You are not currently logged in.

Login through your institution for access.


Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

Introduction to Attic Greek

Introduction to Attic Greek

Donald J. Mastronarde
Copyright Date: 2013
Edition: 2
Pages: 512
Stable URL:
Find more content in these subjects:
  • Cite this Item
  • Book Info
    Introduction to Attic Greek
    Book Description:

    Thoroughly revised and expanded,Introduction to Attic Greek, 2nd Editiongives student and instructors the most comprehensive and accessible presentation of ancient Greek available. The text features: • Full exposure to the grammar and morphology that students will encounter in actual texts • Self-contained instructional chapters, with challenging, carefully tailored exercises • Progressively more complex chapters to build the student's knowledge of declensions, tenses, and constructions by alternating emphasis on morphology and syntax • Readings based on actual texts and include unadapted passages from Xenophon, Lysias, Plato, Aristophanes, and Thucydides. • Concise introduction to the history of the Greek language • Composite list of verbs with principal parts, and an appendix of all paradigms • Greek-English and English-Greek glossaries Additional Resources: •Robust online supplements for teaching and learning available at •Answer Key to exercises also available from UC Press (978-0-520-27574-4)

    eISBN: 978-0-520-95499-1
    Subjects: Language & Literature
    × Close Overlay

Table of Contents

Export Selected Citations
  1. Front Matter (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents (pp. v-vi)
  3. Preface (pp. vii-x)
  4. How to Use This Book (pp. xi-xvi)
  5. Introduction. The Ancient Greek Language and Attic Greek (pp. 1-6)

    1. Greek is an Indo-European language. Since the early nineteenth century linguists have demonstrated the existence of and studied a large family of European and Asian languages, ancient and modern, that are closely related to one another and not similarly related to languages outside their group. It is assumed that the kinship among Indo-European languages reflects a prehistoric kinship among their speakers. A few of the language groups classified as Indo-European are Indic (Old Indic: i.e., Sanskrit), Slavic, Italic (including Latin), Germanic, and Greek. English, with its Germanic ancestry and admixture of Latinate elements via French, is also an Indo-European...

  6. UNIT ONE The Alphabet; Pronunciation (pp. 7-16)

    1.The Alphabet.In the late ninth or early eighth century B.C.E. the Greeks borrowed a group of twenty-two letter symbols from the Phoenicians. They reinterpreted symbols for sounds not present in Greek to serve as symbols for the vowel sounds. (Phoenician, like other Semitic languages, represented only consonants in writing.) The earliest Greek alphabets included the letters vau (F or ϝ), koppa (Ϙ or ϙ), and san (an alternative to sigma that looked much like our capital M and followed ∏ in some alphabets). At this stage, the symbol H stood for the sound ofh,and the letters...

  7. UNIT TWO Accentuation (pp. 17-22)

    1. Ancient Greek had a tonal accent or pitch accent, not a stress accent such as is found in Latin, English, and many European languages, including Modern Greek. The accent of a word or phrase consisted in a raising of the pitch of the voice at the accented syllable. The classical Greeks used no accent marks: they needed none since they were reading their native language, and the tradition of writing and reading books was relatively young and the format not very user-friendly. The practice of marking accents was initiated by literary scholars in Alexandria around 200 B.C.E. Accent marking...

  8. UNIT THREE O-Declension Nouns; Prepositions I (pp. 23-33)

    A.The Parts of Speech.The words of a language are commonly classified, according to their function in a sentence, into categories calledparts of speech.This categorization was developed in classical times in Greece (though similar classifications were developed, independently and contemporaneously, by Indian grammarians for Sanskrit), formalized by the Stoics in postclassical times, and passed via the Romans into modern linguistics.

    The generally recognized parts of speech are noun, pronoun, adjective, article, verb, adverb, preposition, and conjunction. In Greek grammar certain connective and logical adverbs and conjunctions are also referred to asparticles.The parts of speech will...

  9. UNIT FOUR A-Declension Nouns I; The Article (pp. 34-42)

    A.Articles.An article (Latinarticulus, Greek ἄρθρον, “joint,” “connecting word”) is a small modifier placed before a noun or a noun phrase to limit, individualize, or give definiteness or indefiniteness to the application of the noun. English, like many modern languages, has both adefinitearticle (the) and anindefinitearticle (a, an), and the English articles are not declined. In other languages the article is declined in number and gender to agree with the number and gender of the noun it accompanies (e.g., Frenchla femme,Italianil tempo,SpanishLos Angeles), and in Greek, as in German,...

  10. UNIT FIVE Present Active Indicative of ω-Verbs (pp. 43-53)

    A.Verbs.A verb (Greek ῥῆμα, Latinverbum,“what is said,” “predicate”) is the part of speech that affirms or predicates (see below under D) by expressing an action or a state of being.

    The inflection of a verb is calledconjugation. Thefinite formsof a verb are those whose inflectional ending defines precisely thepersonandnumberof the subject, or, in an uninflected or slightly inflected language like English, those that combine with a subject to form a clause: for example,we see; they saw; the man is walking.There are also two importantnonfinite formsof...

  11. UNIT SIX A-Declension Nouns II; Prepositions II (pp. 54-59)

    1. The second of the three groups ofa-declension nouns consists ofshort-vowel feminine nouns.Their noteworthy features are:

    The alpha in the nom., acc., and voc. sing. is short. This fact is usually apparent from the accentuation: an acute accent onAor a circumflex onPif it is long in a two-syllable word.

    The gen. and dat. sing. vary between long alpha and eta depending on the final letter of the stem: etaexceptafter ε, ι, or ρ.

    The dual and plural have the same endings as the long-vowel feminine nouns learned in Unit 4, with alpha...

  12. UNIT SEVEN Vowel-Declension Adjectives; Attribution and Predication (pp. 60-68)

    A.Adjectives.An adjective (Greek ἐπίθετον, Latinadiectivum,“word added to [a noun]”) is the part of speech that modifies (or describes or qualifies) a noun. Examples: thelargebook; The food isgood.

    In many languages adjectives are inflected to markconcordwith the nouns they modify. English has no inflection showing gender, number, and case of adjectives (the large house, the large men), but inflection in number and gender occurs, for instance, in Spanish, French, and Italian (e.g., Frenchun vieux vieille nourrice). In Greek, as in Latin or German, adjectives are inflected to indicate...

  13. UNIT EIGHT Second Person Imperative; Prepositions III; Relative Pronoun and Relative Clauses (pp. 69-76)

    A.Sentences and Clauses.Asimplesentence contains one subject-verb unit (although subject or verb or both may be multiple). It consists of a singleindependentormainclause (a clause that can stand by itself).

    Acompoundsentence consists of two (or more) independent clauses joined together (though each clause is capable of standing on its own).

    The woman waves, and her daughter waves back.

    Acomplexsentence consists of an independent or main clause and one or more dependent or subordinate clauses: that is, clauses that do not by themselves form a sentence and cannot be uttered in...

  14. UNIT NINE Present Infinitive; Two-Ending Adjectives (pp. 77-83)

    Theinfinitive,a nonfinite form of the verb (see Unit 5 Prelim.), is a verbal noun. As a verb form it has tense (or aspect) and voice and can govern noun complements and adverbial modifiers. As a noun, it can serve as subject, object, and the like. In English the infinitive (formed withtoplus the verb) shares the job of verbal noun with thegerund(formed from the present stem of a verb plus-ing). In Greek there is only the infinitive to fulfill the verbal noun function.

    In addition to functioning as a noun in these simple uses,...

  15. UNIT TEN Present of εἰμί; Some Uses of the Genitive and Dative (pp. 84-90)

    1.The Verb“to be.” One of the most commonly used words in the language, the Greek verb to be shows irregularities of conjugation in all dialects. The Attic forms of the present active indicative are:

    Note that the third person singular and plural forms may take nu movable. (See Unit 5.5.)

    2.Accentuation.All forms of the present indicative of εἰμί except the second person singular, εἶ (and the third person singular in some uses: see §3, below), areenclitic.(See Unit 2.12.) This is traditionally indicated in paradigms by the use of the acute on the ultima. The...

  16. UNIT ELEVEN Present Middle/Passive Indicative (pp. 91-97)

    1.Middle and Passive Voices.At an early stage Greek had two sets of personal endings that served to mark twovoices(cf. Unit 5 Prelim.): active and middle. In the active voice the subject is the agent. In the middle voice the subject is agent but acts with some special reference to himself or herself, or to his or her possessions or own interest (toorfororwithin himselforherselfor the like).

    The middle of some verbs may have a reflexive or reciprocal meaning:

    The passive use of the middle form developed from the reflexive force...

  17. UNIT TWELVE Adverbs; Conjunctions; Pronoun αὐτός; Pronominal Article; Prepositions IV (pp. 98-106)

    A.Adverbs.An adverb (Greek ἐπίρρημα, Latinadverbium,“word added to the verb”) is the part of speech that modifies (qualifies, limits) a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs usually express ideas of manner or degree or time or place.

    In many languages a large number of the adverbs are derived from adjectives by the addition of a standard suffix. In English the suffix is-ly.(Compare German-lich, French-ment, Spanish and Italian-mente.)

    Β.Personal Pronouns.The pronouns that refer without special demonstrative emphasis to persons or things arepersonalpronouns. (For the concept of person, review...

  18. UNIT THIRTEEN Contract Verbs in -έω; Demonstratives (pp. 107-114)

    1.Contract Verbs.A large number of Greek verbs have present stems that end in one of the three vowels α, ε,ο. The present-system forms of these verbs have a personal ending preceded by the theme vowel, preceded in turn by the final vowel of the stem. In Attic, as in several other dialects, the final α, ε, orοof the stem contracts with the theme vowel (or theme vowel plus personal ending, where these have coalesced).

    2.Verbs in-έω. These are the most common type. The Attic contractions that are relevant to the present system are:...

  19. UNIT FOURTEEN Consonant-Declension Nouns I (pp. 115-122)

    1.Consonant Declension.The consonant declension (also referred to as thethird declension) is so termed because most of its nouns have stems ending in a consonant. But it is actually a diverse family of declension types (including some vowel stems) that share the set of case endings shown below. The consonant declension shows much more variety than theo-anda-declensions, because some of its nouns have variable stems, with different forms of the stem appearing in different sets of cases, and some feature contraction of vowels in the endings. The various types will be learned over the course of...

  20. UNIT FIFTEEN Consonant-Declension Nouns II; Interrogative Pronoun (pp. 123-129)

    1.Consonant Stems Ending in a Liquid(λ, ρ)or Nasal(ν). Almost all nouns in this group are masculine or feminine.

    The features to note are:

    The nom. and voc. sing. have no case ending, but the nom. has a strong-vowel form of the stem: e.g., ω forοin ῥήτωρ and δαίμων. An exception is ἅλς, the only noun in λ, which adds -ς in the nom.

    Acc. sing. has -ᾰ.

    Stems with finalνdo not exhibit it in the dat. pl., but there is no compensatory lengthening.

    Stems in -ων accented on the final syllable of...

  21. UNIT SIXTEEN Imperfect Indicative (pp. 130-137)

    1.Primary and Secondary Tenses.The tenses of the indicative that refer to present or future time are called theprimarytenses, whereas those that refer to past time are calledsecondarytenses. The distinction between the two types is apparent in three ways:

    The personal endings of secondary tenses differ in some persons and numbers from those of primary tenses.

    Secondary tenses showaugment(explained in §2 below).

    In many forms of complex sentence, the mood used in the subordinate clause may differ according to whether the main verb is primary or secondary (sequence of moods, presented in Unit...

  22. UNIT SEVENTEEN Indefinite τις; Uses of the Accusative (pp. 138-146)

    1.The Greek Indefinite.Indefinite pronouns and indefinite adjectives refer to an unspecified, uncertain, or vague person or thing or portion of a group of persons or things. In English the indefinite words include pronounsany, some, anyone, someone, anything, something,and adjectivesany, some.The idiomatic use ofa certainorcertain(with plural noun), by which the speaker refers to someone definite without making the identification precise, is also equivalent to using an indefinite adjective.

    The Greek indefinite pronoun and adjective is τις, τι, which is identical in form to the interrogative pronoun and adjective (Unit 15.4), except...

  23. UNIT EIGHTEEN Future Active and Middle Indicative (pp. 147-153)

    1.Future Principal Part.The second principal part of a Greek verb is the first person singular future active indicative form (or if the active is lacking, the first person singular future middle indicative form). This form provides the tense stem from which are formed the future indicative, optative, infinitive, and participle in both the active and the middle voice.

    2.Formation of the Future Stem.The safest way to recognize or to be able to form the future of a given verb is to know the principal parts of the verb. But it is also useful to know some...

  24. UNIT NINETEEN Aorist Active and Middle Indicative and Imperative (pp. 154-162)

    1.Aorist Principal Part.The third principal part of a Greek verb is the first person singular aorist active indicative form (or if the active is lacking, the first person singular aorist middle indicative form). This form provides the tense stem from which are formed the aorist indicative, subjunctive, optative, imperative, infinitive, and participle in both the active and the middle voice.

    2.Formation of the Aorist Stem.The safest way to recognize or to be able to form the aorist of a given verb is to know the principal parts of the verb. But it is also useful to...

  25. UNIT TWENTY Tense and Aspect; Indirect Discourse (pp. 163-172)

    1.Time versus Aspect.Greek tense stems convey temporal distinctions in most uses of the indicative and in a few uses of the infinitive and participle. But the fundamental distinction conveyed by Greek tense stems is one ofaspect:that is, of the type of action or state of being denoted in terms of completion versus noncompletion, customary action versus a single occurrence, general truth versus a specific occurrence, or some similar distinction.

    Aspectual distinctions of the type of action denoted by a verb are especially clear in the case of certain verbs that are used exclusively or predominantly with...

  26. UNIT TWENTY-ONE Consonant-Declension Nouns III; Personal Pronouns (pp. 173-180)

    1.Third-Declension Vowel Stems.Some nouns of the consonant or third declension have stems ending in a vowel. While the case endings are the same as for other consonant-declension nouns, there are some features to note:

    Many of these nouns also show a variation in stem vowel, with different stems used in different cases.

    In many forms contraction of the ending with the final vowel of the stem has taken place.

    In some forms the quantities of the stem vowel and the following vowel of the case ending have been exchanged: short–long becomes long–short byquantitative metathesis.


  27. UNIT TWENTY-TWO Consonant-Declension Adjectives (pp. 181-188)

    1.Consonant-Declension Adjectives with Two Endings.The first of the two major groups of consonant-declension adjectives features a common masculine or feminine form and a separate neuter (compare the vowel-declension adjectives like ἄδικος, ἄδικον). Τhe genitive and dative cases are the same in all genders, and only the nominative, accusative, and vocative cases show distinction between masculine or feminine and neuter. There are two types:

    a.Stems in σ. The two nominative singular forms end in -ης, -ες, and declension is similar to that of Σωκράτης and γένος (Unit 15.3), except that the neuter adjective has -ες instead of -ος....

  28. UNIT TWENTY-THREE Present System of μι-Verbs (pp. 189-197)

    1. μι-Verbs.In classical Attic a few basic verbs form the present or aorist systems (or both) by adding personal endings directly to the tense stem, without any intervening theme vowel or tense vowel. These verbs form the second major conjugational class in Greek (alongside the ω-verbs) and are calledathematic(“without theme vowel”) verbs or μι-verbs (from the primary personal ending of the first person sing.). You have already learned two μι-verbs that feature slightly irregular inflection: εἰμί (Unit 10) and φημί (Unit 20).

    2.Personal Endings.The personal endings are readily apparent in μι-verbs. The active endings are...

  29. UNIT TWENTY-FOUR Athematic Aorists (pp. 198-204)

    1.Aorist ofμι-Verbs.The aorist systems of the μι-verbs that you have learned contain forms derived from various origins.

    a. Some forms are true weak (first) aorist forms with the suffix σ: thus ἔστησα,I caused to stand,from στη- + σ, infinitive στῆσαι; ἔδειξα,I showed.

    b. Some forms are straightforwardly athematic (calledstrong aoristorsecond aoristforms). Secondary μι-verb personal endings are added directly to the simplest form of the verb root (with augment added in the indicative): for example, ἔστην (from στη-), infinitive στῆναι. In many cases, athematic aorists of this type have intransitive or...

  30. UNIT TWENTY-FIVE Adjectives with Variant Stems; Numerals; Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns; Result Constructions (pp. 205-214)

    1.Adjectives with Variant Stems. Two frequently used adjectives are inflected in Attic with two different stems, one using consonant-declension endings (in the masc. and neut. nom. and acc. sing.), the other using vowel-declension endings (in the fem. and all other cases of the masc. and neut.).

    a. πολύς, πολλή, πολύ,“much, many” stems:πολυ-, πολλ-

    This adjective is not used in the vocative case.

    b. μέγας, μεγάλη, μέγα,“great, large” stems:μεγα-, μεγαλ-

    The vocative singular forms of μέγας are found only in poetry and in later Greek.

    2.Numerals.The cardinal numbersone, two, three, fourare inflected...

  31. UNIT TWENTY-SIX Participles: Formation and Declension (pp. 215-224)

    Aparticipleis a verbal adjective, one of the nonfinite forms of the verb. Like the finite forms, the participle has such features as tense (or aspect) and voice, and the ability to govern objects and be modified by adverbs. Unlike finite forms, however, the participle carries no distinction of person and cannot form the predicate of a clause. As an adjective, a participle modifies (and in inflected languages agrees with) a noun or pronoun, whether expressed or implied.

    In English, participles vary according to tense and voice. There are two simple forms, the active in-ingand the (past)...

  32. UNIT TWENTY-SEVEN Uses of the Participle I (pp. 225-233)

    1.Tenses of the Participle.The Greek participle is found in all four of the major tense systems: present, future, aorist (all presented in Unit 26), and perfect (to be learned in Unit 37). In most constructions, the participle (like the infinitive) conveys by its tense a distinction in verbal aspect (Unit 20) rather than a distinction in time. Again like the infinitive, the participle does have a temporal meaning when used in indirect discourse, as a transformation representing an indicative of direct speech (Unit 28.2).

    Thepresentparticiple conveys the aspect of the present stem: that is, continuous or...

  33. UNIT TWENTY-EIGHT Uses of the Participle II; οἶδα (pp. 234-242)

    1.Supplementary Participle.Some uses of the participle in predicate position are generally assigned to a separate category from the circumstantial participle. This third major use of the Greek participle is calledsupplementary.With certain verbs, a participle in predicate position agreeing with the subject or direct object completes the idea of the verb, which would otherwise be vague or incomplete. The supplementary participle is found with several well-defined classes of verbs.

    a. With τυγχάνω, λανθάνω, φθάνω. In sentences containing τυγχάνω (happen; happen to be; be just now), λανθάνω (escape notice, be unobserved), or φθάνω (anticipate, be before[someone...

  34. UNIT TWENTY-NINE Aorist Passive and Future Passive (pp. 243-252)

    1.The Last Three Principal Parts.Up to this point the student has dealt with the first three principal parts of the Greek verb: the present active (or middle/passive for deponents), future active (or middle), and aorist active (or middle). In the traditional order of principal parts, the fourth is the first person singular perfect active indicative, the fifth is the first person singular perfect middle/passive indicative, and the sixth is the first person singular aorist passive indicative. In this book the sixth, the aorist passive, will be learned first, since the aorist is much more commonly used than the...

  35. UNIT THIRTY Contract Verbs in -άω and -όω; Further Uses of the Genitive and Dative (pp. 253-263)

    Verbs in-άω. Recall that in Attic there are three kinds of ω-verbs that show contraction in the present system (Unit 13.1). Verbs in -άω and -όω are less common than those in -έω. The Attic contractions that are relevant to the present system of verbs in -άω are:

    Full general schemes for contraction are set out in Appendix A. The distinction between so-called genuine and spurious ει is based on linguistic history (explained in Unit 1.7). The ει of the second and third person singular active ending is genuine (and so the iota continues to appear in the...

  36. UNIT THIRTY-ONE Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs (pp. 264-272)

    1.Comparison of Adjectives.Greek adjectives have three degrees: the positive, the comparative, and the superlative. (See Unit 7, Prelim. A.) The Greek comparative adjective may be translated in English asmoreX or simplyratherX orquiteX. The Greek superlative may be translated in English asmostX or simplyveryX.

    There are two methods of forming comparatives or superlatives in Greek, as in English. One is to modify the positive form of an adjective with the comparative or superlative adverb μᾶλλον,more,or μάλιστα,most.These adverbs must be used with most participles and may...

  37. UNIT THIRTY-TWO The Subjunctive (pp. 273-283)

    1.The Subjunctive Mood. Recall (from Unit 5 Prelim.) that Greek has four finite moods. So far, we have dealt exclusively with two of these, the indicative and imperative moods. In this and the next two units, the two so-called subordinate moods, the subjunctive and optative, are presented. The subjunctive tends to express mere assumption or possibility, as opposed to assertion, a main function of the indicative; but it also has imperatival uses. It is more often used in subordinate-clause constructions than in independent clauses: hence its name in Greek, ὑποτακτική, and Latin,subiunctivus,“subjoined.” The key general points to...

  38. UNIT THIRTY-THREE Formation of the Optative (pp. 284-293)

    1.The Optative Mood.The last of the four finite moods of Greek to be learned is the optative (Latinoptativus,Greek εὐκτική,of wishing). The optative occurs in the three tense systems that express aspect (present, aorist, and [rare] perfect) and also (rarely, and only for transformations in indirect discourse) in the future and future perfect tenses. The optative may be used both independently to express a wish or a potentiality (as opposed to a fact or assertion conveyed by the indicative) and in a variety of subordinate constructions. These uses will be presented in the next unit.


  39. UNIT THIRTY-FOUR Uses of the Optative; Indirect Discourse with ὅτι; Indirect Questions and Indirect Interrogative (pp. 294-305)

    1.Independent Uses of the Optative.There are two independent constructions using the optative:

    a.Optative of wish,using the optative without a modal particle, which is treated together with other wishing expressions in §2 below.

    b.Potential optative.The optative accompanied by the modal particle ἄν expresses a possibility, probability, or any softened form of assertion or opinion. The negative is ἄν. Appropriate English translations use modal auxiliaries likemay, might, would,and so forth. The potential optative may also be used in subordinate clauses of various kinds.

    [The speaker views the act as improbable or impossible.]

    οὕτως ἄφρων...

  40. UNIT THIRTY-FIVE Conditional Constructions (pp. 306-316)

    1.Conditional Sentences.One of the most common forms of complex sentence is theconditional sentence:that is, one in which the subordinate clause (theif-clause, or theprotasisin the traditional terminology of Greek grammar) expresses a condition and the main clause (thethen-clause, orapodosisin traditional terminology) expresses the consequence of that condition’s fulfillment. (The wordthenneed not actually be present.) In many languages, including Greek, conditional sentences have a variety of schemes of moods (or modal auxiliaries) and tenses in theif-clause and thethen-clause in order to express different notions of the possibility or...

  41. UNIT THIRTY-SIX Indicative with ἄν; Correlatives; More Particles (pp. 317-325)

    1.Indicative withἄν. In Attic the secondary tenses of the indicative are sometimes used with the modal particle ἄν in sentences other than conditionals to express a potentiality or probability in the past (whereas the optative with ἄν expresses a potentiality in the present or future). This use is called thepast potential indicative.Sometimes, but not always, there appears to be ellipsis (omission) of a condition. Sometimes there is the implication that the event expressed by the indicative with ἄν is not or was not the case (unreal indicative).

    τίς γὰρ ἂν ἡγήσατο ταῦτα γενέσθαι;

    Who would have...

  42. UNIT THIRTY-SEVEN Perfect System Active (pp. 326-335)

    1.The Aspect of the Perfect.The fourth and fifth principal parts of a Greek verb are the perfect active indicative and the perfect middle/passive indicative, providing two perfect stems for inflection. The perfect stems of a Greek verb convey the aspect of completed action with a continuing or permanent result. The Greek perfect indicative thus refers to a continuing present state and is a primary tense: it lacks an augment, and it governs the subjunctive in primary sequence. The aspect of the perfect is especially clear in verbs whose perfects are best translated by an English present, as already...

  43. UNIT THIRTY-EIGHT Perfect System Middle/Passive; A-Contract Nouns (pp. 336-347)

    1.The Perfect Middle/Passive System.The fifth principal part of the Greek verb is the first person singular perfect middle/passive indicative. This form provides the stem used in generating the perfect middle/passive indicative, imperative, infinitive, and participle (with which the periphrastic subjunctive and optative are made), the pluperfect middle/passive indicative, and the future perfect middle/passive indicative, optative, infinitive, and participle. Many of these forms, however, are rarely or never found for any given verb.

    The perfect middle/passive stem is a reduplicated stem and usually very similar to the perfect active stem. In verbs with stems ending in vowels, one need...

  44. UNIT THIRTY-NINE Third Person Imperatives; Object Clauses with Verbs of Effort; Athematic Perfects (pp. 348-356)

    1.Third Person Imperatives.The second person imperatives of the present and aorist were introduced earlier. Greek verbs also inflect the imperative mood in the third person. Since English does not have such a form, a third person imperative has to be translated by a periphrasis of the formlet him(orher)doX orlet them doY. The personal endings for these inflections are as follows:

    For thematic verbs the theme vowel isobefore -ντων and ε before the other three endings. In contract verbs the theme vowel contracts with the stem vowel in the usual...

  45. UNIT FORTY O-Contract Nouns; Verbal Adjectives in -τός and -τέος; Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Discourse; Meanings of Prepositional Prefixes (pp. 357-366)

    1. O-Declension Nouns with Contraction.A fewo-declension nouns with stems ending in -οο- or -εο- suffer contraction in Attic. The relevant contractions are as follows:

    The accentuation is in general in accordance with the rule given in Unit 13.2. But compounds retain the accentuation of the nominative throughout (e.g., περίπλου, despite uncontracted περιπλόου), and the nominative, accusative, and vocative dual of uncompounded words has an acute (e.g., νώ instead of νῶ from νόω).

    2.Verbal Adjectives in-τόςand-τέος. In addition to the participles that are so very frequently used in Greek, some Greek verbs also possess one or...

  46. UNIT FORTY-ONE Temporal Clauses with ἕως and the Like; πρίν; Attraction (pp. 367-376)

    1.Temporal Clauses withἕωςand the Like.The conjunctions ἕως, ἔστε, μέχρι, μέχρι οὗ, ἄχρι, and ἄχρι οὗ meanso long as, while(introducing temporal clauses referring to the same time as that of the main verb) oruntil(introducing temporal clauses referring to a time after that of the main verb). Many clauses introduced by these words have the same constructions as other temporal clauses (with neutral, general, or future conditional force: Unit 35), but there are also special patterns for certain types ofuntil-clause.

    a. Temporal clauses with ἕως and the like referring todefinite actionin...

  47. UNIT FORTY-TWO Contract Vowel-Declension Adjectives; Attic Declension; Assimilation of Mood (pp. 377-384)

    1.Contract Adjectives.Most vowel-declension adjectives with a masculine stem in -εο- or -οο- have contracted inflection. The masculine and neuter are inflected like contracto-declension nouns (Unit 40). In the feminine, stems in -οο- are inflected from a stem in -εα- rather than from the expected -οα-, and the result inflects like contracta-declension nouns (Unit 38). Regardless of the accentuation of the uncontracted form of the adjective, the contracted forms of a simple (uncompounded) adjective have a circumflex onUin all cases and numbers (except for an acute on the nom., acc., and voc. dual masc. and...

  48. APPENDIX A. Table of Contractions (pp. 385-385)
  49. APPENDIX B. Principal Parts (pp. 386-404)
  50. APPENDIX C. Paradigms (pp. 405-450)
  51. Greek–English Glossary (pp. 451-467)
  52. English–Greek Glossary (pp. 468-480)
  53. Index (pp. 481-492)