You are not currently logged in.

Access your personal account or get JSTOR access through your library or other institution:


Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

Burning the Land: An Ethnographic Study of Off-Site Fire Use by Current and Historically Documented Foragers and Implications for the Interpretation of Past Fire Practices in the Landscape

Fulco Scherjon, Corrie Bakels, Katharine MacDonald and Wil Roebroeks
Current Anthropology
Vol. 56, No. 3 (June 2015), pp. 299-326
DOI: 10.1086/681561
Stable URL:
Page Count: 28
  • Download PDF
  • Cite this Item
Burning the Land
We're having trouble loading this content. Download PDF instead.


Archaeological indications for off-site burning by late Pleistocene and early Holocene hunter-gatherers present intransigent interpretive problems; by contrast, burning practices by recent hunter-gatherers are well documented. Here, we present a systematic global inventory of extant burning practices—including the reasons for burning and the environmental setting of firing activities—and also discuss their visibility in the archaeological record. This inventory is based on ethnographic and historical texts. In historical times, off-site fire was used for a wide range of purposes, irrespective of age and gender, with significant advantages for its producers. While the reasons given for burning can vary between individuals, in the longer term, many hunter-gatherer firing practices created more mosaic types of environments than would have occurred naturally. The historical visibility of hunter-gatherer burning activities contrasts with the relative invisibility of such practices in the contemporary archaeological record, highlighting the difficulty of analyzing past use of fire. On the basis of its ethnographic importance, we suggest that diverse off-site fire use is as old as the regular use of fire. New multiproxy data from well-sampled sequences, analyzed at a local scale, is needed to test this hypothesis.

Notes and References

This item contains 127 references.

References Cited
  • ['Aldeias, V., P. Goldberg, D. M. Sandgathe, F. Berna, H. L. Dibble, S. P. McPherron, R. Zeljko. 2012. Evidence for Neandertal use of fire at Roc de Marsal (France). Journal of Archaeological Science 39(7):2414–2423. [DMS]']
  • ['Anderson, Kat M. 2005. Tending the wild: Native American knowledge and the management of California’s natural resources. University of California Press, Berkeley. [RBB/DWB]']
  • ['———. 2014. Introduction to: Barriers to understanding the influence of use of fire by Aborigines on vegetation. Fire Ecology 10(2):1–9. [RBB/DWB]']
  • ['Anderson, Kat M., and Frank K. Lake. 2013. California Indian ethnomycology and associated forest management. Journal of Ethnobiology 33(1):33–85. [RBB/DWB]']
  • ['Arora, Vivek K., and George J. Boer. 2005. Fire as an interactive component of dynamic vegetation models. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 110(G2):G02008.']
  • ['Ascough, P. L., M. I. Bird, A. C. Scott, M. E. Collinson, I. Cohen-Ofri, C. E. Snape, and K. Le Manquais. 2010. Charcoal reflectance measurements: implications for structural characterization and assessment of diagenetic alteration. Journal of Archaeological Science 37:1590–1599. [RC]']
  • ['Bakels, Corrie C. 2014. A reconstruction of the vegetation in and around the Neumark-Nord 2 basin, based on a pollen diagram from the key section HP7 supplemented by section HP10. In Multidisciplinary studies of the Middle Palaeolithic record from Neumark-Nord (Germany), vol. 1. S. Gaudzinski-Windheuser and W. Roebroeks, eds. Pp. 97–107. Halle: LDASA.']
  • ['Bird, Douglas W., Rebecca L. Bliege Bird, and Charles H. Parker. 2005. Aboriginal burning regimes and hunting strategies in Australia’s western desert. Human Ecology 33(4):443–464.']
  • ['Black, M. P., S. D. Mooney, and S. G. Haberle. 2007. The fire, human and climate nexus in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia. Holocene 17:465–78.[RC]']
  • ['Black, M. P., and M. Scott. 2007. The response of Aboriginal burning practices to population levels and El Niño–Southern Oscillation events during the mid- to late-Holocene: a case study from the Sydney Basin using charcoal and pollen analysis. Australian Geographer 38:1:37–52. [RC]']
  • ['Bliege Bird, Rebecca, Douglas W. Bird, Brian F. Codding, C. H. Parker, and J. H. Jones. 2008. The “fire stick farming” hypothesis: Australian Aboriginal foraging strategies, biodiversity, and anthropogenic fire mosaics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105(39):14796–14801.']
  • ['Bliege Bird, Rebecca, Nyalangka Tayor, Brian F. Codding, and Douglas W. Bird. 2013. Niche construction and Dreaming logic: Aboriginal patch mosaic burning and varanid lizards (Varanus gouldii) in Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280(1772):20132297–20132297.']
  • ['Bowman, D. M. J. S. 2014. What is the relevance of pyrogeography to the Anthropocene? Anthropocene Review, doi:10.1177/2053019614547742. [DMJSB]']
  • ['Bowman, David M. J. S., Jennifer K. Balch, Paulo Artaxo, William J. Bond, Jean M. Carlson, Mark A. Cochrane, Carla M. D’Antonio, et al. 2009. Fire in the earth system. Science 324:481–484. [RC]']
  • ['Bowman, David M. J. S., Jennifer Balch, Paulo Artaxo, William J. Bond, Mark A. Cochrane, Carla M. D’Antonio, Ruth DeFries, et al. 2011. The human dimension of fire regimes on Earth. Journal of Biogeography 38:2223–2236. [BJM]']
  • ['Braadbaart, Freek, Imogen Poole, Hans D. J. Huisman, and Bertil van Os. 2012. Fuel, fire and heat: an experimental approach to highlight the potential of studying ash and char remains from archaeological contexts. Journal of Archaeological Science 39(4):836–847.']
  • ['Braadbaart, Freek, Imogen Poole, and Ton A. N. van Brussel. 2009. Preservation potential of charcoal in alkaline environments: an experimental approach and implications for the archaeological record. Journal of Archaeological Science 36:1672–1679.']
  • ['Carmody, Rachel N., and Richard W. Wrangham. 2009. The energetic significance of cooking. Journal of Human Evolution 57(4):379–391. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Cooper, John M. 1946. The Yahgan. In Handbook of South American Indians, vol. 1, The marginal tribes. J. H. Stewart, ed. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.']
  • ['Cosgrove, R. 2005. Coping with noxious nuts. Nature Australia 28(6):47–53. [RC]']
  • ['Daniau, Anne-Laure, Francesco D’Errico, and Maria Fernanda Sánchez Goñi. 2010. Testing the hypothesis of fire use for ecosystem management by Neanderthal and Upper Palaeolithic modern human populations. PLoS ONE 5(2):e9157.']
  • ['di Folco, Maj-Britt, and James B. Kirkpatrick. 2013. Organic soils provide evidence of spatial variation in human-induced vegetation change following European occupation of Tasmania. Journal of Biogeography 40(1):197–205.']
  • ['Dominy, Nathaniel J., Erin R. Vogel, Justin D. Yeakel, Paul Constantino, and Peter W. Lucas. 2008. Mechanical properties of plant underground storage organs and implications for dietary models of early hominins. Evolutionary Biology 35(3):159–175. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Elias, V. O., B. R. T. Simoneit, R. C. Cordeiro, and B. Turcq. 2001. Evaluating levoglucosan as an indicator of biomass burning in Carajas, Amazonia: a comparison to the charcoal record. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65(2):267–272.']
  • ['Ember, Carol R., and Melvin Ember. 2001. Cross-cultural research methods. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira.']
  • ['Emlen, J. Merritt. 1966. The role of time and energy in food preference. American Naturalist 100:611–617. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Enright, N., and I. Thomas 2008. Pre-European fire regimes in Australian ecoysystems. Geography Compass 24:979–1011. [RC]']
  • ['Fletcher, Michael-Shawn, and Ian Thomas. 2010. A Holocene record of sea level, vegetation, people and fire from western Tasmania, Australia. Holocene 20(3):351–361.']
  • ['Gammage, Bill. 2008. Plain facts: Tasmania under Aboriginal management. Landscape Research 33(2):241–254.']
  • ['———. 2011. The biggest estate on earth: how aborigines made Australia. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.']
  • ['Gaudzinski-Windheuser, S., and W. Roebroeks, eds. 2014. Multidisciplinary studies of the Middle Palaeolithic record from Neumark-Nord (Germany), vol. 1. Halle: LDASA.']
  • ["Glover, J. 1835. A catalogue of sixty eight pictures descriptive of the scenery and customs of the inhabitants of Van Dieman's Land. London: Snell."]
  • ['Goldberg, P., H. L. Dibble, F. Berna, D. M. Sandgathe, S. McPherron, and A. Turq. 2012. New evidence on Neandertal use of fire: examples from Roc de Marsal and Pech de l’Azé IV. Quaternary International 247:325–340. [DMS]']
  • ['Gould, Richard A. 1971. Use and effects of fire among the Western Desert aborigines of Australia. Mankind 8(1):14–24.']
  • ['Gowlett, John A. J., and Richard W. Wrangham. 2013. Earliest fire in Africa: towards the convergence of archaeological evidence and the cooking hypothesis. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 48(1):5–30.']
  • ['Granström, Anders, and Mats Niklasson. 2008. Potentials and limitations for human control over historic fire regimes in the boreal forest. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 363(1501):2353–2358.']
  • ['Haberle, S. G., S. Rule, P. Roberts, H. Hiejnis, G. Jacobsen, C. Turney, R. Cosgrove, A. Ferrier, P. Moss, and S. Mooney. 2010. Paleofire in the wet tropics of northeast Queensland, Australia. Past Global Changes 18(2):78–80. [RC]']
  • ['Haberle, S. G. 2005. A 23,000-yr pollen record from Lake Euramoo, wet tropics of NE. Queensland, Australia. Quaternary Research 64:343–356. [RC]']
  • ['Haberle, S. G., and B. David. 2004. Climates of change: human dimensions of Holocene environmental change in low latitudes of the PEPII transect. Quaternary International 118/119:165–179. [RC]']
  • ['Hallam, S. J. 1975. Fire and hearth: a study of Aboriginal usage and European usurpation in south-western Australia. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies. [RC]']
  • ['———. 2014. Fire and hearth: a study of Aboriginal usage and European usurpation in south-western Australia. Revised ed. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies. [RC]']
  • ['Hankins, Don L. 2013. The effects of indigenous prescribed fire on riparian vegetation in Central California. Ecological Processes 2(1):1–9. [RBB/DWB]']
  • ['Hart, Charles William Merton, and Arnold R. Pilling. 1961. The Tiwi of North Australia. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.']
  • ['Hassell, C. W., and J. R. Dodson. 2003. The fire history of south-west Western Australia prior to European settlement in 1826–1829. In Fire in ecosystems of south-west Western Australia: impacts and management. I. Abbott and N. Burrows, eds. Leiden: Backhuys.']
  • ['Hawkes, Kristen, and James F. O’Connell. 1992. On optimal foraging models and subsistence transitions. Current Anthropology 33(1):63–66. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Hawkes, Kristen, and James E. Coxworth. 2013. Grandmothers and the evolution of human longevity: a review of findings and future directions. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 22(6):294–302. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Herzog, Nicole M., Earl R. Keefe, Christopher H. Parker, and Kristen Hawkes. Forthcoming. What’s burning got to do with it? foraging opportunities for savanna-dwelling vervet monkeys in fire-modified landscapes. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Herzog, Nicole M., Christopher H. Parker, Earl R. Keefe, James Coxworth, Alan Barrett, and Kristen Hawkes. 2014. Fire and home range expansion: a behavioral response to burning among savanna dwelling vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 154(4):554–560.']
  • ['Holdaway, Simon J., Matthew J. Douglass, and Patricia C. Fanning. 2012. Landscape scale and human mobility: geoarchaeological evidence from Rutherfords Creek, New South Wales, Australia. In Landscape archaeology between art and science from a multi- to an interdisciplinary approach. Sjoerd J. Kluiving and Erika B. Guttmann-Bond, eds. Pp. 279–294. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. [SH/HA]']
  • ['———. 2013. A new ecological framework for understanding human environment interactions in arid Australia. In Archaeology in environment and technology intersections and transformations. by D. Frankel, S. Lawrence, and J. Webb, eds. Melbourne: Routledge.']
  • ['Huffman, M. R. 2013. The many elements of traditional fire knowledge: synthesis, classification, and aids to cross-cultural problem solving in fire-dependent systems around the world. Ecology and Society 18:3. [DMJSB]']
  • ['Innes, J., J. F. Blackford, and I. G. Simmons. 2011. Mesolithic environments at Star Carr, the eastern Vale of Pickering and environs: local and regional contexts. Journal of Wetland Archaeology 11:85–108.']
  • ['Jaffe, Karin Enstam, and Lynne A. Isbell. 2009. After the fire: benefits of reduced ground cover for vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). American Journal of Primatology 71(3):252–260. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Jandt, Randy R., Kyle Joly, C. Randy Meyers, and Charles Racine. 2008. Slow recovery of lichen on burned caribou winter range in Alaska tundra: potential influences of climate warming and other disturbance factors. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 40(1):89–95.']
  • ['Joly, Kyle, T. Scott Rupp, Randy R. Jandt, and F. S. Chapin III. 2009. Fire in the range of the Western Arctic caribou herd. Alaska Park Science 8(2):68–73.']
  • ['Jones, Rhys. 1969. Fire-stick farming. Australian Natural History 16(7):224–228.']
  • ['Kaal, Joeri, Felipe Criado-Boado, Manuela Costa-Casais, José Antonio López-Sáez, Lourdes López-Merino, Tim Mighall, Yolanda Carrión, Noemí Silva Sánchez, and Antonio Martínez Cortizas. 2013. Prehistoric land use at an archaeological hotspot (the rock art park of Campo Lameiro, NW Spain) inferred from charcoal, synanthropic pollen and non-pollen palynomorph proxies. Journal of Archaeological Science 40:1518–1527.']
  • ['Kelly, Robert L. 1995. The foraging spectrum: diversity in hunter-gatherer lifeways. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.']
  • ['Kelly, Robert L., Todd A. Surovell, Bryan N. Shuman, and Geoffrey M. Smith. 2013. A continuous climatic impact on Holocene human population in the Rocky Mountains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 110(2):443–447.']
  • ['Kim, Peter S., James E. Coxworth, and Kristen Hawkes. 2012. Increased longevity evolves from grandmothering. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 279(1749):4880–4884. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Kim, Peter S., John S. McQueen, James E. Coxworth, and Kristen Hawkes. 2014. Grandmothering drives the evolution of longevity in a probabilistic model. Journal of Theoretical Biology 353:84–94.']
  • ['MacArthur, Robert H., and Eric R. Pianka. 1966. On optimal use of a patchy environment. American Naturalist 100:603–609. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Laland, Kevin N., John Odling-Smee, and Marcus W. Feldman. 2000. Niche construction, biological evolution, and cultural change. Behavioural and Brain Sciences 23(1):131–175.']
  • ['Lancy, David F. 1996. Playing on the mother ground: cultural routines for children’s development. New York: Guilford.']
  • ['Laris, Paul. 2002. Burning the seasonal mosaic: preventative burning strategies in the wooded savanna of southern Mali. Human Ecology 30(2):155–186.']
  • ['Lee, Richard B. 1979. The !Kung San: men, women and work in a foraging society. New York: Cambridge University Press.']
  • ['Lewis, Henry T. 1972. The role of fire in the domestication of plants and animals in Southwest Asia: a hypothesis. Man 7(2):195–222. [RBB/DWB]']
  • ['———, ed. 1973. Patterns of Indian burning in California: ecology and ethnohistory. Ballena Anthropological Papers 1. Madison: University of Wisconsin, Ballena. [RBB/DWB]']
  • ['Lightfoot, Kent G., Rob Q. Cuthrell, Cristie M. Boone, Roger Byrne, Andreas S. Chavez, Laurel Collins, Alicia Cowart, et al. 2013a. Anthropogenic burning on the Central California coast in Late Holocene and Early historical times: findings, implications, and future directions. California Archaeology 5(2):371–390. [RBB/DWB]']
  • ['Lightfoot, Kent G., Rob Q. Cuthrell, Chuck J. Striplen, and Mark G. Hylkema. 2013b. Rethinking the study of landscape management practices among hunter-gatherers in North America. American Antiquity 78(2):285–301. [RBB/DWB]']
  • ['Lynch, A. H., J. Beringer, P. Kershaw, A. Marshall, S. Mooney, N. Tapper, C. Turney, and S. Van Der Kaars 2007. Using the paleorecord to evaluate climate and fire interactions in Australia. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 35:215–39.[RC]']
  • ['Marlon, Jennifer R., Patrick J. Bartlein, Daniel G. Gavin, Colin J. Long, R. Scott Anderson, Christy E. Briles, Kendrick J. Brown, et al. 2012. Long-term perspective on wildfires in the western USA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109(9):E535–E543.']
  • ['Mellars, Paul, and Petra Dark. 1998. Star Carr in context: new archaeological and palaeoecolgical investigations at the early Mesolithic site of Star Carr, North Yorkshire. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archeological Research.']
  • ['Mills, Barbara. 1986. Prescribed burning and hunter-gatherer subsistence systems. Haliksa’i: UNM Contributions to Anthropology 5:1–26.']
  • ['Mistry, Jayalaxshmi, Andrea Berardi, Valeria Andrade, Txicaprô Krahô, Phocrok Krahô, and Othon Leonardos. 2005. Indigenous fire management in the cerrado of Brazil: the case of the Krahô of Tocantíns. Human Ecology 33(3):365–386.']
  • ['Mooney, S. D., S. P. Harrison, P. J. Bartlein, A.-L. Daniau, J. Stevenson, K. C. Brownlie, S. Buckman, et al. 2011. Late Quaternary fire regimes of Australasia. Quaternary Science Reviews 30(1/2):28–46.']
  • ['Mooney, S. D., S. P. Harrison, P. J. Bartlein, and J. Stevenson 2012. The prehistory of fire in Australasia. In Flammable Australia: fire regimes, biodiversity and ecosystems in a changing world. R. A. Bradstock, A. M. Gill, and R. J. Williams, eds. Pp. 3–25. Collingwood: CSIRO. [RC]']
  • ['Morton, S. R., D. M. S. Smith, C. R. Dickman, D. L. Dunkerley, M. H. Friedel, R. R. J. McAllister, J. R. W. Reid, et al. 2011. A fresh framework for the ecology of arid Australia. Journal of Arid Environments 75(4):313–329.']
  • ['Murphy, B. P., and D. M. J. S. Bowman. 2012. What controls the distribution of tropical forest and savanna? Ecology Letters 15:748–758. [RC]']
  • ['Neale, Timothy. 2012. Review of The Biggest Estate on Earth by Bill Gammage. Arena Magazine (116):51–52.']
  • ['Newcomb, William W. 1956. The culture and acculturation of the Delaware Indians. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.']
  • ['O’Connell, James F., Kristen Hawkes, and Nicholas G. Blurton Jones. 1999. Grandmothering and the evolution of Homo erectus. Journal of Human Evolution 36(5):461–485. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Oka, K., A. Sakuarae, T. Fujise, H. Yoshimatsu, T. Sakata, and M. Nakata. 2003. Food texture differences affect energy metabolism in rats. Journal of Dental Research 82(6):491–494. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Parker, Christopher H., Earl R. Keefe, Nicole M. Herzog, James F. O’Connell, and Kristen Hawkes. 2014. The pyrophilic primate hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology (submitted). [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Pop, Eduard, and Corrie Bakels. 2015. Semi-open environmental conditions during phases of hominin occupation at the Eemian Interglacial basin site Neumark-Nord 2 and its wider environment. Quaternary Science Reviews 117:72–81.']
  • ['Posey, Darrell Addison. 1985. Indigenous management of tropical forest ecosystems: the case of the Kayapó Indians of the Brazilian Amazon. Agroforestry Systems 3:139–158.']
  • ['Potts, Richard. 2011. Evolution: big brains explained. Nature 480(7375):43–44.']
  • ['Pruetz, Jill D., and Thomas C. LaDuke. 2010. Reaction to fire by savanna chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) at Fongoli, Senegal: conceptualization of “fire behavior” and the case for a chimpanzee model. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 141(4):646–650.']
  • ['Rick, Torben C., John S. Wah, and Jon M. Erlandson. 2012. Re-evaluating the origins of late Pleistocene fire areas on Santa Rosa Island, California, USA. Quaternary Research 78(2):353–362.']
  • ['Rodríguez, Iokiñe. 2007. Pemón perspectives of fire management in Canaima National Park, Southeastern Venezuela. Human Ecology 35:331–343.']
  • ['Roebroeks, Wil, and Corrie C. Bakels. 2015. “Forest furniture” or “forest managers”? Neandertal presence in Last Interglacial environments. In Settlement, Society and Cognition in Human Evolution: Landscapes in Mind. F. Wenban-Smith, F. Coward, R. Hosfield, and M. Poe, eds. Pp. 174–188. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.']
  • ['Roebroeks, Wil, Nicholas J. Conard, and Thijs van Kolfschoten. 1992. Dense forests, cold steppes, and the Palaeolithic settlement of Northern Europe. Current Anthropology 33(5):551–586.']
  • ['Roebroeks, Wil, and Paola Villa. 2011a. On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108(13):5209–5214.']
  • ['———. 2011b. Reply to Sandgathe et al.: Neandertal use of fire. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108(29):E299–E299. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Rolland, Nicolas. 2004. Was the emergence of home bases and domestic fire a punctuated event? a review of the Middle Pleistocene record in Eurasia. Asian Perspectives 43(2):248–280.']
  • ['Roos, Christopher I. 2008. Fire, climate, and social-ecological systems in the ancient Southwest: alluvial geoarchaeology and applied historical ecology. PhD dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms. [BJM]']
  • ['Roos, Christopher I., D. M. J. S. Bowman, J. K. Balch, P. Artaxo, W. J. Bond, M. Cochrane, C. M. D’Antonio, et al. 2014. Pyrogeography, historical ecology, and the human dimensions of fire regimes. Journal of Biogeography 41:833–836. [DMJSB]']
  • ['Roos, Christopher I., Alan P. Sullivan III, and Calla McNamee. 2010. Paleoecological evidence for systematic indigenous burning in the upland Southwest. In The archaeology of anthropogenic environments. Rebecca M. Dean, ed. Pp. 142–171. Center for Archaeological Investigations Occasional Paper 37. Carbondale: Southern Illionois University. [BJM]']
  • ['Rose, Deborah Bird. 1995. Country in flames: Proceedings of the 1994 symposium on biodiversity and fire in North Australia. Biodiversity Series Paper 3. Biodiversity Unit and Australian National University. [RC]']
  • ['Rowley-Conwy, Peter, and Robert Layton. 2011. Foraging and farming as niche construction: stable and unstable adaptations. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366(1566):849–862.']
  • ['Ruff, Christopher B., Erik Trinkaus, and Trenton W. Holliday. 1997. Body mass and encephalization in Pleistocene Homo. Nature 387(6629):173–176.']
  • ['Salzmann, Ulrich. 2000. Are modern savannas degraded forests? a Holocene pollen record from the Sudanian vegetation zone of NE Nigeria. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 9:1–15.']
  • ['Sandgathe, Dennis M., Harold L. Dibble, Paul Goldberg, Shannon P. McPherron, Alain Turq, Laura Niven, and Jamie Hodgkins. 2011a. On the role of fire in Neandertal adaptations in western Europe: evidence from Pech de l’Azé IV and Roc de Marsal, France. PaleoAnthropology 2011:216–242. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH, DMS]']
  • ['———. 2011b. Timing of the appearance of habitual fire use. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108(29):E298.']
  • ['Sannikov, S. N., and J. G. Goldammer. 1996. Fire ecology of pine forests of northern Eurasia. In Fire in Ecosystems of Boreal Eurasia. J. G. Goldammer and V. V. Furyaev, eds. Dordrecht: Kluwer.']
  • ['Scott, A. C. 2010. Charcoal recognition, taphonomy and uses in palaeoenvironmental analysis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 291:11–39. [RC]']
  • ['Scott, A. C., D. M. J. S. Bowman, W. J. Bond, S. J. Pyne, and M. E. Alexander. 2014. Fire on earth: an introduction. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. [DMJSB]']
  • ['Shimelmitz, Ron, Steven L. Kuhn, Arthur J. Jelinek, Avraham Ronen, Amy E. Clark, and Mina Weinstein-Evron. 2014 “Fire at will”: the emergence of habitual fire use 350,000 years ago. Journal of Human Evolution 77:196–203.']
  • ['Sier, Mark J., Wil Roebroeks, Corrie C. Bakels, Mark J. Dekkers, Enrico Brühl, Dimitri De Loecker, Sabine Gaudzinski-Windheuser, et al. 2011. Direct terrestrial-marine correlation demonstrates surprisingly late onset of the last interglacial in central Europe. Quaternary Research 75(1):213–218.']
  • ['Smith, Bruce D. 2011. General patterns of niche construction and the management of “wild” plant and animal resources by small-scale pre-industrial societies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 366(1566):836–848.']
  • ['Smith, Eric Alden, and Mark Wishnie. 2000. Conservation and subsistence in small-scale societies. Annual Review of Anthropology 29:493–524.']
  • ['Steinberger, L. M. M. 2014. Hands in pockets: cultural environments of the Atherton Tableland of the past 1,500 years. PhD thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane. [RC]']
  • ['Stephens, David W. 2008. Decision ecology: foraging and the ecology of animal decision making. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience 8(4):475–484. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Stephens, David W., and J. R. Krebs. 1986. Foraging theory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Stevenson, Matilda Coxe. 1904. The Zuni Indians: their mythology, esoteric fraternaties, and ceremonies. 23rd Annual report of the U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology, 1901–1902. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. [BJM]']
  • ['Stewart, Omer C. 1963. Barriers to understanding the influence of use of fire by aborigines on vegetation. In Proceedings of the 2nd Tall Timbers fire ecology conference. Edwin V. Komarek, ed. Pp. 117–126. Tallahassee, FL: Tall Timbers Research Station. Reprinted in 2014 Fire Ecology 10(2):1–9. [RBB/DWB]']
  • ['———C. 2002. Forgotten fires: Native Americans and the transient wilderness. H. T. Lewis and M. K. Andersen, eds. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.']
  • ['Talbot, Lee Merriam. 1964. Ecology of western Masailand, east Africa. Vol. 5. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms.']
  • ['Turner, Nancy. 1999. “Time to burn”: traditional use of fire to enhance resource production by Aboriginal peoples in British Columbia. In Indians, fire, and the land. Robert Boyd, ed. Pp. 185–218. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.[DMS]']
  • ['Twomey, Terence. 2013. The cognitive implications of controlled fire use by early humans. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 23(1):113–128.']
  • ['Wang, Mingyu, Shu Lifu, Zhao Fengjun, and Tian Xiaorui. 2006. Reed fires in Zhalong Nature Wetland Reserve in Heilongjiang Province. International Forest Fire News 34:85–88.']
  • ['Whitlock, C., P. E. Higuera, D. B. McWethy, and C. E. Briles 2010b. Paleoecological perspectives on fire ecology: revisiting the fire-regime concept. Open Ecology Journal 3:6–23. [RC]']
  • ['Whitlock, C., W. Tinner, L. Newman and T. Kiefer, eds. 2010a. Fire in the earth system: a palaeoperspective. Past Global Changes 18(2). [RC]']
  • ['Wrangham, Richard. 2007. The cooking enigma. In Evolution of the human diet: the known, the unknown, and the unknowable. P. S. Ungar, ed. Pp. 308–323. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Wrangham, Richard. 2009. Catching fire: how cooking made us human. New York: Basic Books.']
  • ['Wrangham, Richard, and Rachel Carmody. 2010. Human adaptation to the control of fire. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews 19(5):187–199. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']
  • ['Wrangham, Richard, and Nancy Lou Conklin-Brittain. 2003. Cooking as a biological trait. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 136(1):35–46. [CHP/NMH/ERK/JFO/KH]']