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Handbook of Engaged Scholarship: Contemporary Landscapes, Future Directions: Volume 1: Institutional Change

Hiram E. Fitzgerald
Cathy Burack
Sarena D. Seifer
Copyright Date: 2010
Pages: 488
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.14321/j.ctt7ztb0c
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  • Book Info
    Handbook of Engaged Scholarship
    Book Description:

    In the preface to theHandbook of Engaged Scholarship, Hiram Fitzgerald observes that the Kellogg Commission's challenge to higher education to engage with communities was a significant catalyst for action. At Michigan State University, the response was the development of "engaged scholarship," a distinctive, scholarly approach to campus-community partnerships.Engaged scholars recognize that community based scholarship is founded on an underpinning of mutual respect and recognition that community knowledge is valid and that sustainability is an integral part of the partnership agenda.In this two-volume collection, contributors capture the rich diversity of institutions and partnerships that characterize the contemporary landscape and the future of engaged scholarship. Volume One addresses such issues as the application of engaged scholarship across types of colleges and universities and the current state of the movement. Volume Two contains essays on such topics as current typologies, measuring effectiveness and accreditation, community-campus partnership development, national organizational models, and the future landscape.

    eISBN: 978-1-60917-195-7
    Subjects: Education
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. vii-x)
  3. Foreword
    (pp. xi-xvi)
    James C. Votruba

    Over the past twenty years there has developed within American higher education a rich conversation concerning how colleges and universities can better utilize their vast knowledge resources to support public progress. Beyond the production of graduates, what is the value-added that we bring to such public goals as strengthening economic competitiveness, improving P–12 education, enhancing health care, and a host of other challenges that confront our nation and its communities? What form should this public engagement take? Who should be involved? How can this involvement contribute to our mission to educate students and produce cutting-edge research? The contributors to...

  4. PART 1. THE EMERGING MOVEMENT
    • The Emerging Movement
      (pp. 3-8)
      Ann E. Austin

      A handbook that examines engaged scholarship has the responsibility to look at the issue from many perspectives. A good starting point for understanding most phenomena is to consider definitions, context, and history, and this first part of this handbook takes up these very issues. Across the chapters, the authors consider what engaged scholarship means, taking care to acknowledge that the concept is enriched by recognizing various perspectives. They agree that core elements of the definition include connections between higher education institutions and their communities, attention to collaboration and reciprocal learning and benefits, and the relevance of engaged scholarship to teaching,...

    • Engaged Scholarship: Historical Roots, Contemporary Challenges
      (pp. 9-24)
      Chris R. Glass and Hiram E. Fitzgerald

      During the past twenty-five years, repeated efforts have been made to stimulate American higher education to more actively engage with society. Foundations and national organizations have provided leadership by creating commissions, issuing reports, and sponsoring visioning conferences. As part of its collective civic mission, America’s higher education system has been challenged to partner with communities, organizations, schools, businesses and industries, government agencies, and funding agencies to address a wide range of societal problems and more actively engage with the open democratic society that supports the system.

      This more active relationship has generated a fresh vision about the democratic purposes of...

    • History of the Scholarship of Engagement Movement
      (pp. 25-38)
      David Cox

      Loosely defined, history is a narrative, a record through time often accompanied by an explanation of that time. That narrative may come in many forms. Presented as biography or autobiography, history is viewed through the lens of a person. Approached as an event, history may be seen as the unfolding of a conflict or an idea or ideology. Explored as a particular period of time, history may be presented as an era of economic plenty or upheaval. Focused on an institution, history may be the story of a nation or an organization.

      Biography, events, period of time, and institutions all...

    • Defining the “Engagement” in the Scholarship of Engagement
      (pp. 39-54)
      Kelly Ward and Tami L. Moore

      The word “engagement” has many meanings and definitions within higher education. Engagement is typically used to refer to different aspects of campus and community partnership: that is, to engage with the community. It is also a term that has been used to refer to student involvement and campus and community environments, as in student engagement with academic and civic activities. It is also a way to describe faculty work, as in faculty participation in engaged scholarship. When we talk about engagement in this chapter, we mean specifically interactions between faculty, students, administrators, or other professional staff members on a given...

    • Toward a Social Justice-Centered Engaged Scholarship: A Public and a Private Good
      (pp. 55-70)
      Tony Chambers and Bryan Gopaul

      Throughout the history of higher education in the United States, there has been an ongoing debate about the role of higher education’s contribution to a “just” society. In spite of the high participation rate in U.S. higher education, college goers still represent a relatively small number/percentage of the U.S. population. Further, if we consider the number of higher education graduates and those within certain population demographic groups (i.e., low income, students of color, first generation, etc.), the relative proportion of those acquiring the full benefit of a college education dwindles even further. Questions central to the debate include: How does...

    • Ernest Boyer and the Scholarship of Engagement
      (pp. 71-92)
      John M. Braxton and William Luckey

      In his influential work in 1990, Ernest Boyer introduced us to his four domains of scholarship—the scholarship of discovery, the scholarship of integration, the scholarship of application, and the scholarship of teaching. After a three-year battle with cancer just fifty-eight days before his death, Boyer delivered a compelling speech to a room full of educators at the Induction Ceremony of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In his parting words of wisdom, Boyer stated his firm belief in our colleges and universities as our greatest hope for intellectual and civic progress for this nation. He...

  5. PART 2. ACROSS THE HIGHER EDUCATION LANDSCAPE
    • Across the Higher Education Landscape
      (pp. 95-98)
      Hiram E. Fitzgerald

      Although changes in higher education often appear to be implemented slowly, in America this impression must be tempered by the development of the country as a whole. In 1636, Harvard College became America’s first institution of higher education. Soon thereafter the College of William and Mary was founded (1693), followed during the 1700s by a number of sectarian and religiously affiliated (Puritan, Moravian, Presbyterian, Disciples of Christ, Church of England, Baptist, and Catholic) colonial colleges. However, during the 1800s the face of America’s higher education system was to change rather dramatically. The Organic Act of 1837 officially established the University...

    • Engaged Scholarship in Land-Grant and Research Universities
      (pp. 99-118)
      Lou Anna Kimsey Simon

      Throughout our nation’s history, the challenges and opportunities inherent in monumental economic and demographic shifts have fueled fundamental changes in the shared covenant between institutions of higher education and the public they serve. Today, our nation must transform from a manufacturing-based, national economy into a knowledge-based, global economy well positioned in the green revolution, generating national capacity to light our future (Friedman, 2008) in new and innovative ways. Further, we must both meet these challenges and create opportunities in the midst of national and global economic and social stresses (Duderstadt, 2000; Duderstadt & Womack, 2003; Wegner, 2008; Zemsky, Wegner, &...

    • Engaged Scholarship and the Urban University
      (pp. 119-130)
      Matthew Hartley and Ira Harkavy

      As other chapters in this volume have underscored, the civic aims of American colleges and universities extend back to their origins. This is certainly true for urban universities. With the addition of a medical school in 1765, the University of Pennsylvania became America’s first university. Penn was, of course, founded by Benjamin Franklin as the Academy of Philadelphia in 1740 in the largest and arguably the most important city in the American colonies. In 1749, Franklin published a pamphlet entitled “Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania [sic],” and in it he articulated a vision of an institution...

    • Student Engagement in Liberal Arts Colleges: Academic Rigor, Quality Teaching, Diversity, and Institutional Change
      (pp. 131-148)
      Scott VanderStoep, Kathleen S. Wise and Charles Blaich

      In this chapter, we explore the elements of a liberal arts education that have been shown to produce high student engagement. In the first section of the chapter we summarize the components that have been shown to maximize student engagement identified in the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education (WNSLAE). The WNSLAE is emerging as the authoritative study of best practices that produce high levels of student achievement, motivation, and engagement. In the second part of the chapter we explore specific measures for which we believe liberal arts institutions should show higher percentages of students scoring high on the...

    • Faculty Engagement in the Community Colleges: Constructing a New Ecology of Learning
      (pp. 149-164)
      Robert W. Franco

      The following perspective on engagement in America’s community colleges is shaped by more than thirty years as a practicing ecological anthropologist deeply concerned about the condition of new Samoan and Pacific Islander immigrants as they adapt to life in American cities. These “new neighbors” (MacPherson, Shore, & Franco, 1977) have unique and deep cultural and linguistic traditions shaped by sustaining and evolving cultures on distant islands, but they experience many of the same challenges that American minorities and immigrants have faced for centuries.

      Most Asian immigrant groups originally came to the United States as immigrant labor in the late nineteenth...

    • Civic Engagement at Faith-Based Institutions
      (pp. 165-180)
      John W. Eby

      One does not have to believe in a particular religion or be religious at all to recognize the important role religion plays in society. Many individuals use religious values to make important decisions. Society looks to religion for a moral base. Religious institutions exert significant influence on society. Nevertheless, higher education doesn’t know how to deal with religion. Lee Schulman, retiring president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, said in a recent interview, “Secular institutions have not yet come to terms with the central role of religion in society. They just pretend that religion is not there”...

    • Engaged Scholarship at Historically Black Colleges and Universities
      (pp. 181-196)
      Stephen L. Rozman

      Michael Lomax, president and CEO of the United Negro College Fund (UNCF), observes:

      From their founding 150 years ago, historically black colleges and universities have been an exercise in engagement. For almost a century, they functioned not only as institutions dedicated to the education and betterment of their students, but very deliberately as engines for the improvement of a community and population toward whose well-being and social integrity society at large was at best indifferent, at worst hostile. (2006, p. 12)

      Zlotkowski et al., inOne with the Community: Indicators of Engagement at Minority-Serving Institutions(2005), compare historically black colleges...

    • Engaged Scholarship in Hispanic-Serving Institutions
      (pp. 197-214)
      Jaime Chahin and Noe Ortega

      The importance of the mutually beneficial interactive nature of universities and the national culture was first acknowledged when Congress passed the Morrill Act, also known as the Land Grant Act, in 1862. Pressure from farmers and laborers who recognized the importance of an education to improving their social and economic status led to the federal government providing thirty thousand acres of public land to each state for each senator and representative in Congress, based on the 1860 census. The act “specified that the income from the land was to be used to support at least one college that would ‘teach...

    • Engaged Scholarship with Tribal Communities
      (pp. 215-228)
      Michelle Sarche, Douglas Novins and Annie Belcourt-Dittloff

      American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) tribal communities have long been the subject of intense interest by outside groups. Like indigenous people around the world, they have been observed, named, and evaluated by outsiders since the time of first contact (Smith, 1999). Academic scholars representing the gamut of Western scientific disciplines are included among those interested in tribal culture, life, health, and development. The research that this interest has generated has led to the perception among AIAN people that they are among the most researched groups in the United States (Burhansstipanov, Christopher, & Schumacher, 2005; Sahota, 2007); given the small...

  6. PART 3. ENGAGED FACULTY AND EMERGING SCHOLARS
    • Engaged Faculty and Emerging Scholars
      (pp. 231-234)
      KerryAnn O’Meara

      It can be argued that much of the research on faculty roles and rewards over the past two decades has been written from a constraint narrative. This is perhaps especially so in discussions of faculty engagement. By constraint, I refer to a story of why faculty are not socialized toward engagement, why they cannot prioritize it, the barriers to its practice, and its lack of reward or recognition. This narrative has served us well in that it has allowed us to see concrete areas where our campuses need to change in order to socialize and recruit more faculty toward this...

    • Integrating Outreach and Engagement into Faculty Work
      (pp. 235-250)
      Ann E. Austin and John P. Beck

      The history of higher education includes commitments to teaching the next generation, preparing thoughtful citizens, discovering new knowledge, and addressing and improving issues and problems confronting society. Higher education institutions stand solidly as pillars of society, without which the quality, meaning, and opportunities in the human experience would be much diminished. Part of the history of American higher education includes a trend in the past six decades toward heavy emphasis on the research productivity mission. As important as this contribution is, over the past decade and a half, many higher education leaders, faculty members, and observers have highlighted the full...

    • Civic Engagement across the Career Stages of Faculty Life: A Proposal for a New Line of Inquiry
      (pp. 251-270)
      Scott J. Peters and Theodore R. Alter

      In a piece she wrote on the “engaged academy” that was published in 2000, Carol Schneider noted the discussion that scholars and others were having about the roles mediating institutions play in addressing public issues and problems in American society, including the problem of civic disengagement. In this discussion, she observed, “there has been surprisingly little attention to the role that higher education institutions in particular might play in the renewal of civic engagement.” She went on to say that there is a “crucial need for exploration of potential connections between the core missions of colleges and universities as educational...

    • Rewarding Multiple Forms of Scholarship: Promotion and Tenure
      (pp. 271-294)
      KerryAnn O’Meara

      The purpose of this chapter is to review recent research and literature on reward systems and how they regard faculty engagement. Promotion and tenure remains a dominant part of the reward system landscape, despite the smaller number of tenure-track appointments. Thus, I consider the current state of promotion and tenure within reward systems as well as enduring dilemmas in the scaffolding that surrounds the assessment of engagement in reward systems. Finally, I outline major areas for reform, advocacy, and organizational and cultural change in higher education to more effectively encourage faculty engagement and move it to the center of our...

    • Redefining Peer Review and Products of Engaged Scholarship
      (pp. 295-306)
      Catherine M. Jordan

      Community-engaged scholarship (CES) is increasingly discussed as a vehicle for enhancing science, improving the relevance of the academy, increasing the impact universities can make on their stakeholder communities, and making real change in societal conditions. Engaged faculty have recognized that in order to be relevant and to have impact, knowledge needs to be communicated in new ways and to more diverse audiences. This calls for generation of additional types of scholarly products targeted for the audiences to be impacted. Much as the peer-reviewed journal article, the traditional “gold standard” of evidence of scholarship, is tailored for the academic reader, products...

  7. PART 4. STUDENT LEARNING IN THE ENGAGED ACADEMY
    • Student Learning in the Engaged Academy
      (pp. 309-312)
      Eric J. Fretz

      This handbook is part of the developing literature on engaged scholarship that reflects the intellectual maturation and the “thickening” of the movement. As the theories and practices of engagement evolve, the movement itself is, happily, acquiring a critical edge that it lacked in its nascent stages.

      The essays in this part serve up a series of critiques about the way higher education has organized itself, especially as it relates to the role that students can and should play within the engaged university. They question the way knowledge is produced and who can and should produce knowledge. They argue for a...

    • Students Co-creating an Engaged Academy
      (pp. 313-330)
      Eric J. Fretz and Nicholas V. Longo

      Much progress has been made over the past decade in higher education to activate civic and political engagement, as the other chapters in this book clearly illustrate. The concepts and practices associated with service-learning and the scholarship of engagement have moved from the margins to the mainstream in even some of our most prestigious institutions of higher education. Yet, there is also a growing sense that the civic engagement movement in higher education is at a crossroads and in need of new vision and energy for democratic progress to be further realized. This is especially the case given the rising...

    • Changing Pedagogies
      (pp. 331-352)
      John Saltmarsh

      When efforts emerge in higher education to change pedagogical practice, it is likely a sign that something is fundamentally wrong. In the current period of reform, which began in the late 1970s, efforts to change pedagogy have been fueled by two critical failures in higher education. One is a failure of teaching and learning in undergraduate education; the other a failure of higher education to fulfill its civic mission. Changes in pedagogy are reflected in experimentation with active and collaborative forms of teaching and learning tied to community-based public problem solving. New community-based, engaged pedagogies—most prominently, service-learning—connect structured...

    • Students as Scholars: Integrating Research, Education, and Professional Practice
      (pp. 353-368)
      Judith A. Ramaley

      During the past twenty years, two patterns have converged to alter in substantive ways our ideas about how to prepare our students for life and work. One trend is the changing nature of the concept of engagement itself and the relationships that have developed between colleges and universities and the communities they serve (Peters, Jordan, Adamek, & Alter, 2005; Ramaley, 2007). The other trend is our growing understanding of the habits of mind and inclinations that will allow our graduates to put their education to the best possible use in a world of ever-changing complexity (AAC&U;, 2008). As both themes...

    • Students as Change Agents in the Engagement Movement
      (pp. 369-390)
      Amanda L. Vogel, Caroline Fichtenberg and Mindi B. Levin

      Since the start of the contemporary engagement movement in higher education, students have made important contributions as leaders and change agents. A number of authors credit students with catalyzing today’s engagement movement, through the creation of the Campus Outreach Opportunity League (COOL) in 1984 (Liu, 1996; Zlotkowski, Longo, & Williams, 2006). Multiple publications document the development, in the 1990s, of a national student-driven service movement, which existed within the broader engagement movement, and in which students were participating in “unprecedented numbers” (Levine & Cureton, 1998, p. 39; Liu, 1996; Loeb, 1994). Student founders of that service movement laid the groundwork...

    • Professional Development for Emerging Engaged Scholars
      (pp. 391-410)
      Diane M. Doberneck, Robert E. Brown and Angela D. Allen

      U.S. institutions of higher education face unprecedented challenges about their fundamental commitment to communities and society at large. Critics question whether research has trumped teaching, basic science has supplanted research addressing “real world” problems, and faculty members have succumbed to careerism over answering the call to serve the greater good (Bridger & Alter, 2006). Others argue that institutions of higher learning have lost a sense of civic duty and have become commercial enterprises differing in name only from their counterparts in the business world (Bok, 2003; Gould, 2003; Kirp, 2004; Washburn, 2005). Such calls for improved responsiveness to and collaboration...

    • Educating for Democratic Citizenship: Antecedents, Prospects, and Models for Renewing the Civic Mission of Graduate Education at Research Universities
      (pp. 411-436)
      Timothy K. Stanton and Jon Wagner

      With these words Richard Morrill (1982, p. 365) challenged academicians to take seriously their historical mandate to “educate for democratic values.” He suggested that education for civic engagement must combine doing with knowing, that it must be both “the empowerment of persons and the cultivation of minds” (p. 365).

      The ideals underlying Morrill’s challenge are embedded deeply in the foundation of the modern research university, but so too are related concerns and ambiguities about the purposes and practices of “active participation.” These ambiguities can complicate the lives of students, faculty members, and administrators who value civic engagement. They do so...

  8. Contributors
    (pp. 437-448)
  9. Index
    (pp. 449-460)