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Association between Preoperative Statin Therapy and Postoperative Infectious Complications in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Imad M. Tleyjeh MD MSc, Faisal A. Alasmari MD, Aref A. Bin Abdulhak MD, Muhammad Riaz MSc, Musa A. Garbati MD, Patricia J. Erwin MLS, Tarek Kashour MD, Mouaz H. Al-Mallah MD MSc and Larry M. Baddour MD
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Vol. 33, No. 11 (November 2012), pp. 1143-1151
DOI: 10.1086/668019
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/668019
Page Count: 9
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Association between Preoperative Statin Therapy and Postoperative Infectious Complications in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
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Abstract

Infectious complications of cardiac surgery are often severe and life threatening. Statins having both immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects were intuitively thought to influence the development of postsurgical infections. We sought to systematically examine whether any association exists between statin use and risk of infectious complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Thomson Scientific Web of Science, and Elsevier Scopus from inception through February 2011 for comparative studies examining the association between statin use and risk of postoperative infections in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We contacted a study’s author for missing information. We conducted a random-effects meta-analysis of individual studies’ odds ratios (adjusted for potential confounders). We identified 6 cohort studies for inclusion, 3 of which were conducted in Canada and 3 of which were conducted in the United States. Four were single-center studies, and 2 were population based. Exposure ascertainment was based on a review of admission medication list or prescription databases. Infectious outcomes were heterogeneous and included surgical site infections within 30 days, serious infections (sepsis), or any other postoperative infection. Statin use in the preoperative period was associated with a trend toward reduction in the incidence of postoperative infections in patients who underwent cardiac surgery (odds ratio, 0.81 [95% confidence interval, 0.64–1.01]; ; ). Heterogeneity was explained by country effect. Studies performed in Canada showed weaker associations than studies performed in the United States. This difference could not be attributed to study quality alone. We did not find good evidence to support an association between statin use and postoperative infectious complications. However, the trend toward statistical significance for this association indicates that further investigation is warranted.

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