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Journal Article

The Myth of the Speakers: A Critical Reexamination of Dolby History

Eric Dienstfrey
Film History
Vol. 28, No. 1 (2016), pp. 167-193
Published by: Indiana University Press
DOI: 10.2979/filmhistory.28.1.06
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/filmhistory.28.1.06
Page Count: 27
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The Myth of the Speakers: A Critical Reexamination of Dolby History on JSTOR

Abstract

ABSTRACT

This article corrects misconceptions regarding the history of film stereo. I show that the technical and aesthetic innovations regularly credited to Dolby Stereo, to sound designers like Walter Murch, and to films like Apocalypse Now (1979) were not revolutions but extensions of surround-sound practices that Hollywood codified in prior decades. I call such historical misconceptions the “Dolby myth.” Further, I argue that practitioners circulated this myth to critics and scholars in order to elevate the value of postproduction sound labor following the industry's transition from a studio-based economy to one dominated by independent productions.

KEYWORDS: Dolby, quadraphonic stereo, sound technology, Apocalypse Now, Walter Murch

Author Information

Eric Dienstfrey

Eric Dienstfrey is a doctoral candidate in film studies at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. His dissertation examines how early theories of acoustical fidelity shaped the designs and uses of stereophonic technology from 1930 to 1959.

Notes

  1. 1.
    “Bid Letters Out on Apocalypse,” Variety, February 28, 1979, 5.
  2. 2.
    Variety later reported that installations were not required and that they would cost closer to $5,500. “Exhibs Asked to Buy Dolby Unit for 70m Apocalypse,” Variety, September 5, 1979, 6, 43.
  3. 3.
    “An Archival Detailing of UA's Apocalypse Now Since 1967 Start,” Variety, May 23, 1979, 5, 46.
  4. 4.
    For coverage of its production difficulties, see “Typhoon Olga Wrecks Coppola Production; Forces 6-Wk Hiatus,” Variety, June 2, 1976, 1, 69; “Temple Roof Falls at Apocalypse Location, but Injuries Avoided,” Variety, March 23, 1977, 6; and “Coppola Hocks His Personal Fortune,” Variety, June 8, 1977, 5. For coverage of its controversial content, see “Milius Re-Heats His Apocalypse,” Variety, September 3, 1975, 5, 27; and “Word Leaks of Pentagon's Sour View of Coppola's Apocalypse Now; Deemed ‘Anti-U.S.’ in Script,” Variety, June 23, 1976, 5, 35.
  5. 5.
    Jay Beck, “A Quiet Revolution: Changes in American Film Sound Practices, 1967–1979” (PhD diss., University of Iowa, 2003), 37–55.
  6. 6.
    William Whittington, Sound Design & Science Fiction (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007), 117–18.
  7. 7.
    For instance, see Jim Webb and Don Ketteler, “Using the Multitrack Format for Production Film Recording,” Recording Engineer/Producer, April 1980, 110, 112, 114–17; Tom Kenny, “Mike Minkler: Storytelling through Sound,” Mix, September 2002, 50, 52, 54, 56.
  8. 8.
    William Whittington, “Sound Design in New Hollywood Cinema,” in Sound and Music in Film and Visual Media, ed. Graeme Harper (New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2009), 559.
  9. 9.
    Randy Thom, “Designing a Movie for Sound,” Iris 27 (1999): 11. See also Skip Lievsay's discussion of Apocalypse Now in Vincent Lo Brutto, SoundOn-Film: Interviews with Creators of Film Sound (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994), 268; Rob James, “Gary Rydstrom Interview,” Studio Sound, September 2000, 51, 56; and Larry Blake, “Apocalypse Now REDUX: New Scenes, New Sounds for Francis Coppola's 1979 Masterpiece,” Mix, August 2001, 55.
  10. 10.
    Kevin Jackson, “Murch's Sound, Coppola's Fury,” Independent (London), November 24, 2001, 10. Dolby engineers discuss the film's stereo technology in “The New Technology: The Role of Noise Reduction, Evolution of Film Sound,” Dolby Background Information on Film Sound (San Francisco: Dolby, 1980), 6; see also, Bruce Emery, “Beyond the Matrix: Dolby Digital Surround Sound,” in Cinesonic: Experiencing the Soundtrack, ed. Philip Brophy (Sidney: Southwood, 2001), 41–45.
  11. 11.
    Examples include Frank Paine, “Sound Mixing and Apocalypse Now: An Interview with Walter Murch,” in Film Sound: Theory and Practice, ed. Elisabeth Weiss and John Belton (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), 356–60; Lo Brutto, SoundOn-Film, 83–99; Mark Cousins, “Walter Murch: Designing Sounds for Apocalypse Now,” in Projections 6: Filmmakers on Filmmaking, ed. John Boorman and Walter Donohue (London: Faber, 1996), 149–62; Tom Kenny, “Walter Murch: The Search for Order in Sound & Picture,” Mix, April 1998, 12–24; and Michael Jarrett, “Sound Doctrine: An Interview with Walter Murch,” Film Quarterly 53, no. 3 (2000): 2–11.
  12. 12.
    Lo Brutto, SoundOn-Film, 84; Michael Ondaatje, The Conversations: Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film (New York: Knopf, 2002), 6–10.
  13. 13.
    Cousins, “Walter Murch,” 159–60.
  14. 14.
    Jackson, “Murch's Sound, Coppola's Fury,” 10.
  15. 15.
    Matt Schudel, “Ray Dolby, 80: Audio Pioneer Changed Sound of Music,” Washington Post, September 18, 2013, C8.
  16. 16.
    John Thornton Caldwell, Production Culture: Industrial Reflexivity and Critical Practice in Film and Television (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008), 68.
  17. 17.
    Gianluca Sergi, The Dolby Era: Film Sound in Contemporary Hollywood (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), 12–15.
  18. 18.
    See also Gianluca Sergi, “Tales of the Silent Blast: Star Wars and Sound,” Journal of Popular Film and Television 26, no. 1 (1998): 12–22.
  19. 19.
    Sergi, Dolby Era, 11.
  20. 20.
    Gianluca Sergi, “A Cry in the Dark: The Role of Post-Classical Film Sound,” in Contemporary Hollywood Cinema, ed. Steve Neale and Murray Smith (New York: Routledge, 1998), 158, 162.
  21. 21.
    For instance, see James Wierzbicki, Film Music: A History (New York: Routledge, 2009); John Richardson, Claudia Gorbman, and Carol Vernallis, eds., The Oxford Handbook of New Audiovisual Aesthetics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013); and Kathryn Kalinak, ed., Sound: Dialogue, Music, and Effects (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2015).
  22. 22.
    SVA was an acronym for stereo variable area, a name for the pair of optical tracks that housed each print's multichannel mix.
  23. 23.
    Beck, “A Quiet Revolution,” 52; Blake, “Apocalypse Now REDUX,” 57.
  24. 24.
    “Dolby Labs Reports Appreciable Increases of Sound System Installations in Theatres,” BoxOffice, December 13, 1976, 30.
  25. 25.
    The matrix involved storing the left, center, right, and surround channels onto two tracks: left-total (Lt) and right-total (Rt). The Lt track contained the left, center, and surround channels, and Dolby sent this entire track to the front-left loudspeaker. Similarly, the Rt track contained the right, center, and surround channels, and Dolby sent this track to the front-right loudspeaker. As a result, surround-sound effects emanated not only from rear loudspeakers but from two loudspeakers at the front of the theater. Larry Blake, “Mixing Dolby Stereo Film Sound,” Recording Engineer/Producer, April 1981, 68–79; Larry Blake, “Mixing Techniques for Dolby Stereo Film and Video Releases,” Recording Engineer/Producer, June 1985, 94–107; and Benjamin B. Bauer, “Directional Ambiguity of Quadruphonic Matrices [sic],” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 19, no. 4 (1971): 315–16.
  26. 26.
    Larry Blake, “The Evolution and Utilization of 70mm SixTrack Film Sound,” Recording Engineer/Producer, April 1983, 64–78.
  27. 27.
    “Seeking Excellence in Cinema Audio: SMPTE Honour Max Bell,” Cinema Technology, December 2011, 38. Bell and Watts first tested their split-surround design on select prints of Superman (1978).
  28. 28.
    David P. Robinson, “CP100 Cinema Processor—A New Audio Control Center for the Motion Picture Theatre,” preprint no. 1112, Audio Engineering Society Convention 54, May 4–7, 1976, n.p.; “Now Meet See-Peewuno-o,” BoxOffice, December 17, 1977, 17.
  29. 29.
    John F. Allen, “A 70mm Review,” BoxOffice, January 1984, 29–30. The 500 Hz cutoff was designed for Dolby's preferred Altec A-4 speaker systems, which divided the network of frequencies for the playback signal at 500 Hz. John Mayer and Terry Tomaselli, “Generating Low Frequency Audio Energy for Apocalypse Now,” Recording Engineer/Producer, October 1979, 118.
  30. 30.
    Dolby SA5 Surround Adapter (San Francisco: Dolby, 1979), 1–3; “Dolby Develops SA5 Stereo Surround Unit for Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse,” BoxOffice, September 17, 1979, 28.
  31. 31.
    “Dolby Develops SA5 Stereo Surround Unit.” In 1980 Dolby announced the release of their CP-200, a single processor that combined the functions of the CP-100 and the SA5 with greater economy, but the CP-200 was not available until after Apocalypse Now's release. See David Robinson, “The CP200—A Comprehensive Cinema Theater Audio Processor,” SMPTE Journal 90, no. 9 (1981): 778–85; “Dolby's CP200,” BoxOffice, February 4, 1980, M26, M29.
  32. 32.
    John Iles, “Dolby Stereo Surround on 70mm,” in70mm, November 2, 2012; and July 2, 2014, http://www.in70mm.com/news/2012/format_43/index.htm.
  33. 33.
    Blake, “Apocalypse Now REDUX,” 58.
  34. 34.
    Ibid.
  35. 35.
    Apocalypse Now, directed by Francis Ford Coppola (1979; Hollywood, CA: Paramount, 1999), DVD. Coppola has released two separate versions of the film for home video: the 1979 theatrical version with a digitally enhanced sound track, and a similarly enhanced director's cut Apocalypse Now Redux from 2001. Both versions use the same 5.1 surround-sound design for this opening sequence.
  36. 36.
    For this analysis, I used the sound editing software Audacity, which allows for the muting of sound effects above 500 Hz and for the separation of the 5.1 mix's two rear channels into individual waveforms.
  37. 37.
    Beck, “A Quiet Revolution,” 57–59.
  38. 38.
    Lloyd Thompson, “Progress Committee Report,” Journal of the SMPTE 65, no. 5 (1956): 248–49. See also Arthur Rowan, “Todd-AO—Newest Wide-Screen System,” American Cinematographer, October 1954, 494–96, 526; “Westrex Wins ‘Oscar’ For Todd-AO Recording Job,” International Projectionist, May 1958, 21.
  39. 39.
    See John Belton, Widescreen Cinema (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), 85–112.
  40. 40.
    Hazard E. Reeves, “The Development of Stereo Magnetic Recording for Film (Part II),” SMPTE Journal 91, no.11 (1982): 1087–90; Ernest W. Franck and Edward Schmidt, “New Products and New Applications in the Magnetic-Tape and Film Fields,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 4, no. 3 (1956): 90–100.
  41. 41.
    E. I. Sponable, H. E. Bragg, and L. D. Grignon, “Design Considerations of CinemaScope Film,” Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers 63, no. 1 (1954): 1–4. See also John Belton, “1950s Magnetic Sound: The Frozen Revolution,” in Sound Theory, Sound Practice, ed. Rick Altman (New York: Routledge, 1992), 154–67; and Matthew Malsky, “The Grandeur(s) of Cinema Scope: Early Experiments in Cinematic Stereophony,” in Living Stereo: Histories and Cultures of Multichannel Sound, ed. Paul Théberge, Kyle Devine, and Tom Everett (New York: Bloomsbury, 2015), 207–25.
  42. 42.
    Michael Todd Jr. and Susan McCarthy Todd, A Valuable Property: The Life Story of Michael Todd (New York: Arbor, 1983), 245.
  43. 43.
    James Morris, “The Todd-AO System: A Projector for Both 70- and 35-mm Film,” International Projectionist, October 1955, 7–10, 34.
  44. 44.
    H. A. Frederick and H. C. Harrison, “Vertically Cut Sound Records: Recent Fundamental Advances in Recording and Reproducing Sound Using Vertical Undulations on a Disk,” Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers 51, no. 4 (1932): 987–92.
  45. 45.
    C. G. McProud, “Audiana—Recording Characteristics 2,” Audio Engineering, January 1950, 20–21, 45.
  46. 46.
    “Dialing Your Discs,” High Fidelity, February 1955, 70.
  47. 47.
    Wesley C. Miller, “Magnetic Recording for Motion Picture Studios,” Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 48, no. 1 (1947): 61.
  48. 48.
    Emery, “Beyond the Matrix,” 42.
  49. 49.
    The four separate frequency bands were (1) below 80 Hz, (2) between 80 Hz and 3 kHz, (3) between 3 kHz and 9 kHz, and (4) above 9 kHz. Ray M. Dolby, “An Audio Noise Reduction System,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 15, no. 4 (1967): 383–88.
  50. 50.
    Carl E. Warner, “‘Around the World’ in 35–mm,” International Projectionist, July 1957, 7–8.
  51. 51.
    Robert Fine, “Perspecta—The All-Purpose Recording and Reproducing Sound System,” International Projectionist, July 1954, 32–33, 41–42.
  52. 52.
    According to Mark Davis, the Perspecta process specifically created three different loudspeaker channels for the rear of the theater: left-surround, right-surround, and center-surround. Davis, “History of Spatial Coding,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 51, no. 6 (2003): 560.
  53. 53.
    “In Memorium: John Mosely,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 44, no. ½ (1996): 93.
  54. 54.
    John Mosely, “Quintaphonic Sound,” SMPTE Journal 86, no. 1 (1977): 20–29.
  55. 55.
    The original seven-track magnetic release was transcoded into a digital 5.1 mix during April 2002 by Chace Audio. Descriptions of this process and of the original seven-track mix are documented at Chace Audio in “Transfer and Synchronize: How the West Was Won (1962),” 26 April 2002, folder 020415-03/751702-02, Chace Audio, Burbank, CA.
  56. 56.
    Graeme Ferguson, “‘North of Superior’: The World's Largest Motion Picture,” American Cinematographer, September 1971, 899–901, 912, 943–49; and “The Imax/Omnimax Giant Theaters,” BoxOffice, March 19, 1979, MT4–MT5.
  57. 57.
    Paul Grainge, Brand Hollywood: Selling Entertainment in a Global Media Age (New York: Routledge, 2008), 94.
  58. 58.
    For this analysis I consulted the original surround-sound channel available as the 4.0 audio option on Tron, directed by Steven Lisberger (1982; Burbank, CA: Buena Vista, 2000), DVD. Subsequent DVD and Blu-ray releases only offer the 5.1 remix.
  59. 59.
    Blake, “The Evolution and Utilization,” 77; for in-depth discussions of the mix's construction, including Michael Fremer's role as sound-track supervisor, see Robert Moog, “Wendy Carlos & Michael Fremer Reveal the Secrets Behind the Soundtrack of Tron,” Keyboard Magazine, November 1982, 53–57; Ralph Hodges, “The Wonderful Sound World of Walt Disney,” db: The Sound Engineering Magazine, December 1982, 38–41; and Marc Mancini, “The Sound Designer,” in Film Sound: Theory and Practice, ed. Elisabeth Weiss and John Belton (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), 362–63.
  60. 60.
    The Wiz, directed by Sidney Lumet (1978; Burbank, CA: Universal, 2004), DVD. The original surround-sound channel from Alien is available as the 4.1 audio option on Alien, directed by Ridley Scott (1979; Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth-Century Fox, 2011), Blu-ray.
  61. 61.
    WM. E. Garity and J. N. A. Hawkins, “Fantasound,” Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 37, no. 8 (1941): 127–46.
  62. 62.
    Compulsion, directed by Richard Fleischer (1959; Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth-Century Fox, 2006), DVD; Sweet Charity, directed by Bob Fosse (1969; Burbank, CA: Universal, 2003), DVD. The original surround-sound channel from West Side Story is available as the 4.0 audio option on West Side Story, directed by Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins (1961; Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth-Century Fox, 2011), Blu-ray.
  63. 63.
    Journey to the Center of the Earth, directed by Henry Levin (1959; Glendale, CA: Twilight Time, 2012), Blu-ray.
  64. 64.
    The Sand Pebbles, directed by Robert Wise (1966; Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth-Century Fox, 2007), DVD.
  65. 65.
    Rick Altman, “The Sound of Sound,” Cineaste, January 1995, 70.
  66. 66.
    Battle of the Bulge: Original LCRS Surrounds,” 27 July 1999, folder 990917D, “Create 5.1 CDS: Battle of the Bulge, The (1966),” Chace Audio, Burbank, CA.
  67. 67.
    The original surround-sound channel is available as the 4.0 audio option on Tora! Tora! Tora!, directed by Richard Fleischer (1970; Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth-Century Fox, 2011), Blu-ray. For more discussion of Murray Spivack's mix for the film, see An Oral History with Murray Spivack, interview by Charles Degelman, 1995, 139–40, 191–93, Academy Oral History Program, Margaret Herrick Library, AMPAS.
  68. 68.
    Whittington, Sound Design, 27–31.
  69. 69.
    Beck, “A Quiet Revolution,” 293; Caldwell makes a similar point in his discussion of why “art directors” renamed themselves “production designers,” namely that a new moniker aligns the “production designer” with above-the-line creatives and forces the industry to recognize the importance of the profession. Caldwell, Production Culture, 47.
  70. 70.
    Beck, “A Quiet Revolution,” 298–99.
  71. 71.
    Lo Brutto, SoundOn-Film, 220; Frank Serafine, “The New Motion Picture Sound,” American Cinematographer, August 1980, 796; see also Peter Lavezzoli, The Dawn of Indian Music in the West (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2006), 147–99.
  72. 72.
    Serafine, “New Motion Picture Sound,” 846.
  73. 73.
    For instance, Burtt characterizes himself as an expert historian of Hollywood sound effects, but he distances his own work from this history when describing his first Dolby Stereo project: “We weren't going to follow the science fiction style in sound prior to Star Wars—like Forbidden Planet, War of the Worlds, and countless science fiction movies up to that point.” See Lo Brutto, SoundOn-Film, 143. Rydstrom similarly channels Murch by situating his designs for Dolby Six-Track releases including Cocoon (1985) and Spaceballs (1987) within rock music's more experimental lineage, specifically John Cage and “Revolution 9” by the Beatles, “because of that early, almost Musique Concrète use of multitrack to use real-life sounds and to turn them into rhythms.” See Lo Brutto, SoundOn-Film, 241–42.
  74. 74.
    For instance, see Whittington, Sound Design, 22–23; Beck, “A Quiet Revolution,” 471–90; and Mark Kerins, Beyond Dolby (Stereo): Cinema in the Digital Sound Age (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010), 33–35.
  75. 75.
    Cousins, “Walter Murch,” 159–60.
  76. 76.
    Walter Murch, telephone interview with Jay Beck, January 23, 2001; see also Beck, “A Quiet Revolution,” 485.
  77. 77.
    Walter Murch, “Touch of Silence,” in Soundscape: The School of Sound Lectures, 1998–2001, ed. Larry Sider, Diane Freeman, and Jerry Sider (London: Wallflower, 2003), 95.
  78. 78.
    See Mitchell Newman's monthly Acoustics column in Rolling Stone, Robert Long's 4–channel Discs/Tapes column for High Fidelity, and Julian D. Hirsch's Technical Talk column in Stereo Review; John M. Eargle, “Multichannel Stereo Matrix Systems: An Overview,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 19, no. 7 (1971): 558.
  79. 79.
    Kier Keightley, “‘Turn It Down!’ She Shrieked: Gender, Domestic Space, and High Fidelity, 1948–59,” Popular Music 15, no. 2 (1996): 150.
  80. 80.
    Tim Anderson, Making Easy Listening: Material Culture and Postwar American Recording (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006), 155.
  81. 81.
    For instance, see discussions of “The US Company” (USCO) art collective in Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 48–58.
  82. 82.
    John Covach and Andrew Flory, What's That Sound? An Introduction to Rock and Its History, 3rd ed. (New York: Norton, 2012), 254–95; Jean Baudrillard, “Stereo-Porno,” in Seduction, trans. Brian Singer (New York: St. Martin's, 1990), 30–31.
  83. 83.
    Keightley, “‘Turn It Down!’” 152.
  84. 84.
    Mitchell Newman, “Stereo Stereo, part one,” Rolling Stone, November 26, 1970, 40. Examples of concert hall simulation occur on most classical recordings from Leonard Bernstein's EMI release of Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique (1977) to a Beverly Sills recital, which High Fidelity claimed had enough reverb to “resemble a bowling alley.” Robert Long, “Four-Channel Discs and Tapes,” High Fidelity, April 1972, 71. A more typical instance of this concert-hall simulation occurs throughout the quadraphonic re-release of Johnny Cash's Live at San Quentin (1974). The front channels contain Cash and his band, while the rear channels contain reverb and the prisoners' claps, stomps, and cheers.
  85. 85.
    Edward Greenfield, “London,” High Fidelity, July 1972, 13, 16; Peter G. Davis, “Quad—Love It or Leave It,” New York Times, May 20, 1973, 158; Paul Myers and Bob Auger, “Schonberg's Gurrelieder,” Studio Sound, June 1975, 38–41.
  86. 86.
    For this analysis I used the 4.0 Quad Mix available on Pink Floyd, The Dark Side of the Moon: Immersion Box Set, produced by Alan Parsons, recorded 1973, EMI, 2011, compact disc.
  87. 87.
    Alan Parsons, “Four Sides of the Moon,” Studio Sound, June 1975, 50–52.
  88. 88.
    High Fidelity Compares Columbia's and RCA's Four-Channel Disc Systems: Matrix vs. Discrete—A Preliminary Report,” High Fidelity, January 1974, 35–44.
  89. 89.
    For the CBS Stereo Quadraphonic (SQ) matrix, for instance, the left track (LT) contained three channels: “Lf + (0.707 Rb) - j (0.707 Lb)” where “0.707” denotes an amplitude level and “j” denotes a ninety-degree phase shift. In order to derive a new loudspeaker channel, such as left-back (Lb), an SQ decoder performed one of four operations, such as “(0.707 LT) - j (0.707 RT).” Benjamin B. Bauer, Daniel W. Gravereaux, and Arthur J. Gust, “A Compatible Stereo-Quadraphonic (SQ) Record System,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 19, no. 8 (1971): 638–46.
  90. 90.
    John M. Eargle, “4-2-4 Matrix Systems: Standards, Practice and Interchangeability,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 20, no. 10 (1972): 809–15. In addition to the matrix, there was a less popular “discrete” method that stored four-channel information across very high frequencies. Its use of an extended frequency range, however, made it incompatible with the bandwidth limitations of commercial radio. Toshiya Inoue, Nobuaki Takahashi, and Isao Owaki, “A Discrete Four-Channel Disc and Its Reproducing System (CD-4 System),” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 19, no. 7 (1971): 576–83; Ralph Hodges, “The 4-Channel Plunge,” High Fidelity, June 1975, 64.
  91. 91.
    The 4.0 Quad Mix on the 2011 disc does not contain any of the technical compromises inherent in the four-channel release. I used Audacity software to recreate a matrixed version adhering to the CBS SQ process.
  92. 92.
    For instance, see Norman H. Crowhurst, “Where to Put Your Stereo Speakers,” High Fidelity, October 1958, 54–56; Norman Eisenberg, “Loudspeakers: Their Choice and Installation,” High Fidelity, June 1966, 51–58.
  93. 93.
    Tomlinson Holman, 5.1 Surround Sound: Up and Running (Burlington, MA: Focal, 2000), 126.
  94. 94.
    Ibid., 53–55.
  95. 95.
    Mark Kerins, “Multichannel Gaming and the Aesthetics of Interactive Surround Sound,” in The Oxford Handbook of New Audiovisual Aesthetics, ed. John Richardson, Claudia Gorbman, and Carol Vernallis (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013), 591–92.
  96. 96.
    Sergi, “Silent Blast,” 14–18; Jordan Fox, “Making Beaches out of Grains of Sand,” Cinefex, December 1980, 52–56; Frank Serafine, “Sound Effects Design and Synthesis for Tron,” American Cinematographer, August 1982, 807, 830–34.
  97. 97.
    Timothy D. Taylor, Strange Sounds: Music, Technology and Culture (New York: Routledge, 2001), 67.
  98. 98.
    For analyses of similar instances of practitioner rhetoric, see Katherine Quanz, “Pro-Tools, Playback, and the Value of Postproduction Sound Labor in Canada,” Velvet Light Trap 76 (Fall 2015): 37–48.

Notes

  1. 1.
    “Bid Letters Out on Apocalypse,” Variety, February 28, 1979, 5.
  2. 2.
    Variety later reported that installations were not required and that they would cost closer to $5,500. “Exhibs Asked to Buy Dolby Unit for 70m Apocalypse,” Variety, September 5, 1979, 6, 43.
  3. 3.
    “An Archival Detailing of UA's Apocalypse Now Since 1967 Start,” Variety, May 23, 1979, 5, 46.
  4. 4.
    For coverage of its production difficulties, see “Typhoon Olga Wrecks Coppola Production; Forces 6-Wk Hiatus,” Variety, June 2, 1976, 1, 69; “Temple Roof Falls at Apocalypse Location, but Injuries Avoided,” Variety, March 23, 1977, 6; and “Coppola Hocks His Personal Fortune,” Variety, June 8, 1977, 5. For coverage of its controversial content, see “Milius Re-Heats His Apocalypse,” Variety, September 3, 1975, 5, 27; and “Word Leaks of Pentagon's Sour View of Coppola's Apocalypse Now; Deemed ‘Anti-U.S.’ in Script,” Variety, June 23, 1976, 5, 35.
  5. 5.
    Jay Beck, “A Quiet Revolution: Changes in American Film Sound Practices, 1967–1979” (PhD diss., University of Iowa, 2003), 37–55.
  6. 6.
    William Whittington, Sound Design & Science Fiction (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007), 117–18.
  7. 7.
    For instance, see Jim Webb and Don Ketteler, “Using the Multitrack Format for Production Film Recording,” Recording Engineer/Producer, April 1980, 110, 112, 114–17; Tom Kenny, “Mike Minkler: Storytelling through Sound,” Mix, September 2002, 50, 52, 54, 56.
  8. 8.
    William Whittington, “Sound Design in New Hollywood Cinema,” in Sound and Music in Film and Visual Media, ed. Graeme Harper (New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2009), 559.
  9. 9.
    Randy Thom, “Designing a Movie for Sound,” Iris 27 (1999): 11. See also Skip Lievsay's discussion of Apocalypse Now in Vincent Lo Brutto, SoundOn-Film: Interviews with Creators of Film Sound (Westport, CT: Praeger, 1994), 268; Rob James, “Gary Rydstrom Interview,” Studio Sound, September 2000, 51, 56; and Larry Blake, “Apocalypse Now REDUX: New Scenes, New Sounds for Francis Coppola's 1979 Masterpiece,” Mix, August 2001, 55.
  10. 10.
    Kevin Jackson, “Murch's Sound, Coppola's Fury,” Independent (London), November 24, 2001, 10. Dolby engineers discuss the film's stereo technology in “The New Technology: The Role of Noise Reduction, Evolution of Film Sound,” Dolby Background Information on Film Sound (San Francisco: Dolby, 1980), 6; see also, Bruce Emery, “Beyond the Matrix: Dolby Digital Surround Sound,” in Cinesonic: Experiencing the Soundtrack, ed. Philip Brophy (Sidney: Southwood, 2001), 41–45.
  11. 11.
    Examples include Frank Paine, “Sound Mixing and Apocalypse Now: An Interview with Walter Murch,” in Film Sound: Theory and Practice, ed. Elisabeth Weiss and John Belton (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), 356–60; Lo Brutto, SoundOn-Film, 83–99; Mark Cousins, “Walter Murch: Designing Sounds for Apocalypse Now,” in Projections 6: Filmmakers on Filmmaking, ed. John Boorman and Walter Donohue (London: Faber, 1996), 149–62; Tom Kenny, “Walter Murch: The Search for Order in Sound & Picture,” Mix, April 1998, 12–24; and Michael Jarrett, “Sound Doctrine: An Interview with Walter Murch,” Film Quarterly 53, no. 3 (2000): 2–11.
  12. 12.
    Lo Brutto, SoundOn-Film, 84; Michael Ondaatje, The Conversations: Walter Murch and the Art of Editing Film (New York: Knopf, 2002), 6–10.
  13. 13.
    Cousins, “Walter Murch,” 159–60.
  14. 14.
    Jackson, “Murch's Sound, Coppola's Fury,” 10.
  15. 15.
    Matt Schudel, “Ray Dolby, 80: Audio Pioneer Changed Sound of Music,” Washington Post, September 18, 2013, C8.
  16. 16.
    John Thornton Caldwell, Production Culture: Industrial Reflexivity and Critical Practice in Film and Television (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008), 68.
  17. 17.
    Gianluca Sergi, The Dolby Era: Film Sound in Contemporary Hollywood (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), 12–15.
  18. 18.
    See also Gianluca Sergi, “Tales of the Silent Blast: Star Wars and Sound,” Journal of Popular Film and Television 26, no. 1 (1998): 12–22.
  19. 19.
    Sergi, Dolby Era, 11.
  20. 20.
    Gianluca Sergi, “A Cry in the Dark: The Role of Post-Classical Film Sound,” in Contemporary Hollywood Cinema, ed. Steve Neale and Murray Smith (New York: Routledge, 1998), 158, 162.
  21. 21.
    For instance, see James Wierzbicki, Film Music: A History (New York: Routledge, 2009); John Richardson, Claudia Gorbman, and Carol Vernallis, eds., The Oxford Handbook of New Audiovisual Aesthetics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013); and Kathryn Kalinak, ed., Sound: Dialogue, Music, and Effects (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2015).
  22. 22.
    SVA was an acronym for stereo variable area, a name for the pair of optical tracks that housed each print's multichannel mix.
  23. 23.
    Beck, “A Quiet Revolution,” 52; Blake, “Apocalypse Now REDUX,” 57.
  24. 24.
    “Dolby Labs Reports Appreciable Increases of Sound System Installations in Theatres,” BoxOffice, December 13, 1976, 30.
  25. 25.
    The matrix involved storing the left, center, right, and surround channels onto two tracks: left-total (Lt) and right-total (Rt). The Lt track contained the left, center, and surround channels, and Dolby sent this entire track to the front-left loudspeaker. Similarly, the Rt track contained the right, center, and surround channels, and Dolby sent this track to the front-right loudspeaker. As a result, surround-sound effects emanated not only from rear loudspeakers but from two loudspeakers at the front of the theater. Larry Blake, “Mixing Dolby Stereo Film Sound,” Recording Engineer/Producer, April 1981, 68–79; Larry Blake, “Mixing Techniques for Dolby Stereo Film and Video Releases,” Recording Engineer/Producer, June 1985, 94–107; and Benjamin B. Bauer, “Directional Ambiguity of Quadruphonic Matrices [sic],” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 19, no. 4 (1971): 315–16.
  26. 26.
    Larry Blake, “The Evolution and Utilization of 70mm SixTrack Film Sound,” Recording Engineer/Producer, April 1983, 64–78.
  27. 27.
    “Seeking Excellence in Cinema Audio: SMPTE Honour Max Bell,” Cinema Technology, December 2011, 38. Bell and Watts first tested their split-surround design on select prints of Superman (1978).
  28. 28.
    David P. Robinson, “CP100 Cinema Processor—A New Audio Control Center for the Motion Picture Theatre,” preprint no. 1112, Audio Engineering Society Convention 54, May 4–7, 1976, n.p.; “Now Meet See-Peewuno-o,” BoxOffice, December 17, 1977, 17.
  29. 29.
    John F. Allen, “A 70mm Review,” BoxOffice, January 1984, 29–30. The 500 Hz cutoff was designed for Dolby's preferred Altec A-4 speaker systems, which divided the network of frequencies for the playback signal at 500 Hz. John Mayer and Terry Tomaselli, “Generating Low Frequency Audio Energy for Apocalypse Now,” Recording Engineer/Producer, October 1979, 118.
  30. 30.
    Dolby SA5 Surround Adapter (San Francisco: Dolby, 1979), 1–3; “Dolby Develops SA5 Stereo Surround Unit for Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse,” BoxOffice, September 17, 1979, 28.
  31. 31.
    “Dolby Develops SA5 Stereo Surround Unit.” In 1980 Dolby announced the release of their CP-200, a single processor that combined the functions of the CP-100 and the SA5 with greater economy, but the CP-200 was not available until after Apocalypse Now's release. See David Robinson, “The CP200—A Comprehensive Cinema Theater Audio Processor,” SMPTE Journal 90, no. 9 (1981): 778–85; “Dolby's CP200,” BoxOffice, February 4, 1980, M26, M29.
  32. 32.
    John Iles, “Dolby Stereo Surround on 70mm,” in70mm, November 2, 2012; and July 2, 2014, http://www.in70mm.com/news/2012/format_43/index.htm.
  33. 33.
    Blake, “Apocalypse Now REDUX,” 58.
  34. 34.
    Ibid.
  35. 35.
    Apocalypse Now, directed by Francis Ford Coppola (1979; Hollywood, CA: Paramount, 1999), DVD. Coppola has released two separate versions of the film for home video: the 1979 theatrical version with a digitally enhanced sound track, and a similarly enhanced director's cut Apocalypse Now Redux from 2001. Both versions use the same 5.1 surround-sound design for this opening sequence.
  36. 36.
    For this analysis, I used the sound editing software Audacity, which allows for the muting of sound effects above 500 Hz and for the separation of the 5.1 mix's two rear channels into individual waveforms.
  37. 37.
    Beck, “A Quiet Revolution,” 57–59.
  38. 38.
    Lloyd Thompson, “Progress Committee Report,” Journal of the SMPTE 65, no. 5 (1956): 248–49. See also Arthur Rowan, “Todd-AO—Newest Wide-Screen System,” American Cinematographer, October 1954, 494–96, 526; “Westrex Wins ‘Oscar’ For Todd-AO Recording Job,” International Projectionist, May 1958, 21.
  39. 39.
    See John Belton, Widescreen Cinema (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), 85–112.
  40. 40.
    Hazard E. Reeves, “The Development of Stereo Magnetic Recording for Film (Part II),” SMPTE Journal 91, no.11 (1982): 1087–90; Ernest W. Franck and Edward Schmidt, “New Products and New Applications in the Magnetic-Tape and Film Fields,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 4, no. 3 (1956): 90–100.
  41. 41.
    E. I. Sponable, H. E. Bragg, and L. D. Grignon, “Design Considerations of CinemaScope Film,” Journal of the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers 63, no. 1 (1954): 1–4. See also John Belton, “1950s Magnetic Sound: The Frozen Revolution,” in Sound Theory, Sound Practice, ed. Rick Altman (New York: Routledge, 1992), 154–67; and Matthew Malsky, “The Grandeur(s) of Cinema Scope: Early Experiments in Cinematic Stereophony,” in Living Stereo: Histories and Cultures of Multichannel Sound, ed. Paul Théberge, Kyle Devine, and Tom Everett (New York: Bloomsbury, 2015), 207–25.
  42. 42.
    Michael Todd Jr. and Susan McCarthy Todd, A Valuable Property: The Life Story of Michael Todd (New York: Arbor, 1983), 245.
  43. 43.
    James Morris, “The Todd-AO System: A Projector for Both 70- and 35-mm Film,” International Projectionist, October 1955, 7–10, 34.
  44. 44.
    H. A. Frederick and H. C. Harrison, “Vertically Cut Sound Records: Recent Fundamental Advances in Recording and Reproducing Sound Using Vertical Undulations on a Disk,” Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers 51, no. 4 (1932): 987–92.
  45. 45.
    C. G. McProud, “Audiana—Recording Characteristics 2,” Audio Engineering, January 1950, 20–21, 45.
  46. 46.
    “Dialing Your Discs,” High Fidelity, February 1955, 70.
  47. 47.
    Wesley C. Miller, “Magnetic Recording for Motion Picture Studios,” Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 48, no. 1 (1947): 61.
  48. 48.
    Emery, “Beyond the Matrix,” 42.
  49. 49.
    The four separate frequency bands were (1) below 80 Hz, (2) between 80 Hz and 3 kHz, (3) between 3 kHz and 9 kHz, and (4) above 9 kHz. Ray M. Dolby, “An Audio Noise Reduction System,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 15, no. 4 (1967): 383–88.
  50. 50.
    Carl E. Warner, “‘Around the World’ in 35–mm,” International Projectionist, July 1957, 7–8.
  51. 51.
    Robert Fine, “Perspecta—The All-Purpose Recording and Reproducing Sound System,” International Projectionist, July 1954, 32–33, 41–42.
  52. 52.
    According to Mark Davis, the Perspecta process specifically created three different loudspeaker channels for the rear of the theater: left-surround, right-surround, and center-surround. Davis, “History of Spatial Coding,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 51, no. 6 (2003): 560.
  53. 53.
    “In Memorium: John Mosely,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 44, no. ½ (1996): 93.
  54. 54.
    John Mosely, “Quintaphonic Sound,” SMPTE Journal 86, no. 1 (1977): 20–29.
  55. 55.
    The original seven-track magnetic release was transcoded into a digital 5.1 mix during April 2002 by Chace Audio. Descriptions of this process and of the original seven-track mix are documented at Chace Audio in “Transfer and Synchronize: How the West Was Won (1962),” 26 April 2002, folder 020415-03/751702-02, Chace Audio, Burbank, CA.
  56. 56.
    Graeme Ferguson, “‘North of Superior’: The World's Largest Motion Picture,” American Cinematographer, September 1971, 899–901, 912, 943–49; and “The Imax/Omnimax Giant Theaters,” BoxOffice, March 19, 1979, MT4–MT5.
  57. 57.
    Paul Grainge, Brand Hollywood: Selling Entertainment in a Global Media Age (New York: Routledge, 2008), 94.
  58. 58.
    For this analysis I consulted the original surround-sound channel available as the 4.0 audio option on Tron, directed by Steven Lisberger (1982; Burbank, CA: Buena Vista, 2000), DVD. Subsequent DVD and Blu-ray releases only offer the 5.1 remix.
  59. 59.
    Blake, “The Evolution and Utilization,” 77; for in-depth discussions of the mix's construction, including Michael Fremer's role as sound-track supervisor, see Robert Moog, “Wendy Carlos & Michael Fremer Reveal the Secrets Behind the Soundtrack of Tron,” Keyboard Magazine, November 1982, 53–57; Ralph Hodges, “The Wonderful Sound World of Walt Disney,” db: The Sound Engineering Magazine, December 1982, 38–41; and Marc Mancini, “The Sound Designer,” in Film Sound: Theory and Practice, ed. Elisabeth Weiss and John Belton (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), 362–63.
  60. 60.
    The Wiz, directed by Sidney Lumet (1978; Burbank, CA: Universal, 2004), DVD. The original surround-sound channel from Alien is available as the 4.1 audio option on Alien, directed by Ridley Scott (1979; Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth-Century Fox, 2011), Blu-ray.
  61. 61.
    WM. E. Garity and J. N. A. Hawkins, “Fantasound,” Journal of the Society of Motion Picture Engineers 37, no. 8 (1941): 127–46.
  62. 62.
    Compulsion, directed by Richard Fleischer (1959; Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth-Century Fox, 2006), DVD; Sweet Charity, directed by Bob Fosse (1969; Burbank, CA: Universal, 2003), DVD. The original surround-sound channel from West Side Story is available as the 4.0 audio option on West Side Story, directed by Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins (1961; Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth-Century Fox, 2011), Blu-ray.
  63. 63.
    Journey to the Center of the Earth, directed by Henry Levin (1959; Glendale, CA: Twilight Time, 2012), Blu-ray.
  64. 64.
    The Sand Pebbles, directed by Robert Wise (1966; Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth-Century Fox, 2007), DVD.
  65. 65.
    Rick Altman, “The Sound of Sound,” Cineaste, January 1995, 70.
  66. 66.
    Battle of the Bulge: Original LCRS Surrounds,” 27 July 1999, folder 990917D, “Create 5.1 CDS: Battle of the Bulge, The (1966),” Chace Audio, Burbank, CA.
  67. 67.
    The original surround-sound channel is available as the 4.0 audio option on Tora! Tora! Tora!, directed by Richard Fleischer (1970; Beverly Hills, CA: Twentieth-Century Fox, 2011), Blu-ray. For more discussion of Murray Spivack's mix for the film, see An Oral History with Murray Spivack, interview by Charles Degelman, 1995, 139–40, 191–93, Academy Oral History Program, Margaret Herrick Library, AMPAS.
  68. 68.
    Whittington, Sound Design, 27–31.
  69. 69.
    Beck, “A Quiet Revolution,” 293; Caldwell makes a similar point in his discussion of why “art directors” renamed themselves “production designers,” namely that a new moniker aligns the “production designer” with above-the-line creatives and forces the industry to recognize the importance of the profession. Caldwell, Production Culture, 47.
  70. 70.
    Beck, “A Quiet Revolution,” 298–99.
  71. 71.
    Lo Brutto, SoundOn-Film, 220; Frank Serafine, “The New Motion Picture Sound,” American Cinematographer, August 1980, 796; see also Peter Lavezzoli, The Dawn of Indian Music in the West (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2006), 147–99.
  72. 72.
    Serafine, “New Motion Picture Sound,” 846.
  73. 73.
    For instance, Burtt characterizes himself as an expert historian of Hollywood sound effects, but he distances his own work from this history when describing his first Dolby Stereo project: “We weren't going to follow the science fiction style in sound prior to Star Wars—like Forbidden Planet, War of the Worlds, and countless science fiction movies up to that point.” See Lo Brutto, SoundOn-Film, 143. Rydstrom similarly channels Murch by situating his designs for Dolby Six-Track releases including Cocoon (1985) and Spaceballs (1987) within rock music's more experimental lineage, specifically John Cage and “Revolution 9” by the Beatles, “because of that early, almost Musique Concrète use of multitrack to use real-life sounds and to turn them into rhythms.” See Lo Brutto, SoundOn-Film, 241–42.
  74. 74.
    For instance, see Whittington, Sound Design, 22–23; Beck, “A Quiet Revolution,” 471–90; and Mark Kerins, Beyond Dolby (Stereo): Cinema in the Digital Sound Age (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2010), 33–35.
  75. 75.
    Cousins, “Walter Murch,” 159–60.
  76. 76.
    Walter Murch, telephone interview with Jay Beck, January 23, 2001; see also Beck, “A Quiet Revolution,” 485.
  77. 77.
    Walter Murch, “Touch of Silence,” in Soundscape: The School of Sound Lectures, 1998–2001, ed. Larry Sider, Diane Freeman, and Jerry Sider (London: Wallflower, 2003), 95.
  78. 78.
    See Mitchell Newman's monthly Acoustics column in Rolling Stone, Robert Long's 4–channel Discs/Tapes column for High Fidelity, and Julian D. Hirsch's Technical Talk column in Stereo Review; John M. Eargle, “Multichannel Stereo Matrix Systems: An Overview,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 19, no. 7 (1971): 558.
  79. 79.
    Kier Keightley, “‘Turn It Down!’ She Shrieked: Gender, Domestic Space, and High Fidelity, 1948–59,” Popular Music 15, no. 2 (1996): 150.
  80. 80.
    Tim Anderson, Making Easy Listening: Material Culture and Postwar American Recording (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006), 155.
  81. 81.
    For instance, see discussions of “The US Company” (USCO) art collective in Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 48–58.
  82. 82.
    John Covach and Andrew Flory, What's That Sound? An Introduction to Rock and Its History, 3rd ed. (New York: Norton, 2012), 254–95; Jean Baudrillard, “Stereo-Porno,” in Seduction, trans. Brian Singer (New York: St. Martin's, 1990), 30–31.
  83. 83.
    Keightley, “‘Turn It Down!’” 152.
  84. 84.
    Mitchell Newman, “Stereo Stereo, part one,” Rolling Stone, November 26, 1970, 40. Examples of concert hall simulation occur on most classical recordings from Leonard Bernstein's EMI release of Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique (1977) to a Beverly Sills recital, which High Fidelity claimed had enough reverb to “resemble a bowling alley.” Robert Long, “Four-Channel Discs and Tapes,” High Fidelity, April 1972, 71. A more typical instance of this concert-hall simulation occurs throughout the quadraphonic re-release of Johnny Cash's Live at San Quentin (1974). The front channels contain Cash and his band, while the rear channels contain reverb and the prisoners' claps, stomps, and cheers.
  85. 85.
    Edward Greenfield, “London,” High Fidelity, July 1972, 13, 16; Peter G. Davis, “Quad—Love It or Leave It,” New York Times, May 20, 1973, 158; Paul Myers and Bob Auger, “Schonberg's Gurrelieder,” Studio Sound, June 1975, 38–41.
  86. 86.
    For this analysis I used the 4.0 Quad Mix available on Pink Floyd, The Dark Side of the Moon: Immersion Box Set, produced by Alan Parsons, recorded 1973, EMI, 2011, compact disc.
  87. 87.
    Alan Parsons, “Four Sides of the Moon,” Studio Sound, June 1975, 50–52.
  88. 88.
    High Fidelity Compares Columbia's and RCA's Four-Channel Disc Systems: Matrix vs. Discrete—A Preliminary Report,” High Fidelity, January 1974, 35–44.
  89. 89.
    For the CBS Stereo Quadraphonic (SQ) matrix, for instance, the left track (LT) contained three channels: “Lf + (0.707 Rb) - j (0.707 Lb)” where “0.707” denotes an amplitude level and “j” denotes a ninety-degree phase shift. In order to derive a new loudspeaker channel, such as left-back (Lb), an SQ decoder performed one of four operations, such as “(0.707 LT) - j (0.707 RT).” Benjamin B. Bauer, Daniel W. Gravereaux, and Arthur J. Gust, “A Compatible Stereo-Quadraphonic (SQ) Record System,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 19, no. 8 (1971): 638–46.
  90. 90.
    John M. Eargle, “4-2-4 Matrix Systems: Standards, Practice and Interchangeability,” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 20, no. 10 (1972): 809–15. In addition to the matrix, there was a less popular “discrete” method that stored four-channel information across very high frequencies. Its use of an extended frequency range, however, made it incompatible with the bandwidth limitations of commercial radio. Toshiya Inoue, Nobuaki Takahashi, and Isao Owaki, “A Discrete Four-Channel Disc and Its Reproducing System (CD-4 System),” Journal of the Audio Engineering Society 19, no. 7 (1971): 576–83; Ralph Hodges, “The 4-Channel Plunge,” High Fidelity, June 1975, 64.
  91. 91.
    The 4.0 Quad Mix on the 2011 disc does not contain any of the technical compromises inherent in the four-channel release. I used Audacity software to recreate a matrixed version adhering to the CBS SQ process.
  92. 92.
    For instance, see Norman H. Crowhurst, “Where to Put Your Stereo Speakers,” High Fidelity, October 1958, 54–56; Norman Eisenberg, “Loudspeakers: Their Choice and Installation,” High Fidelity, June 1966, 51–58.
  93. 93.
    Tomlinson Holman, 5.1 Surround Sound: Up and Running (Burlington, MA: Focal, 2000), 126.
  94. 94.
    Ibid., 53–55.
  95. 95.
    Mark Kerins, “Multichannel Gaming and the Aesthetics of Interactive Surround Sound,” in The Oxford Handbook of New Audiovisual Aesthetics, ed. John Richardson, Claudia Gorbman, and Carol Vernallis (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013), 591–92.
  96. 96.
    Sergi, “Silent Blast,” 14–18; Jordan Fox, “Making Beaches out of Grains of Sand,” Cinefex, December 1980, 52–56; Frank Serafine, “Sound Effects Design and Synthesis for Tron,” American Cinematographer, August 1982, 807, 830–34.
  97. 97.
    Timothy D. Taylor, Strange Sounds: Music, Technology and Culture (New York: Routledge, 2001), 67.
  98. 98.
    For analyses of similar instances of practitioner rhetoric, see Katherine Quanz, “Pro-Tools, Playback, and the Value of Postproduction Sound Labor in Canada,” Velvet Light Trap 76 (Fall 2015): 37–48.