel coastal plain, Israel. Palynology 28:143–157.']
  • ['Kajiwara, Hiroshi. 2008. Microlithization in Eurasia: a brief review on the microblade revolution technology and its significance as behavioural threshold of modern humans. Bulletin of Tohoku Fukushi University 32:207–234.']
  • ['Kawecki, Tadeusz J. 2008. Adaptation to marginal habitats. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 39:321–342.']
  • ['Keeley, Lawrence H. 1996. War before civilization. New York: Oxford University Press.']
  • ['Kelly, Robert L. 1995. The foraging spectrum: diversity in hunter-gatherer lifeways. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.']
  • ['Kislev, Mordechai E. 1989. Pre-domesticated cereals in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A period. In People and culture in change. Israel Hershkovitz, ed. Pp. 147–152. BAR International Series 508. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.']
  • ['———. 1997. Early agriculture and paleoecology of Netiv Hagdud. In An Early Neolithic village in the Jordan Valley. Part I: the archaeology of Netiv Hagdud. Ofer Bar-Yosef and Avi Gopher, eds. Pp. 209–236. Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.']
  • ['Kislev, Mordechai E., Anat Hartmann, and Ofer Bar-Yosef. 2006. Early domesticated fig in the Jordan Valley. Science 312(5778):1372–1374.']
  • ['Kolodny, Yehoshua, Mordechai Stein, and Malka Machlus. 2005. Sea-rain-lake relation in the Last Glacial East Mediterranean revealed by δ18O-δ13C in Lake Lisan aragonites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 69(16):4045–4060.']
  • ['Kuhlemann, Joachim, Eelco J. Rohling, Ingrid Krumrei, Peter Kubik, Susan Ivy-Ochs, and Michal Kucera. 2008. Regional synthesis of Mediterranean atmospheric circulation during the Last Glacial Maximum. Science 321(5894):1338–1340.']
  • ['Kuijt, Ian, and Bill Finlayson. 2009. Evidence for food storage and predomestication granaries 11,000 years ago in the Jordan Valley. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106(27):10966–10970.']
  • ['Kuzmin, Yaroslav V., Susan G. Keates, and Chen Shen, eds. 2007. Origin and spread of microblade technology in Northeastern Asia and North America. Burnaby, British Columbia: Archaeology Press, Simon Fraser University.']
  • ['Lachniet, Matthew. S. 2009. Climatic and environmental controls on speleothem oxygen-isotope values. Quaternary Science Reviews 28(5–6):412–432.']
  • ['Lee, Gyoung-Ah, Gary W. Crawford, Li Liu, and Xingcan Chen. 2007. Plants and people from the Early Neolithic to Shang periods in North China. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104(3):1087–1092.']
  • ['Lev-Yadun, Simcha, Avi Gopher, and Shahal Abbo. 2002. The cradle of agriculture. Science 288(5471):1602–1603.']
  • ['Lev-Yadun, Simcha, and Mina Weinstein-Evron. 2005. Modeling the influence of wood use by the Natufians of El-wad in the forest of Mount Carmel. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 35:285–298.']
  • ['Lewis, Henry T. 1972. The role of fire in the domestication of plants and animals in Southwest Asia: a hypothesis. Man, n.s., 7(2):195–222.']
  • ['Li, Jinbao, Xiaohua Gou, Edward R. Cook, and Fahu Chen. 2006. Tree-ring based drought reconstruction for the central Tien Shan area in Northwest China. Geophysical Research Letters 33:L07715, doi:10.1029/2006GL025803.']
  • ['Lin, Da-Cheng, Chiung-Hui Liu, Tien-Hsi Fang, Cheng-Han Tsai, Masafumi Murayama, and Min-Te Chen. 2006. Millennial-scale changes in terrestrial sediment input and Holocene surface hydrography in the northern South China Sea. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 236(1–2):56–73.']
  • ['Liu, Dianbing, Yongjin Wang, Hai Cheng, R. Lawrence Edwards, Xinggong Kong, Xianfeng Wang, Jiangying Wu, and Shitao Chen. 2008. A detailed comparison of Asian monsoon intensity and Greenland temperature during the Allerød and Younger Dryas events. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 272(3–4):691–697.']
  • ['Liu, Li, Gyoung-Ah Lee, Leping Jiang, and Juzhong Zhang. 2007. Evidence for the early beginning (c. 9000 cal. BP) of rice domestication in China: a response. Holocene 17(8):1059–1068.']
  • ['Lourandos, Harry. 1997. Continent of hunter-gatherers: new perspectives in Australian prehistory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.']
  • ['Lu, Houyuan, Jianping Zhang, Kam-biu Liu, Naiqin Wu, Yumei Li, Kunshu Zhou, Maolin Ye, et al. 2009. Earliest domestication of common millet (Panicum miliaceum) in East Asia extended to 10,000 years ago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106(18):7367–7372.']
  • ['Lu, Tracey Lie-Dan. 1999. The transition from foraging to farming and the origin of agriculture in China. BAR International Series 774. Oxford: Archaeopress.']
  • ['———. 2002. A green foxtail (Setaria viridis) cultivation experiment in the Middle Yellow River Valley and some related issues. Asian Perspectives 41(1):1–14.']
  • ['———. 2006. The occurrence of cereal cultivation in China. Asian Perspectives 45(2):129–158.']
  • ['MacNeish, Richard S., Geoffrey Cunnar, Zhijun Zhao, and Jane Libby. 1998. Sino-American Jiangxi (PRC) Origin of Rice Project. Andover, MA: Andover Foundation for Archaeological Research.']
  • ['Madsen, David B., Jingzen Li, Robert G. Elston, Cheng Xu, Robert L. Bettinger, Kan Geng, P. Jeff Brantingham, and Kan Zhong. 1998. The loess/paleosol record and the nature of the Younger Dryas climate in Central China. Geoarchaeology 13(8):847–869.']
  • ['Marcus, Joyce. 2008. The archaeological evidence for social evolution. Annual Review of Anthropology 37:251–266.']
  • ['Mayewski, Paul A. Mayewski, Eelco J. Rohling, J. Curt Stager, Wibjörn Karlén, Kirk A. Maasch, L. David Meeker, Eric A. Meyerson, et al. 2004. Holocene climate variability. Quaternary Research 62(3):243–255.']
  • ['Mazurowski, Ryszard F., Danuta J. Michczyńska, Anna Pazdur, and Natalia Piotrowska. 2009. Chronology of the early Pre-Pottery Neolithic settlement Tell Qaramel, northern Syria, in the light of radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon 51(2):771–781.']
  • ['Minc, Leah D., and Kevin P. Smith. 1989. The spirit of survival: cultural response to resource variability in North Alaska. In Bad year economics: cultural responses to risk and uncertainty. Paul Halstead and John O’Shea, eds. Pp. 8–39. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.']
  • ['Moore, Andrew M. T., Gordon C. Hillman, and Anthony J. Legge, eds. 2000. Village on the Euphrates: from foraging to farming at Abu Hureyra. Oxford: Oxford University Press.']
  • ['Munro, Natalie D. 2004. Zooarchaeological measures of hunting pressure and occupation intensity in the Natufian. Current Anthropology 45(suppl. 4):S5–S34.']
  • ['Pearson, Richard. 2005. The social context of early pottery in the Lingnan region of South China. Antiquity 79(306):819–828.']
  • ['Prendergast, Mary. E., Jiarong Yuan, and Ofer Bar-Yosef. 2009. Resource intensification in the Late Upper Paleolithic: a view from southern China. Journal of Archaeological Science 36(4):1027–1037.']
  • ['Price, T. Douglas, and Ofer Bar-Yosef. 2010. Traces of inequality at the origins of agriculture in the ancient Near East. In Pathways to power: new perspectives on the emergence of social inequality. T. Douglas Price and Gary M. Feinman, eds. Pp. 147–168. New York: Springer.']
  • ['Rappaport, Roy A. 1968. Pigs for the ancestors: ritual in the ecology of a New Guinea people. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.']
  • ['Ren, Guoyu, and Hans-Jürgen Beug. 2002. Mapping Holocene pollen data and vegetation of China. Quaternary Science Reviews 21(12–13):1395–1422.']
  • ['Rohling, Eelco J., James Casford, Ramadan Abu-Zied, Stephen Cooke, Domenico Mercone, John Thomson, Ian Croudace, et al. 2002. Rapid Holocene climate changes in the eastern Mediterranean. In Droughts, food and culture: ecological change and food security in Africa’s later prehistory. Fekri A. Hassan, ed. Pp. 35–46. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.']
  • ['Rolett, Barry V. 2008. Avoiding collapse: pre-European sustainability on Pacific Islands. Quaternary International 184:4–10.']
  • ['Roscoe, Paul B. 2006. Fish, game and the foundations of complexity in forager society: the evidence from New-Guinea. Cross-Cultural Research 40(1):29–46.']
  • ['———. 2008. Settlement fortification in village and “tribal” society: evidence from contact-era New Guinea. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 27(4):507–519.']
  • ['———. 2009. Social signaling and the organization of small-scale society: the case of contact-era New Guinea. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 16(2):69–116.']
  • ['Rosen, Arlene M. 2007. Civilizing climate: social responses to climate change in the ancient Near East. London: Altamira.']
  • ['Rosenberg, Michael, and Richard W. Redding. 2000. Hallan Çemi and early village organization in eastern Anatolia. In Life in Neolithic farming communities: social organization, identity, and differentiation. Ian Kuijt, ed. Pp. 39–61. New York: Plenum.']
  • ['Rossignol-Strick, Martine. 1995. Sea-land correlation of pollen records in the eastern Mediterranean for the glacial-interglacial transition: biostratigraphy versus radiometric time-scale. Quaternary Science Reviews 14(9):893–915.']
  • ['Savard, Manon, Mark Nesbitt, and Martin K. Jones. 2006. The role of wild grasses in subsistence and sedentism: new evidence from the northern Fertile Crescent. World Archaeology 38(2):179–196.']
  • ['Shelach, Gideon. 2000. The earliest Neolithic cultures of northeast China: recent discoveries and new perspectives on the beginning of agriculture. Journal of World Prehistory 14(4):363–413.']
  • ['Shen, Caiming, Wei-Chyung Wang, Zhixin Hao, and Wei Gong. 2007. Exceptional drought events over eastern China during the last five centuries. Climatic Change 85(3–4):453–471.']
  • ['Shizitan Archaeological Team. 2002. The excavation of the Paleolithic site, Shizitan (loc. S14), Jixian County, Shanxi Province. Archaeology (Tiayuan) 4:1–28. [In Chinese.]']
  • ['———. 2010. Report on the excavations of Shizitan site 9, Jixian County, Shanxi. Kao-Gu 10(2010):7–17. [In Chinese.]']
  • ['Sima, Adriana, André Paul, and Michael Schulz. 2004. The Younger Dryas: an intrinsic feature of the Late Pleistocene climate change at millennial timescales. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 222(3–4):741–750.']
  • ['Sinha, Ashish, Kevin G. Cannariato, Lowell D. Stott, Hong-Chun Li, Chen-Feng You, Hai Cheng, R. Lawrence Edwards, and Indra B. Singh. 2005. Variability of southwest Indian summer monsoon precipitation during the Bølling-Allerød. Geology 33(10):813–816.']
  • ['Smith, Bruce D. 2001. Low level food production. Journal of Archaeological Research 9(1):1–43.']
  • ['Stiner, Mary C., Natalie D. Munro, and Todd A. Surovell. 2000. The tortoise and the hare: small game use, the broad-spectrum revolution, and Paleolithic demography. Current Anthropology 41(1):39–73.']
  • ['Stordeur, Danielle, and Frédéric Abbès. 2002. Du PPNA au PPNB: mise en lumière d’une phase de transition à Jerf el Ahmar (Syrie). Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 99(3):563–595.']
  • ['Stordeur, Danielle, and Juan José Ibáñez. 2008. Stratigraphie et répartition des architectures à Mureybet. In Le site néolithique de Tell Mureybet (Syrie du Nord): en hommage à Jacques Cauvin. Juan José Ibáñez, ed. Pp. 33–94. BAR International Series 1843. Oxford: Archaeopress.']
  • ['Stordeur, Danielle, and George Willcox. 2009. Indices de culture et d’utilisation des céréales à Jerf el Ahmar. In De Méditerranée et d’ailleurs…: mélanges offerts à Jean Guilaine. Pp. 693–710. Toulouse: Archives d’Écologie Préhistorique.']
  • ['Tanno, Ken-ichi, and George Willcox. 2006. How fast was wild wheat domesticated? Science 311(5769):1886.']
  • ['Tchernov, Eitan. 1991. Biological evidence for human sedentism in Southwest Asia during the Natufian. In The Natufian culture in the Levant. Ofer Bar-Yosef and François R. Valla, eds. Pp. 315–340. Archaeological Series 1. Ann Arbor, MI: International Monographs in Prehistory.']
  • ['Underhill, Anne P. 1997. Current issues in Chinese Neolithic archaeology. Journal of World Prehistory 11(2):103–160.']
  • ['Vaks, Anton, Miryam Bar-Matthews, Avner Ayalon, Bettina Schilman, Mabs Gilmour, Chris J. Hawkesworth, Amos Frumkin, Aaron Kaufman, and Alan Matthews. 2003. Paleoclimate reconstruction based on the timing of speleotherm growth and oxygen and carbon isotope composition in a cave located in the rain shadow in Israel. Quaternary Research 59(2):182–193.']
  • ['Valla, François R. 1989. Aspects de sol de L’abri 131 de Mallaha (Eynan). Paléorient 14(2):283–296.']
  • ['———. 1995. The first settled societies: Natufian (12,500–10,200 BP). In The archaeology of society in the Holy Land. Thomas E. Levy, ed. Pp. 169–189. London: Leicester University Press.']
  • ['———. 1999. The Natufian: a coherent thought? In Dorothy Garrod and the progress of the Palaeolithic. William Davies and Ruth Charles, eds. Pp. 224–241. Oxford: Oxbow.']
  • ['Valla, François R., Hamoudi Khalaily, Hélène Valladas, Évelyne Kaltnecker, Fanny Bocquentin, Teresa Cabellos, Daniella A. Bar-Yosef Mayer, et al. 2007. Les fouilles de Ain Mallaha (Eynan) de 2003 à 2005: quatrième rapport préliminaire. Journal of the Israel Prehistoric Society 37:135–383.']
  • ['van Zeist, Willem, Uri Baruch, and Sytze Bottema. 2009. Holocene palaeoecology of the Hula area, northeastern Israel. In A timeless vale: archaeological and related essays on the Jordan Valley in honour of Gerrit van der Kooij on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday. Eva Kaptijn and Lucas P. Petit, eds. Pp. 29–64. Archaeological Studies Leiden University 19. Leiden: Leiden University Press.']
  • ['van Zeist, Willem, and Sytze Bottema. 1991. Late Quaternary vegetation of the Near East. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients, Series A (Naturwissenschaft), no. 18. Wiesbaden: Reichert.']
  • ['Vigne, Jean-Denis, Isabelle Carrère, François Briois, and Jean Guilaine. 2011. The early process of mammal domestication in the Near East: new evidence from the Pre-Neolithic and Pre-Pottery Neolithic in Cyprus. Current Anthropology 52(suppl. 4):S255–S271.']
  • ['Vigne, Jean-Denis, Antoine Zazzo, Jean-François Saliège, François Poplin, Jean Guilaine, and Alan Simmons. 2009. Pre-Neolithic wild boar management and introduction to Cyprus more than 11,400 years ago. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106(38):16135–16138.']
  • ['Wang, Yongjin, Hai Cheng, R. Lawrence Edwards, Zhisheng An, Jiangyin Wu, Chuan-Chou Shen, and Jeffrey A. Dorale. 2001. A high-resolution absolute-dated Late Pleistocene Monsoon record from Hulu Cave, China. Science 294(5550):2345–2348.']
  • ['Wang, Yongjin, Hai Cheng, R. Lawrence Edwards, Xinggong Kong, Xiaohua Shao, Shitao Chen, Jiangyin Wu, Xiouyang Jiang, Xianfeng Wang, and Zhisheng An. 2008. Millennial- and orbital-scale changes in the East Asian monsoon over the past 224,000 years. Nature 451(7182):1090–1093.']
  • ['Watkins, Trevor. 2006. Architecture and the symbolic construction of new worlds. In Domesticating space: construction, community, and cosmology in the Late Prehistoric Near East. Edward B. Banning and Michael Chazan, eds. Pp. 16–24. Studies in early Near Eastern production, subsistence, and economy 12. Berlin: Ex Oriente.']
  • ['Weinstein-Evron, Mina. 2009. Archaeology in the archives: unveiling the Natufian culture of Mount Carmel. American School of Prehistoric Research Monograph Series. Boston: Brill.']
  • ['Weiss, Ehud, Mordechai E. Kislev, and Anat Hartmann. 2006. Autonomous cultivation before domestication. Science 312(5780):1608–1610.']
  • ['Weiss, Ehud, and Daniel Zohary. 2011. The Neolithic Southwest Asian founder crops: their biology and archaeobotany. Current Anthropology 52(suppl. 4):S237–S254.']
  • ['Weiss, Harvey, and Raymond S. Bradley. 2001. What drives societal collapse? Science 291(5504):609–610.']
  • ['Wen, Ruilin, Jule Xiao, Zhigang Chang, Dayou Zhai, Qinghai Xu, Yuecong Li, and Shigeru Itoh. 2010. Holocene precipitation and temperature variations in the East Asian monsoonal margin from pollen data from Hulun Lake in northeastern Inner Mongolia. Boreas 39(2):262–272.']
  • ['Weninger, Bernhard, Lee Clare, Eelco Rohling, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Utz Böhner, Mihael Budja, Manfred Bundschu, et al. 2009. The impact of rapid climate change on prehistoric societies during the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean. Documenta Praehistorica 36:551–583.']
  • ['Willcox, George, Ramon Buxó, and Linda Herveux. 2009. Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene climate and the beginnings of cultivation in northern Syria. Holocene 19(1):151–158.']
  • ['Willcox, George, Sandra Fornite, and Linda Herveux. 2008. Early Holocene cultivation before domestication in northern Syria. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 17(3):313–325.']
  • ['Wünnemann, Bernd, Kai Hartmann, Manon Janssen, and Zhang Hucai Zhang. 2007. Response of Chinese desert lakes to climate instability during the past 45,000 years. In Late Quaternary climate change and human adaptation in arid China. David B. Madsen, Fa-Hu Chen, and Xing Gao, eds. Pp. 11–24. Developments in Quaternary Science 9. Amsterdam: Elsevier.']
  • ['Yasuda, Yoshinori. 2002. The second east side story: origin of agriculture in West Asia. In The origins of pottery and agriculture. Yoshinori Yasuda, ed. Pp. 15–38. Yangtze River Civilization Programme, International Research Center for Japanese Studies. New Delhi: Roli/Lustre.']
  • ['Yi, Sangheon, Yoshiki Saito, Hideaki Oshima, Yongqing Zhou, and Helong Wei. 2003. Holocene environmental history from pollen assemblages in Huangbe (Yellow River) delta, China: climatic change and human impact. Quaternary Science Reviews 22(5–7):609–628.']
  • ['Yu, C., Y. Luo, and X. Sun. 2008. A high resolution pollen record from Ha’ni Lake, Jilin, Northeast China showing climate changes between 13.1 k cal BP and 4.5 k cal BP. Disiji Yanjiu 28:929–938. [In Chinese.]']
  • ['Yu, Ge, Xudong Chen, Jian Ni, Rachid Cheddadi, Joël Guiot, H. Han, Sandy P. Harrison, et al. 2000. Paleovegetation of China: a pollen data-based synthesis for the Mid-Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum. Journal of Biogeography 27(3):635–664.']
  • ['Yuan, Jiarong. 2002. Rice and pottery 10,000 yrs. BP at Yuchanyan, Dao County, Hunan Province. In The origins of pottery and agriculture. Yoshinori Yasuda, ed. Pp. 157–166. Yangtze River Civilization Programme, International Research Center for Japanese Studies. New Delhi: Roli/Lustre.']
  • ['Yuan, Jing, and Rowan K. Flad. 2002. Pig domestication in ancient China. Antiquity 76(293):724–732.']
  • ['Yuan, Jing, Rowan Flad, and Yunbing Luo. 2008. Meat-acquisition patterns in the Neolithic Yangzi River Palley, China. Antiquity 82(316):351–366.']
  • ['Zeder, Melinda A. 2011. The origins of agriculture in the Near East. Current Anthropology 52(suppl. 4):S221–S235.']
  • ['Zhang, Chi, and Hsiao-Chun Hung. 2008. The Neolithic of southern China: origin, development, and dispersal. Asian Perspectives 47(2):299–329.']
  • ['Zhang, Juzhong, and Xiangkun Wang. 1998. Notes on the recent discovery of ancient cultivated rice in Jiahu, Henan Province: a new theory concerning the origin of Oryza japonica. Antiquity 72(278):897–901.']
  • ['Zhang, Wenxu. 2002. The bi-peak-tubercle of rice, the character of ancient rice and the origin of cultivated rice. In The origins of pottery and agriculture. Yoshinori Yasuda, ed. Pp. 205–216. Yangtze River Civilization Programme, International Research Center for Japanese Studies. New Delhi: Roli/Lustre.']
  • ['Zhao, C., Tao Wang, Xiaohong Wu, Mingli Liu, Xuemei Yuan, Jincheng Yu, and Jing Guo. 2006. Donghulin, Zhuannian, Nanzhuangtou, and Yujiagou sites. In Prehistoric archaeology of South China and Southeast Asia: collected papers of an international academic workshop: celebrating 30 years for the excavations of Zengpiyan Cave. Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Science, ed. Pp. 116–127. Beijing: Wen wu chu ban she.']
  • ['Zhao, Songqiao. 1994. Geography of China: environment, resources, population and development. New York: Wiley.']
  • ['Zhao, Zhijun. 1998. The Middle Yangtze region in China is one place where rice was domesticated: phytolith evidence from the Diaotonghuan Cave, northern Jiangxi. Antiquity 72(278):885–897.']
  • ['———. 2004. New evidence of the origin of dry farming in Northeast China. Wenwubo 10:89–96. [In Chinese.]']
  • ['———. 2010. New data and new issues for the study of origins of rice agriculture in China. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences 2(2):99–105.']
  • ['———. 2011. New archaeobotanic data for the study of the origins of agriculture in China. Current Anthropology 52(suppl. 4):S295–S306.']
  • ['Zheng, Yun-Fei, Guo-Ping Sun, and Xu-Gao Chen. 2007. Characteristics of the short rachillae of rice from archaeological sites dating to 7000 years ago. Chinese Science Bulletin 52(12):1654–1660.']
  • ['Zhou, Houyun, Jianxin Zhao, Yuexing Feng, Michael K. Gagan, Guoqing Zhou, and Jun Yan. 2008. Distinct climate change synchronous with Heinrich event one, recorded by stable oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions in stalagmites from China. Quaternary Research 69(2):306–315.']
  • ['Zohary, Daniel, and Maria Hopf. 2000. Domestication of plants in the Old World: the origins and spread of cultivated plants in West Asia, Europe, and the Nile Valley. 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.']
  • ['Zong, Yongqiong, Zhongyuan Chen, James B. Innes, Chun Chen, Zhanghua Wang, and Hui Wang. 2007. Fire and flood management of coastal swamp enabled first rice paddy cultivation in East China. Nature 449(7161):459–463.']