Access

You are not currently logged in.

Access your personal account or get JSTOR access through your library or other institution:

login

Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

The Capital Economy in Hominin Evolution: How Adipose Tissue and Social Relationships Confer Phenotypic Flexibility and Resilience in Stochastic Environments

Jonathan C. K. Wells
Current Anthropology
Vol. 53, No. S6, Human Biology and the Origins of Homo (December 2012), pp. S466-S478
DOI: 10.1086/667606
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/667606
Page Count: 13
Subjects: Anthropology
Find more content in these subjects: Anthropology
  • Download PDF
  • Add to My Lists
  • Cite this Item
We're having trouble loading this content. Download PDF instead.

Abstract

The global distribution of our species indicates a biology capable of adapting to an extraordinary range of ecosystems, generating interest in how such a biology evolved. Whereas much attention has been directed to genetic adaptation and developmental plasticity as adaptive strategies, ecological stochasticity within the life course may be addressed by additional strategies such as bet hedging and phenotypic flexibility. Both social relationships and adipose tissue may be considered as “energy capital” conferring reversible phenotypic flexibility across the life course. Evidence from primates and contemporary humans demonstrates the value of such energy capital in accommodating ecological uncertainty. The fact that Homo sapiens is characterized by high levels of both cooperative sociality and adiposity compared with extant apes suggests that ecological stochasticity may have been a key ecological stress in the evolution of our genus. The benefits of phenotypic flexibility for ecological risk management may have preceded and enabled the emergence of traits such as carnivory, encephalization, colonizing, and the maintenance of a single breeding species across diverse environments.

Notes and References

This item contains 175 references.

References Cited
  • ['Aiello, Leslie C., and Cathy Key. 2002. Energetic consequences of being a Homo erectus female. American Journal of Human Biology 14:551–565.']
  • ['Antón, Susan C. 2003. Natural history of Homo erectus. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 37:126–170.']
  • ['Antón, Susan C., Hannah Carter-Menn, and Valerie B. DeLeon. 2011. Modern human origins: continuity, replacement, and masticatory robusticity in Australasia. Journal of Human Evolution 60:70–82.']
  • ['Antón, Susan C., and J. Josh Snodgrass. 2012. Origins and evolution of genus Homo: new perspectives. Current Anthropology 53(suppl. 6):S479–S496.']
  • ['Bakewell, Margaret A., Peng Shi, and Jianzhi Zhang. 2007. More genes underwent positive selection in chimpanzee evolution than in human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104:7489–7494.']
  • ['Barbiro-Michaely, Efrat, Michael Tolmasov, Shunit Rinkevich-Shop, Judith Sonn, and Avraham Mayevsky. 2007. Can the “brain-sparing effect” be detected in a small-animal model? Medical Science Monitor 13:BR211–BR219.']
  • ['Bartness, Timothy J., Gregory E. Demas, and C. Kay Song. 2002. Seasonal changes in adiposity: the roles of the photoperiod, melatonin and other hormones, and sympathetic nervous system. Experimental Biology and Medicine 227:363–376.']
  • ['Bateson, Patrick. 2001. Fetal experience and good adult design. International Journal of Epidemiology 30:928–934.']
  • ['Beaumont, Hubertus J., Jenna Gallie, Christian Kost, Gayle C. Ferguson, and Paul B. Rainey. 2009. Experimental evolution of bet hedging. Nature 462:90–93.']
  • ['Becquet, Celine, and Molly Przeworski. 2007. A new approach to estimate parameters of speciation models with application to apes. Genome Research 17:1505–1519.']
  • ['Benoit, Stephen C., Deborah J. Clegg, Randy J. Seeley, and Stephen C. Woods. 2004. Insulin and leptin as adiposity signals. Recent Progress in Hormone Research 59:267–285.']
  • ['Bobe, René, and Anna K. Behrensmeyer. 2004. The expansion of grassland ecosystems in Africa in relation to mammalian evolution and the origin of the genus Homo. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 207:399–420.']
  • ['Bogin, Barry, and B. Holly Smith. 1996. Evolution of the human life cycle. American Journal of Human Biology 8:703–716.']
  • ['Bogin, Barry, Patricia Smith, Alicia Bibiana Orden, Maria I. Varela Silva, and James Loucky. 2002. Rapid change in height and body proportions of Maya American children. American Journal of Human Biology 14:753–761.']
  • ['Bogin, Barry, Maria I. Varela Silva, and Luis Rios. 2007. Life history trade-offs in human growth: adaptation or pathology? American Journal of Human Biology 19:631–642.']
  • ['Bonnefille, Raymonde, Richard Potts, Françoise Chalié, Dominique Jolly, and Odile Peyron. 2004. High-resolution vegetation and climate change associated with Pliocene Australopithecus afarensis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101:12125–12129.']
  • ['Bramble, Dennis M., and Daniel E. Lieberman. 2004. Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 432:345–352.']
  • ['Bribiescas, Richard G. 2001. Serum leptin levels and anthropometric correlates in Ache Amerindians of eastern Paraguay. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 115:297–303.']
  • ['Bribiescas, Richard G., and Stephanie F. Anestis. 2010. Leptin associations with age, weight, and sex among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Medical Primatology 39:347–355.']
  • ['Brown, Peter, Thomas Sutikna, Michael J. Morwood, Raden P. Soejono, Jatmiko, E. Wayhu Saptomo, and Rokus Awe Due. 2004. A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature 431:1055–1061.']
  • ['Bruner, Emiliano, Giorgio Manzi, and Juan Luis Arsuaga. 2003. Encephalization and allometric trajectories in the genus Homo: evidence from the Neandertal and modern lineages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 100:15335–15340.']
  • ['Cann, Rebecca L., Mark Stoneking, and Allan C. Wilson. 1987. Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution. Nature 325:31–36.']
  • ['Cochran, Gregory, and Henry Harpending. 2009. The 10,000 year explosion: how civilization accelerated human evolution. New York: Basic.']
  • ['Couper-Johnston, Ross. 2000. El Niño: the weather phenomenon that changed the world. London: Hodder & Stoughton.']
  • ['Crompton, Robin H., William I. Sellers, and Susannah K. Thorpe. 2010. Arboreality, terrestriality and bipedalism. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365:3301–3314.']
  • ['Cunningham, Matthew J., Donald K. Clifton, and Robert A. Steiner. 1999. Leptin’s actions on the reproductive axis: perspectives and mechanisms. Biology of Reproduction 60:216–222.']
  • ['Dart, Raymond. 1925. Australopithecus africanus: the man-ape from South Africa. Nature 115:195–199.']
  • ['Dawkins, Richard. 1982. The extended phenotype. Oxford: Oxford University Press.']
  • ['Demas, Gregory E. 2004. The energetics of immunity: a neuroendocrine link between energy balance and immune function. Hormones and Behavior 45:173–180.']
  • ['Demas, Gregory E., and Sangeeta Sakaria. 2005. Leptin regulates energetic tradeoffs between body fat and humoural immunity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 272:1845–1850.']
  • ['DeSilva, Jeremy M. 2011. A shift toward birthing relatively large infants early in human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108:1022–1027.']
  • ['Drazen, Deborah L., Gregory E. Demas, and Randy J. Nelson. 2001. Leptin effects on immune function and energy balance are photoperiod dependent in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Endocrinology 142:2768–2775.']
  • ['Ducy, Patricia, Michael Amling, Shu Takeda, Matthias Priemel, Arndt F. Schilling, Frank T. Beil, Jianhe Shen, Charles Vinson, Johannes M. Rueger, and Gerard Karsenty. 2000. Leptin inhibits bone formation through a hypothalamic relay: a central control of bone mass. Cell 100:197–207.']
  • ['Elks, Cathy E., John R. Perry, Patrick Sulem, Daniel I. Chasman, Nora Franceschini, Chunyan He, Kathryn L. Lunetta, et al. 2010. Thirty new loci for age at menarche identified by a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Nature Genetics 42(12):1077–1085.']
  • ['Ellis, Bruce J., Aurelio J. Figueredo, Barbara H. Brumbach, and Gabriel L. Scholmer. 2009. Fundamental dimensions of environmental risk: the impact of harsh versus unpredictable environments on the evolution and development of life history strategies. Human Nature 20:204–268.']
  • ['Eriksson, Anders, and Andrea Manica. 2012. Effect of ancient population structure on the degree of polymorphism shared between modern human populations and ancient hominins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109(35):13956–13960.']
  • ['Fernandez-Real, Jose M., and Wifredo Ricart. 2011. Osteocalcin: a new link between bone and energy metabolism. Some evolutionary clues. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 14:360–366.']
  • ['Flak, Jonathan N., Ryan Jankord, Matia B. Solomon, Eric G. Krause, and James P. Herman. 2011. Opposing effects of chronic stress and weight restriction on cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and metabolic function. Physiology and Behavior 104:228–234.']
  • ['Flatt, Thomas. 2005. The evolutionary genetics of canalization. Quarterly Review of Biology 80:287–316.']
  • ['Foley, Robert. 2001. The evolutionary consequences of increased carnivory in humans. In Meat-eating and human evolution. Craig B. Stanford and Henry T. Bunn, eds. Pp. 305–331. Oxford: Oxford University Press.']
  • ['Fraga, Mario F., Esteban Ballestar, Maria F. Paz, Santiago Ropero, Fernando Setien, Maria L. Ballestar, Damia Heine-Suñer, et al. 2005. Epigenetic differences arise during the lifetime of monozygotic twins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 102:10604–10609.']
  • ['Gabriel, Wilfried, Barney Luttbeg, Andrew Sih, and Ralph Tollrian. 2005. Environmental tolerance, heterogeneity, and the evolution of reversible plastic responses. American Naturalist 166:339–353.']
  • ['Gagneux, Pascal, Christopher Wills, Ulrike Gerloff, Diethard Tautz, Phillip A. Morin, Christophe Boesch, Barbara Fruth, Gottfried Hohmann, Olivia A. Ryder, and David S. Woodruff. 1999. Mitochondrial sequences show diverse evolutionary histories of African hominoids. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 96:5077–5082.']
  • ['Garber, Paul A. 1997. One for all and breeding for one: cooperation and competition as a tamarin reproductive strategy. Evolutionary Anthropology 5:187–199.']
  • ['Garrigan, Daniel, and Michael F. Hammer. 2006. Reconstructing human origins in the genomic era. Nature Reviews Genetics 7:669–680.']
  • ['Gibbs, Sally, Mark Collard, and Bernard Wood. 2000. Soft-tissue characters in higher primate phylogenetics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 97:11130–11132.']
  • ['Gilbert, Christopher C., and James B. Rossie. 2007. Congruence of molecules and morphology using a narrow allometric approach. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 104:11910–11914.']
  • ['Gluckman, Peter, Keith Godfrey, Mark Hanson, and Christopher Kuzawa. 2009. Developmental aspects of diseases of modern environments. Evolution and Medicine Reviews, October 28. http://evmedreview.com/?p=166.']
  • ['Gluckman, Peter D., and Mark A. Hanson. 2004. The developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 15:183–187.']
  • ['Gluckman, Peter D., Mark A. Hanson, and Alan S. Beedle. 2007. Early life events and their consequences for later disease: a life history and evolutionary perspective. American Journal of Human Biology 19:1–19.']
  • ['Green, Richard E., Johannes Krause, Adrian W. Briggs, Tomislav Maricic, Udo Stenzel, Martin Kircher, Nick Patterson, et al. 2010. A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome. Science 328:710–722.']
  • ['Haig, David. 1993. Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy. Quarterly Review of Biology 68:495–532.']
  • ['———. 1997. Parental antagonism, relatedness asymmetries, and genomic imprinting. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 264:1657–1662.']
  • ['Hales, C. Nicolas, and David J. Barker. 1992. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: the thrifty phenotype hypothesis. Diabetologia 35:595–601.']
  • ['Hammerstein, Peter, and Edward H. Hagen. 2005. The second wave of evolutionary economics in biology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 20:604–609.']
  • ['Hancock, Angela M., Gorka Alkorta-Aranburu, David B. Witonsky, and Anna Di Rienzo. 2010. Adaptations to new environments in humans: the role of subtle allele frequency shifts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365:2459–2468.']
  • ['Hancock, Angela M., David B. Witonsky, Gorka Alkorta-Aranburu, Cynthia M. Beall, Amha Gebremedhin, Rem Sukernik, Gerd Utermann, Jonathan K. Pritchard, Graham Coop, and Anna Di Rienzo. 2011. Adaptations to climate-mediated selective pressures in humans. PLoS Genetics 7:e1001375.']
  • ['Harshman, Lawrence G., and Anthony J. Zera. 2007. The cost of reproduction: the devil in the details. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 22:80–86.']
  • ['Hawkes, Kristen. 2006. Slow life histories and human evolution. In The evolution of human life history. Kristen Hawkes and Richard R. Paine, eds. Pp. 95–126. Oxford: Currey.']
  • ['Hawkes, Kristen, James F. O’Connell, and Nicholas G. Blurton Jones. 1989. Hardworking Hadza grandmothers. Comparative Socioecology of Mammals and Man 8:341–366.']
  • ['Herring, D. Ann, Shelley R. Saunders, and M. Anne Katzenberg. 1998. Investigating the weaning process in past populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 105:425–439.']
  • ['Hey, Jody. 2010. The divergence of chimpanzee species and subspecies as revealed in multipopulation isolation-with-migration analyses. Molecular Biology and Evolution 27:921–933.']
  • ['Hiernaux, Jean, and Alain Froment. 1976. The correlations between anthropobiological and climatic variables in sub-Saharan Africa: revised estimates. Human Biology 48:757–767.']
  • ['Hill, Kim. 1993. Life history theory and evolutionary anthropology. Evolutionary Anthropology 2:78–88.']
  • ['Hill, Kim, and Magdalena Hurtado. 1996. Ache life history: the ecology and demography of a foraging people. New York: Aldine.']
  • ['Hirsch, Dalay, and Zofia Zukowska. 2012. NPY and stress 30 years later: the peripheral view. Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 32:645–659.']
  • ['Hirschhorn, Joel N., and Guillaume Lettre. 2009. Progress in genome-wide association studies of human height. Hormone Research 71(suppl. 2):5–13.']
  • ['Holliday, Trenton W. 1997. Body proportions in Late Pleistocene Europe and modern human origins. Journal of Human Evolution 32:423–447.']
  • ['Houston, Alisdair I., and John M. McNamara. 1999. Models of adaptive behaviour: an approach based on state. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.']
  • ['Howell, Nancy. 2010. Life histories of the Dobe !Kung: food, fatness, and well-being over the life-span. Berkeley: University of California Press.']
  • ['Hrdy, Sarah B. 2004. Comes the child before the man: how cooperative breeding and prolonged postweaning dependence shaped human potentials. In Hunter-gatherer childhoods: evolutionary, developmental, and cultural perspectives. Barry S. Hewlett and Michael E. Lamb, eds. Pp. 65–91. Somerset, NJ: Transaction/Aldine.']
  • ['———. 2009. Mothers and others: the evolutionary origins of mutual understanding. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.']
  • ['Isler, Karin, and Carel P. van Schaik. 2009. Why are there so few smart mammals (but so many smart birds)? Biology Letters 5:125–129.']
  • ['———. 2012. How our ancestors broke through the gray ceiling: comparative evidence for cooperative breeding in early Homo. Current Anthropology 53(suppl. 6:S453–S465.']
  • ['Jönsson, K. Ingemar. 1997. Capital and income breeding as alternative tactics of resource use in reproduction. Oikos 78:57–66.']
  • ['Kaessmann, Henrik, Victor Wiebe, Gunter Weiss, and Svante Pääbo. 2001. Great ape DNA sequences reveal a reduced diversity and an expansion in humans. Nature Genetics 27:155–156.']
  • ['Kaifu, Yousuke, Kazutaka Kasai, Grant C. Townsend, and Lindsay C. Richards. 2003. Tooth wear and the “design” of the human dentition: a perspective from evolutionary medicine. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 122:47–61.']
  • ['Kaplan, Hillard, Kim Hill, Jane Lancaster, and Magdalena A. Hurtado. 2000. A theory of human life history evolution: diet, intelligence, and longevity. Evolutionary Anthropology 2000:156–185.']
  • ['Kaplan, Hillard, Jane Lancaster, and Arthur Robson. 2003. Embodied capital and the evolutionary economics of the human life span. In Life span: evolutionary, ecological, and demographic perspectives. James R. Carey and Shripad Tuljapurkar, eds. Pp. 152–182. New York: Population Council.']
  • ['Katzmarzyk, Peter T., and William R. Leonard. 1998. Climatic influences on human body size and proportions: ecological adaptations and secular trends. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 106:483–503.']
  • ['Kelly, Robert L. 1995. The foraging spectrum. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.']
  • ['Klein, Richard G., and Blake Edgar. 2002. The dawn of human culture. New York: Wiley.']
  • ['Knott, Cheryl D. 1998. Changes in orangutan caloric intake, energy balance, and ketones in response to fluctuating fruit availability. International Journal of Primatology 19:1061–1079.']
  • ['Kramer, Karen L., and Peter T. Ellison. 2010. Pooled energy budgets: resituating human energy allocation trade-offs. Evolutionary Anthropology 19:136–147.']
  • ['Krause, Johannes, Qiaomei Fu, Jeffrey M. Good, Bence Viola, Michael V. Shunkov, Anatoli P. Derevianko, and Svante Pääbo. 2010. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia. Nature 464:894–897.']
  • ['Kuzawa, Christopher W. 1998. Adipose tissue in human infancy and childhood: an evolutionary perspective. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 27(suppl.):177–209.']
  • ['———. 2005. Fetal origins of developmental plasticity: are fetal cues reliable predictors of future nutritional environments? American Journal of Human Biology 17:5–21.']
  • ['Kuzawa, Christopher W., and Jared M. Bragg. 2012. Plasticity in human life history strategy: implications for contemporary human variation and the evolution of genus Homo. Current Anthropology 53(suppl. 6):S369–S382.']
  • ['Kuzawa, Christopher W., Elizabeth A. Quinn, and Linda Adair. 2007. Leptin in a lean population of Filipino adolescents. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 132:642–649.']
  • ['Laubichler, Manfred D., Edward H. Hagen, and Peter Hammerstein. 2005. The strategy concept and John Maynard Smith’s influence on theoretical biology. Biology and Philosophy 20:1041–1050.']
  • ['Lee, Phyllis C. 1999. Comparative primate socioecology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.']
  • ['Li, Leah, Alan D. Dangour, and Chris Power. 2007. Early life influences on adult leg and trunk length in the 1958 British birth cohort. American Journal of Human Biology 19:836–843.']
  • ['Liao, Chen-Yu, Brad A. Rikke, Thomas E. Johnson, Jonathan A. L. Gelfond, Vivian Diaz, and James F. Nelson. 2011. Fat maintenance is a predictor of the murine lifespan response to dietary restriction. Aging Cell 10:629–639.']
  • ['MacArthur, Robert H., and Eric R. Pianka. 1966. On optimal use of a patchy environment. American Naturalist 100:603–609.']
  • ['Maejima, Yuko, Yusaku Iwasaki, Yui Yamahara, Misato Kodaira, Udval Sedbazar, and Toshihiko Yada. 2011. Peripheral oxytocin treatment ameliorates obesity by reducing food intake and visceral fat mass. Aging 12:1169–1177.']
  • ['Martin, Robert D. 1983. Human brain evolution in an ecological context. James Arthur Lecture on the Evolution of the Human Brain, no. 52, 1982. New York: American Museum of Natural History.']
  • ['———. 1989. Evolution of the brain in early hominids. Ossa 14:49–62.']
  • ['Maynard Smith, John. 1982. Evolution and the theory of games. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.']
  • ['Migliano, Andrea Bamberg, and Myrtille Guillon. 2012. The effects of mortality, subsistence, and ecology on human adult height and implications for Homo evolution. Current Anthropology 53(suppl. 6):S359–S368.']
  • ['Morbeck, Mary E., and Adrienne L. Zihlman. 1988. Body composition and limb proportions. In Orang-utan biology. Jeffrey H. Schwartz, ed. Pp. 285–296. Oxford: Oxford University Press.']
  • ['Navarrete, Ana, Carel P. van Schaik, and Karin Isler. 2011. Energetics and the evolution of human brain size. Nature 480:91–93.']
  • ['Nielsen-Marsh, Christina M., Peggy H. Ostrom, Hasand Gandhi, Beth Shapiro, Alan Cooper, Peter V. Hauschka, and Matthew J. Collins. 2002. Sequence preservation of osteocalcin protein and mitochondrial DNA in bison bones older than 55 ka. Geology 30:1099–1102.']
  • ['Ong, Ken K., Kate Northstone, Jonathan C. Wells, Chandra Rubin, Andrew R. Ness, Jean Golding, and David B. Dunger. 2007. Earlier mother’s age at menarche predicts rapid infancy growth and childhood obesity. PLoS Medicine 4(4):e132.']
  • ['Organ, Chris, Charles L. Nunn, Zarin Machand, and Richard W. Wrangham. 2011. Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108:14555–14559.']
  • ['Paterson, James D. 1996. Coming to America: acclimation in macaque body structures and Bergmann’s rule. International Journal of Primatology 17:585–612.']
  • ['Perry, George H., and Nathaniel J. Dominy. 2009. Evolution of the human pygmy phenotype. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 24:218–225.']
  • ['Philipi, Tom, and Jon H. Seger. 1989. Hedging evolutionary bets, revisited. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 4:41–44.']
  • ['Piersma, Theunis, and Jan Drent. 2003. Phenotypic flexibility and the evolution of organismal design. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 19:228–233.']
  • ['Pilbeam, David. 2000. Hominoid systematics: the soft evidence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 97:10684–10686.']
  • ['Pond, Caroline M. 1984. Physiological and ecological importance of energy storage in the evolution of lactation: evidence for a common pattern of anatomical organisation of adipose tissue in mammals. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 51:1–32.']
  • ['———. 1998. The fats of life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.']
  • ['———. 2003. Paracrine interactions of mammalian adipose tissue. Journal of Experimental Zoology A 295(1):99–110.']
  • ['Potts, Richard. 1996. Humanity’s descent: the consequences of ecological instability. New York: Morrow.']
  • ['———. 2012. Environmental and behavioral evidence pertaining to the evolution of early Homo. Current Anthropology 53(suppl. 6):S299–S317.']
  • ['Premo, Luke S., and Jean-Jacques Hublin. 2009. Culture, population structure, and low genetic diversity in Pleistocene hominins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 106:33–37.']
  • ['Price, Kimberly C., Janet S. Hyde, and Christopher L. Coe. 1999. Matrilineal transmission of birth weight in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) across several generations. Obstetrics and Gynecology 94:128–134.']
  • ['Reich, David, Richard E. Green, Martin Kircher, Johannes Krause, Nick Patterson, Eric Y. Durand, Bence Viola, et al. 2010. Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia. Nature 468:1053–1060.']
  • ['Reiches, Meredith W., Peter T. Ellison, Susan F. Lipson, Katherine C. Sharrock, Eliza Gardiner, and Laura G. Duncan. 2009. Pooled energy budget and human life history. American Journal of Human Biology 21(4):421–429.']
  • ['Rickard, Ian J., and Virpi Lummaa. 2007. The predictive adaptive response and metabolic syndrome: challenges for the hypothesis. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 18:94–99.']
  • ['Roberts, Derek F. 1953. Body weight, race, and climate. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 11:533–558.']
  • ['Robson, Shannen L., Carel P. van Schaik, and Kristen Hawkes. 2006. The derived features of human life history. In The evolution of human life history. Kristen Hawkes and Richard R. Paine, eds. Pp. 17–44. Oxford: Currey.']
  • ['Rosenberg, Karen, and Wenda Trevathan. 2002. Birth, obstetrics and human evolution. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 109:1199–1206.']
  • ['Ruff, Christopher. 2002. Variation in human body size and shape. Annual Review of Anthropology 31:211–232.']
  • ['Rutenberg, Gary W., Anthony M. Coelho, Douglas S. Lewis, K. Dee Carey, and Henry C. McGill. 1987. Body composition in baboons: evaluating a morphometric method. American Journal of Primatology 12:275–285.']
  • ['Schneider, Jill E. 2004. Energy balance and reproduction. Physiology and Behavior 81(2):289–317.']
  • ['Schulke, Oliver, Jyotsna Bhagavatula, Linda Vigilant, and Julia Ostner. 2010. Social bonds enhance reproductive success in male macaques. Current Biology 20(24):2207–2210.']
  • ['Schwartz, Gary T. 2012. Growth, development, and life history throughout the evolution of Homo. Current Anthropology 53(suppl. 6):S395–S408.']
  • ['Schwartz, Susan M., and Joseph W. Kemnitz. 1992. Age- and gender-related changes in body size, adiposity, and endocrine and metabolic parameters in free-ranging rhesus macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 89(1):109–121.']
  • ['Sear, Rebecca, and Ruth Mace. 2008. Who keeps children alive? a review of the effects of kin on child survival. Evolution and Human Behavior 29:1–18.']
  • ['Sharrock, Katherine C., Christopher W. Kuzawa, William R. Leonard, Susan Tanner, Victoria E. Reyes-Garcia, Vincent Vadez, Tomas Huanca, and Thomas W. McDade. 2008. Developmental changes in the relationship between leptin and adiposity among Tsimane children and adolescents. American Journal of Human Biology 20(4):392–398.']
  • ['Silk, Joan B., Jacinta C. Beehner, Thore J. Bergman, Catherine Crockford, Anne L. Engh, Liza R. Moscovice, Roman M. Wittig, Robert M. Seyfarth, and Dorothy L. Cheney. 2009. The benefits of social capital: close social bonds among female baboons enhance offspring survival. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276(1670):3099–3104.']
  • ['———. 2010. Strong and consistent social bonds enhance the longevity of female baboons. Current Biology 20(15):1359–1361.']
  • ['Smith, David W., William Truog, James E. Rogers, Larry J. Greitzer, Alfred L. Skinner, John J. McCann, and Mary A. S. Harvey. 1976. Shifting linear growth during infancy: illustration of genetic factors in growth from fetal life through infancy. Journal of Pediatrics 89(2):225–230.']
  • ['Smith, Eric A., Kim Hill, Frank W. Marlowe, David Nolin, Polly Wiessner, Michael Gurven, Samuel Bowles, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder, Tom Hertz, and Adrian Bell. 2010. Wealth transmission and inequality among hunter-gatherers. Current Anthropology 51:19–34.']
  • ['Smith, Jennifer E., Eli M. Swanson, Daphna Reed, and Kay E. Holekamp. 2012. Evolution of cooperation among mammalian carnivores and its relevance to hominid evolution. Current Anthropology 53(suppl. 6):S436–S452.']
  • ['Soares, Marta C., Redouan Bshary, Leonida Fusani, Wolfgang Goymann, Michaela Hau, Katharina Hirschenhauser, and Rui F. Oliveira. 2010. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365:2737–2750.']
  • ['Speakman, John R. 2007. A nonadaptive scenario explaining the genetic predisposition to obesity: the “predation release” hypothesis. Cell Metabolism 6:5–12.']
  • ['Stearns, Stephen C. 1992. The evolution of life histories. New York: Oxford University Press.']
  • ['Sullivan, Roger J., Edward H. Hagen, and Peter Hammerstein. 2008. Revealing the paradox of drug reward in human evolution. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275(1640):1231–1241.']
  • ['Sussman, Robert W., Paul A. Garber, and Jim M. Cheverud. 2005. Importance of cooperation and affiliation in the evolution of primate sociality. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 128(1):84–97.']
  • ['Trivers, Robert L. 1972. Parental investment and sexual selection. In Sexual selection and the descent of man. Bernard Campbell, ed. Pp. 136–179. Chicago: Aldine.']
  • ['———. 1974. Parent-offspring conflict. American Zoologist 14:249–264.']
  • ['Ungar, Peter S. 2012. Dental evidence for the reconstruction of diet in African early Homo. Current Anthropology 53(suppl. 6):S318–S329.']
  • ['van Noordwijk, Arie J., and Gerdien de Jong. 1986. Acquisition and allocation of resources: their influence on variation in life history tactics. American Naturalist 128:137–142.']
  • ['Vermeij, Geerat J. 2004. Nature: an economic history. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.']
  • ['Vrba, Elizabeth. 1985. Ecological and adaptive changes associated with early hominid evolution. In Ancestors: the hard evidence. Eric Delson, ed. Pp. 63–71. New York: Liss.']
  • ['Walker, Robert, Michael Gurven, Kim Hill, Andrea Migliano, Napoleon Chagnon, Roberta De Souza, Gradimir Djurovic, et al. 2006. Growth rates and life histories in twenty-two small-scale societies. American Journal of Human Biology 18:295–311.']
  • ['Walker, Robert S., and Marcus J. Hamilton. 2008. Life-history consequences of density dependence and the evolution of human body size. Current Anthropology 49:115–122.']
  • ['Warren, Kristin S., Ernst J. Verschoor, Susan Langenhuijzen, Heriyanto, Ralph A. Swan, Linda Vigilant, and Jonathan L. Heeney. 2001. Speciation and intrasubspecific variation of Bornean orangutans, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18:472–480.']
  • ['Watve, Milind G., and Chitaranjan S. Yajnik. 2007. Evolutionary origins of insulin resistance: a behavioral switch hypothesis. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:61.']
  • ['Wells, Jonathan C. K. 2003. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis: thrifty offspring or thrifty mother? Journal of Theoretical Biology 221:143–161.']
  • ['———. 2007a. Flaws in the theory of predictive adaptive responses. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 18:331–337.']
  • ['———. 2007b. Sexual dimorphism of body composition. Best Practice in Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 21:415–430.']
  • ['———. 2007c. The thrifty phenotype as an adaptive maternal effect. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 82:143–172.']
  • ['———. 2009. Thrift: a guide to thrifty genes, thrifty phenotypes and thrifty norms. International Journal of Obesity 33:1331–1338.']
  • ['———. 2010a. The evolutionary biology of human body fat: thrift and control. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.']
  • ['———. 2010b. Maternal capital and the metabolic ghetto: an evolutionary perspective on the transgenerational basis of health inequalities. American Journal of Human Biology 22:1–17.']
  • ['———. 2011. The thrifty phenotype: an adaptation in growth or metabolism? American Journal of Human Biology 23:65–75.']
  • ['———. 2012a. A critical appraisal of the predictive adaptive response hypothesis. International Journal of Epidemiology 41:229–235.']
  • ['———. 2012b. Ecogeographical associations between climate and human body composition: analyses based on anthropometry and skinfolds. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147:169–186.']
  • ['———. 2012c. The evolution of human adiposity and obesity: where did it all go wrong? Disease Models and Mechanisms 5(5):595–607.']
  • ['———. 2012d. Sexual dimorphism in body composition across human populations: associations with climate and proxies for short- and long-term energy supply. American Journal of Human Biology 24:411–419.']
  • ['Wells, Jonathan C. K., Tim J. Cole, and Philip Treleaven. 2008. Age-variability in body shape associated with excess weight: the UK National Sizing Survey. Obesity 16:435–441.']
  • ['Wells, Jonathan C. K., Lewis Griffin, and Philip Treleaven. 2010. Independent changes in female body shape with parity and age: a life-history approach to female adiposity. American Journal of Human Biology 22:456–462.']
  • ['Wells, Jonathan C., and Jay T. Stock. 2007. The biology of the colonizing ape. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 134(suppl. 45):191–222.']
  • ['———. 2011. Re-examining heritability: genetics, life history and plasticity. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 22:421–428.']
  • ['———. 2012. The biology of human migration: the ape that won’t commit? In Causes and consequences of human migration: an evolutionary perspective. Michael H. Crawford and Benjamin C. Campbell, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Forthcoming.']
  • ['West-Eberhard, Mary J. 2003. Developmental plasticity and evolution. New York: Oxford University Press.']
  • ['Yajnik, Chittaranjan S., Caroline H. Fall, Kurus J. Coyaji, S. S. Hirve, Shobha Rao, David J. Barker, Charu Joglekar, and Samantha Kellingray. 2003. Neonatal anthropometry: the thin-fat Indian baby: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. International Journal of Obesity 27:173–180.']
  • ['Yang, Jian, Beben Benyamin, Brian P. McEvoy, Scott Gordon, Anjali K. Henders, Dale R. Nyholt, Pamela A. Madden, et al. 2010. Common SNPs explain a large proportion of the heritability for human height. Nature Genetics 42:565–569.']
  • ['Youngson, Neil A., and Emma Whitelaw. 2008. Transgenerational epigenetic effects. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 9:233–257.']
  • ['Zafon, Carles. 2007. Oscillations in total body fat content through life: an evolutionary perspective. Obesity Reviews 8:525–530.']
  • ['Zera, Anthony J., and Lawrence G. Harshman. 2001. The physiology of life history trade-offs in animals. Annual Review of Ecological Systems 32:95–126.']
  • ['Zera, Anthony J., and Zhangwu Zhao. 2003. Life-history evolution and the microevolution of intermediary metabolism: activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes in life-history morphs of a wing-dimorphic cricket. Evolution 573:586–596.']
  • ['Ziegler, Toni E., Shelley L. Prudom, Nancy J. Schultz-Darken, Aimee V. Kurian, and Charles T. Snowdon. 2006. Pregnancy weight gain: marmoset and tamarin dads show it too. Biology Letters 2:181–183.']