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Journal Article

Fin du Globe: On Decadent Planets

Benjamin Morgan
Victorian Studies
Vol. 58, No. 4 (Summer 2016), pp. 609-635
Published by: Indiana University Press
DOI: 10.2979/victorianstudies.58.4.01
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2979/victorianstudies.58.4.01
Page Count: 27
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Fin du Globe: On Decadent Planets on JSTOR

Abstract

As scholars across disciplines have turned their attention to the climate crisis, they have developed expanded critical frameworks—most notably, the Anthropocene—that aspire to understand a new planetary scale of human agency and to situate human history in relation to geological time. This essay argues that the literature of British decadence, which often contemplated the eventual ends of the planet and of the human species, offers resources for refining contemporary thought about planetary and temporal scale. Focusing on the Caribbean writer M. P. Shiel, the essay traces how decadent writing both reveals planetary scales to be irreducibly multiple and exposes a basic antinomy of scalar expansion: for decadents—as for us—to view the Earth and its history in their totality is also to witness their eventual disintegration.

Author Information

Benjamin Morgan University of Chicago

Benjamin Morgan () is Assistant Professor of English at the University of Chicago. His book The Outward Mind: Materialist Aesthetics in Victorian Science and Literature is forthcoming from the University of Chicago Press in 2017, and his essays have appeared in ELH, New Literary History, and American Literary History. This essay is derived from his current project, “In Human Scale: Form and Aesthetics in the Era of Climate Change.”

Works Cited

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  2. Anderson, Katharine. Predicting the Weather: Victorians and the Science of Meteorology. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2005.
  3. Arata, Stephen. “Decadent Form.” ELH 81.3 (2014): 1007–27.
  4. Atwood, Margaret. “The Handmaid's Tale and Oryx and Crake in Context.” PMLA 119.3 (2004): 513–17.
  5. Bate, Jonathan. “Living with the Weather.” Studies in Romanticism 35.3 (1996): 431–47.
  6. Baucom, Ian. “History 4°: Postcolonial Method and Anthropocene Time.” The Cambridge Journal of Postcolonial Literary Inquiry 1.1 (2014): 123–42.
  7. Baucom, Ian. “‘Moving Centers’: Climate Change, Critical Method, and the Historical Novel.” Modern Language Quarterly 76.2 (2015): 137–57.
  8. Billings, Harold. M. P. Shiel: The Middle Years, 1897–1923. Austin: Beacham, 2010.
  9. Blanchot, Maurice. “The Apocalypse Is Disappointing.” Friendship. Trans. Elizabeth Rottenberg. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1997. 101–08.
  10. Bonneuil, Christophe, and Jean-Baptiste Fressoz. The Shock of the Anthropocene: The Earth, History and Us. Brooklyn: Verso, 2016.
  11. Bourget, Paul. “The Example of Baudelaire.” Trans. Nancy O'Connor. New England Review 30.2 (2009): 90–104.
  12. Bristow, Joseph. “Introduction.” The Fin-de-Siècle Poem: English Literary Culture and the 1890s. Ed. Bristow. Athens: Ohio UP, 2005. 1–46.
  13. Brown, J. Christopher, and Mark Purcell. “There's Nothing Inherent about Scale: Political Ecology, the Local Trap, and the Politics of Development in the Brazilian Amazon.” Geoforum 36.5 (2005): 607–24.
  14. Bulfin, Ailise. “‘The End of Time’: M. P. Shiel and the ‘Apocalyptic Imaginary.’” Victorian Time: Technologies, Standardizations, Catastrophes. Ed. Trish Ferguson. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2013. 153–77.
  15. Byron, George Gordon. “Darkness.” The Works of Lord Byron. Ed. Ernest Hartley Coleridge. London: Murray, 1905. 4:42–45.
  16. Campbell, Thomas. “The Last Man.” The Poetical Works of Thomas Campbell. Ed. W. A. Hill. London: Moxon, 1851. 130–34.
  17. Chakrabarty, Dipesh. “Climate and Capital: On Conjoined Histories.” Critical Inquiry 41.1 (2014): 1–23.
  18. Chakrabarty, Dipesh. “The Climate of History: Four Theses.” Critical Inquiry 35.2 (2009): 197–222.
  19. Clarke, Bruce. Energy Forms: Allegory and Science in the Era of Classical Thermodynamics. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 2001.
  20. Cousin de Grainville, Jean-Baptiste-François-Xavier. The Last Man, or, Omegarus and Syderia: A Romance in Futurity. London: Dutton, 1806.
  21. Danowski, Déborah, and Eduardo Vivieros de Castro. “l'Arrêt de Monde.” De l'Univers Clos Au Monde Infini. Paris: Dehors, 2014. 221–339.
  22. Darwin, Charles. “To J. D. Hooker.” 9 Feb. 1865. More Letters of Charles Darwin. A Record of His Work in a Series of Hitherto Unpublished Letters. Eds. Francis Darwin and A. C. Seward. London: Murray, 1903. 1:260–61.
  23. Denisoff, Dennis. “The Dissipating Nature of Decadent Paganism from Pater to Yeats.” Modernism/modernity 15.3 (2008): 431–46.
  24. Edwards, Paul N. A Vast Machine: Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming. Cambridge: MIT P, 2010.
  25. Elias, Amy J., and Christian Moraru. “Introduction: The Planetary Condition.” The Planetary Turn: Relationality and Geoaesthetics in the Twenty-First Century. Eds. Elias and Moraru. Evanston: Northwestern UP, 2015. i–xxxvii.
  26. Favret, Mary A. War at a Distance: Romanticism and the Making of Modern Wartime. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2010.
  27. Forman, Ross G. China and the Victorian Imagination: Empires Entwined. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2013.
  28. Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage, 1995.
  29. Foucault, Michel. “Nietzsche, Genealogy, History.” The Foucault Reader. Ed. Paul Rabinow. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984. 76–100.
  30. Fumagalli, Maria Cristina. Caribbean Perspectives on Modernity: Returning Medusa's Gaze. Charlottesville: U of Virginia P, 2009.
  31. Gagnier, Regenia. Individualism, Decadence and Globalization: On the Relationship of Part to Whole, 1859–1920. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2010.
  32. Galton, Francis. Meteorographica, or Methods of Mapping the Weather. London: Macmillan, 1863.
  33. Gandhi, Leela. Affective Communities: Anticolonial Thought, Fin-De-Siècle Radicalism, and the Politics of Friendship. Durham: Duke UP, 2006.
  34. Ghosh, Amitav. The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2016.
  35. Goodlad, Lauren M. E. The Victorian Geopolitical Aesthetic: Realism, Sovereignty, and Transnational Experience. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2015.
  36. Hall, Jason David, and Alex Murray, eds. Decadent Poetics: Literature and Form at the British Fin de Siècle. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2013.
  37. Harris, Wendell V. “John Lane's Keynotes Series and the Fiction of the 1890's.” PMLA 83.5 (1968): 1407–13.
  38. Heringman, Noah. “Deep Time at the Dawn of the Anthropocene.” Representations 129.1 (2015): 56–85.
  39. Hill, Jen. “Whorled: Cyclones, Systems, and the Geographical Imagination.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 36.5 (2014): 441–58.
  40. Hood, Thomas. “The Last Man.” Whims & Oddities in Prose and Verse. London: Lupton, 1826. 22–32.
  41. Hutton, James. “Theory of the Earth.” Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Edinburgh: Dickson, 1788. 1:209–304.
  42. Jackson, Holbrook. The Eighteen Nineties: A Review of Art and Ideas at the Close of the Nineteenth Century. New York: Mitchell, 1914.
  43. Lankester, Edwin Ray. Degeneration: A Chapter in Darwinism. London: Macmillan, 1880.
  44. Latour, Bruno. “Agency at the Time of the Anthropocene.” New Literary History 45.1 (2014): 1–18.
  45. Latour, Bruno. “The Anthropocene and the Destruction of the Image of the Globe.” Facing Gaia: Six Lectures on the Political Theology of Nature. The University of Edinburgh. 25 Feb. 2013. Gifford Lectures.
  46. Latour, Bruno. Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.
  47. Lewis, Simon L., and Mark A. Maslin. “Defining the Anthropocene.” Nature 519.7542 (2015): 171–80.
  48. Lovelock, James. Healing Gaia: Practical Medicine for the Planet. New York: Harmony, 1991.
  49. McGurl, Mark. “The Posthuman Comedy.” Critical Inquiry 38.3 (2012): 533–53.
  50. MacDuffie, Allen. Victorian Literature, Energy, and the Ecological Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2014.
  51. MacLeod, Kirsten. Fictions of British Decadence: High Art, Popular Writing, and the Fin de Siècle. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2006.
  52. Mahoney, Kristin Mary. Literature and the Politics of Post-Victorian Decadence. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2015.
  53. Malm, Andreas. Fossil Capital: The Rise of Steam Power and the Roots of Global Warming. London: Verso, 2016.
  54. Maxwell, James Clerk. “To Mark Pattison.” 7 Apr. 1868. The Scientific Letters and Papers of James Clerk Maxwell. Ed. P. M. Harman. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. 2:358–61.
  55. Menely, Tobias. “‘The Present Obfuscation’: Cowper's Task and the Time of Climate Change.” PMLA 127.3 (2012): 477–92.
  56. Moore, Jason W. Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital. London: Verso, 2015.
  57. Morgan, Monique R. “The Eruption of Krakatoa (Also Known as Krakatau) in 1883.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History. Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Accessed 28 May 2016.
  58. Morgan, Monique R. “Madness, Unreliable Narration, and Genre in ‘The Purple Cloud.’” Science Fiction Studies 36.2 (2009): 266–83.
  59. Morse, Albert Reynolds. “The New Dimensions of M. P. Shiel.” Romantist 2 (1978): 27–30.
  60. Morse, Albert Reynolds, ed. Shiel in Diverse Hands. Cleveland: Reynolds, 1983.
  61. Morton, Timothy. Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology after the End of the World. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2013.
  62. “Mr. Campbell's Last Man.” London Magazine and Review Apr. 1825: 588–91.
  63. Nersessian, Anahid. “Two Gardens: An Experiment in Calamity Form.” Modern Language Quarterly 74.3 (2013): 307–29.
  64. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm. “The Case of Wagner: A Musician's Problem.” The Anti-Christ, Ecce homo, Twilight of the idols, and other writings. Eds. Aaron Ridley and Judith Norman. Trans. Norman. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005.
  65. Nordau, Max. Degeneration. New York: Appleton, 1895.
  66. Nunokawa, Jeff. Tame Passions of Wilde: The Styles of Manageable Desire. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2003.
  67. Plotz, John. “The Victorian Anthropocene: George Marsh and the Tangled Bank of Darwinian Environmentalism.” Australasian Journal of Ecocriticism and Cultural Ecology 4 (2015): 52–64.
  68. Potolsky, Matthew. The Decadent Republic of Letters: Taste, Politics, and Cosmopolitan Community from Baudelaire to Beardsley. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2013.
  69. Rancière, Jacques. Dissensus: On Politics and Aesthetics. Ed. and trans. Steven Corcoran. London: Continuum, 2010.
  70. Ruddiman, William F. “The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era Began Thousands of Years Ago.” Climatic Change 61.3 (2003): 261–93.
  71. Sherry, Vincent B. Modernism and the Reinvention of Decadence. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2015.
  72. Shiel, M. P. “About Myself.” The Works of M. P. Shiel. Ed. A. Reynolds Morse. Los Angeles: Fantasy, 1948. 1–6.
  73. Shiel, M. P. The Last Miracle. London: Laurie, 1906.
  74. Shiel, M. P. The Lord of the Sea. London: Richards, 1901.
  75. Shiel, M. P. The Purple Cloud. London: Penguin, 2012.
  76. Shiel, M. P. The Yellow Danger. London: Richards, 1898. Internet Archive. 30 Oct. 2014.
  77. Small, Helen. “George Eliot and the Cosmopolitan Cynic.” Victorian Studies 55.1 (2012): 85–105.
  78. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. An Aesthetic Education in the Era of Globalization. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2012.
  79. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. Death of a Discipline. New York: Columbia UP, 2003.
  80. Stetz, Margaret Diane. “Sex, Lies, and Printed Cloth: Bookselling at the Bodley Head in the Eighteen-Nineties.” Victorian Studies 35.1 (1991): 71–86.
  81. Svitavsky, William L. “From Decadence to Racial Antagonism: M. P. Shiel at the Turn of the Century.” Science Fiction Studies 31.1 (2004): 1–24.
  82. Taylor, Jesse Oak. The Sky of Our Manufacture: The London Fog in British Fiction from Dickens to Woolf. Charlottesville: U of Virginia P, 2016.
  83. Thomson, William. “On the Age of the Sun's Heat.” Macmillan's Magazine Mar. 1862: 388–93.
  84. Verlaine, Paul. “Langueur.” One Hundred and One Poems by Paul Verlaine. Trans. Norman R. Shapiro. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1999. 134.
  85. Waters, Colin N. et al. “The Anthropocene Is Functionally and Stratigraphically Distinct from the Holocene.” Science 351.6269 (2016): 137.
  86. Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray. Eds. Joseph Bristow and Ian Small. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.
  87. Williams, Mark et al. “The Anthropocene Biosphere.” The Anthropocene Review 2.3 (2015): 196–219.
  88. Wynne-Tyson, Jon. “M. P. Shiel: Right Royal Fantasist.” The Antiquarian Book Monthly Review 8 (1981): 412–23.
  89. Yaeger, Patricia. “Editor's Column: Literature in the Ages of Wood, Tallow, Coal, Whale Oil, Gasoline, Atomic Power, and Other Energy Sources.” PMLA 126.2 (2011): 305–10.

Works Cited

  1. Anderson, Amanda. The Powers of Distance: Cosmopolitanism and the Cultivation of Detachment. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2001.
  2. Anderson, Katharine. Predicting the Weather: Victorians and the Science of Meteorology. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2005.
  3. Arata, Stephen. “Decadent Form.” ELH 81.3 (2014): 1007–27.
  4. Atwood, Margaret. “The Handmaid's Tale and Oryx and Crake in Context.” PMLA 119.3 (2004): 513–17.
  5. Bate, Jonathan. “Living with the Weather.” Studies in Romanticism 35.3 (1996): 431–47.
  6. Baucom, Ian. “History 4°: Postcolonial Method and Anthropocene Time.” The Cambridge Journal of Postcolonial Literary Inquiry 1.1 (2014): 123–42.
  7. Baucom, Ian. “‘Moving Centers’: Climate Change, Critical Method, and the Historical Novel.” Modern Language Quarterly 76.2 (2015): 137–57.
  8. Billings, Harold. M. P. Shiel: The Middle Years, 1897–1923. Austin: Beacham, 2010.
  9. Blanchot, Maurice. “The Apocalypse Is Disappointing.” Friendship. Trans. Elizabeth Rottenberg. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1997. 101–08.
  10. Bonneuil, Christophe, and Jean-Baptiste Fressoz. The Shock of the Anthropocene: The Earth, History and Us. Brooklyn: Verso, 2016.
  11. Bourget, Paul. “The Example of Baudelaire.” Trans. Nancy O'Connor. New England Review 30.2 (2009): 90–104.
  12. Bristow, Joseph. “Introduction.” The Fin-de-Siècle Poem: English Literary Culture and the 1890s. Ed. Bristow. Athens: Ohio UP, 2005. 1–46.
  13. Brown, J. Christopher, and Mark Purcell. “There's Nothing Inherent about Scale: Political Ecology, the Local Trap, and the Politics of Development in the Brazilian Amazon.” Geoforum 36.5 (2005): 607–24.
  14. Bulfin, Ailise. “‘The End of Time’: M. P. Shiel and the ‘Apocalyptic Imaginary.’” Victorian Time: Technologies, Standardizations, Catastrophes. Ed. Trish Ferguson. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2013. 153–77.
  15. Byron, George Gordon. “Darkness.” The Works of Lord Byron. Ed. Ernest Hartley Coleridge. London: Murray, 1905. 4:42–45.
  16. Campbell, Thomas. “The Last Man.” The Poetical Works of Thomas Campbell. Ed. W. A. Hill. London: Moxon, 1851. 130–34.
  17. Chakrabarty, Dipesh. “Climate and Capital: On Conjoined Histories.” Critical Inquiry 41.1 (2014): 1–23.
  18. Chakrabarty, Dipesh. “The Climate of History: Four Theses.” Critical Inquiry 35.2 (2009): 197–222.
  19. Clarke, Bruce. Energy Forms: Allegory and Science in the Era of Classical Thermodynamics. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 2001.
  20. Cousin de Grainville, Jean-Baptiste-François-Xavier. The Last Man, or, Omegarus and Syderia: A Romance in Futurity. London: Dutton, 1806.
  21. Danowski, Déborah, and Eduardo Vivieros de Castro. “l'Arrêt de Monde.” De l'Univers Clos Au Monde Infini. Paris: Dehors, 2014. 221–339.
  22. Darwin, Charles. “To J. D. Hooker.” 9 Feb. 1865. More Letters of Charles Darwin. A Record of His Work in a Series of Hitherto Unpublished Letters. Eds. Francis Darwin and A. C. Seward. London: Murray, 1903. 1:260–61.
  23. Denisoff, Dennis. “The Dissipating Nature of Decadent Paganism from Pater to Yeats.” Modernism/modernity 15.3 (2008): 431–46.
  24. Edwards, Paul N. A Vast Machine: Computer Models, Climate Data, and the Politics of Global Warming. Cambridge: MIT P, 2010.
  25. Elias, Amy J., and Christian Moraru. “Introduction: The Planetary Condition.” The Planetary Turn: Relationality and Geoaesthetics in the Twenty-First Century. Eds. Elias and Moraru. Evanston: Northwestern UP, 2015. i–xxxvii.
  26. Favret, Mary A. War at a Distance: Romanticism and the Making of Modern Wartime. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2010.
  27. Forman, Ross G. China and the Victorian Imagination: Empires Entwined. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2013.
  28. Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage, 1995.
  29. Foucault, Michel. “Nietzsche, Genealogy, History.” The Foucault Reader. Ed. Paul Rabinow. New York: Pantheon Books, 1984. 76–100.
  30. Fumagalli, Maria Cristina. Caribbean Perspectives on Modernity: Returning Medusa's Gaze. Charlottesville: U of Virginia P, 2009.
  31. Gagnier, Regenia. Individualism, Decadence and Globalization: On the Relationship of Part to Whole, 1859–1920. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2010.
  32. Galton, Francis. Meteorographica, or Methods of Mapping the Weather. London: Macmillan, 1863.
  33. Gandhi, Leela. Affective Communities: Anticolonial Thought, Fin-De-Siècle Radicalism, and the Politics of Friendship. Durham: Duke UP, 2006.
  34. Ghosh, Amitav. The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2016.
  35. Goodlad, Lauren M. E. The Victorian Geopolitical Aesthetic: Realism, Sovereignty, and Transnational Experience. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2015.
  36. Hall, Jason David, and Alex Murray, eds. Decadent Poetics: Literature and Form at the British Fin de Siècle. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2013.
  37. Harris, Wendell V. “John Lane's Keynotes Series and the Fiction of the 1890's.” PMLA 83.5 (1968): 1407–13.
  38. Heringman, Noah. “Deep Time at the Dawn of the Anthropocene.” Representations 129.1 (2015): 56–85.
  39. Hill, Jen. “Whorled: Cyclones, Systems, and the Geographical Imagination.” Nineteenth-Century Contexts 36.5 (2014): 441–58.
  40. Hood, Thomas. “The Last Man.” Whims & Oddities in Prose and Verse. London: Lupton, 1826. 22–32.
  41. Hutton, James. “Theory of the Earth.” Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Edinburgh: Dickson, 1788. 1:209–304.
  42. Jackson, Holbrook. The Eighteen Nineties: A Review of Art and Ideas at the Close of the Nineteenth Century. New York: Mitchell, 1914.
  43. Lankester, Edwin Ray. Degeneration: A Chapter in Darwinism. London: Macmillan, 1880.
  44. Latour, Bruno. “Agency at the Time of the Anthropocene.” New Literary History 45.1 (2014): 1–18.
  45. Latour, Bruno. “The Anthropocene and the Destruction of the Image of the Globe.” Facing Gaia: Six Lectures on the Political Theology of Nature. The University of Edinburgh. 25 Feb. 2013. Gifford Lectures.
  46. Latour, Bruno. Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.
  47. Lewis, Simon L., and Mark A. Maslin. “Defining the Anthropocene.” Nature 519.7542 (2015): 171–80.
  48. Lovelock, James. Healing Gaia: Practical Medicine for the Planet. New York: Harmony, 1991.
  49. McGurl, Mark. “The Posthuman Comedy.” Critical Inquiry 38.3 (2012): 533–53.
  50. MacDuffie, Allen. Victorian Literature, Energy, and the Ecological Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2014.
  51. MacLeod, Kirsten. Fictions of British Decadence: High Art, Popular Writing, and the Fin de Siècle. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2006.
  52. Mahoney, Kristin Mary. Literature and the Politics of Post-Victorian Decadence. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2015.
  53. Malm, Andreas. Fossil Capital: The Rise of Steam Power and the Roots of Global Warming. London: Verso, 2016.
  54. Maxwell, James Clerk. “To Mark Pattison.” 7 Apr. 1868. The Scientific Letters and Papers of James Clerk Maxwell. Ed. P. M. Harman. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. 2:358–61.
  55. Menely, Tobias. “‘The Present Obfuscation’: Cowper's Task and the Time of Climate Change.” PMLA 127.3 (2012): 477–92.
  56. Moore, Jason W. Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital. London: Verso, 2015.
  57. Morgan, Monique R. “The Eruption of Krakatoa (Also Known as Krakatau) in 1883.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History. Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Accessed 28 May 2016.
  58. Morgan, Monique R. “Madness, Unreliable Narration, and Genre in ‘The Purple Cloud.’” Science Fiction Studies 36.2 (2009): 266–83.
  59. Morse, Albert Reynolds. “The New Dimensions of M. P. Shiel.” Romantist 2 (1978): 27–30.
  60. Morse, Albert Reynolds, ed. Shiel in Diverse Hands. Cleveland: Reynolds, 1983.
  61. Morton, Timothy. Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology after the End of the World. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2013.
  62. “Mr. Campbell's Last Man.” London Magazine and Review Apr. 1825: 588–91.
  63. Nersessian, Anahid. “Two Gardens: An Experiment in Calamity Form.” Modern Language Quarterly 74.3 (2013): 307–29.
  64. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm. “The Case of Wagner: A Musician's Problem.” The Anti-Christ, Ecce homo, Twilight of the idols, and other writings. Eds. Aaron Ridley and Judith Norman. Trans. Norman. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005.
  65. Nordau, Max. Degeneration. New York: Appleton, 1895.
  66. Nunokawa, Jeff. Tame Passions of Wilde: The Styles of Manageable Desire. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2003.
  67. Plotz, John. “The Victorian Anthropocene: George Marsh and the Tangled Bank of Darwinian Environmentalism.” Australasian Journal of Ecocriticism and Cultural Ecology 4 (2015): 52–64.
  68. Potolsky, Matthew. The Decadent Republic of Letters: Taste, Politics, and Cosmopolitan Community from Baudelaire to Beardsley. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2013.
  69. Rancière, Jacques. Dissensus: On Politics and Aesthetics. Ed. and trans. Steven Corcoran. London: Continuum, 2010.
  70. Ruddiman, William F. “The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era Began Thousands of Years Ago.” Climatic Change 61.3 (2003): 261–93.
  71. Sherry, Vincent B. Modernism and the Reinvention of Decadence. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2015.
  72. Shiel, M. P. “About Myself.” The Works of M. P. Shiel. Ed. A. Reynolds Morse. Los Angeles: Fantasy, 1948. 1–6.
  73. Shiel, M. P. The Last Miracle. London: Laurie, 1906.
  74. Shiel, M. P. The Lord of the Sea. London: Richards, 1901.
  75. Shiel, M. P. The Purple Cloud. London: Penguin, 2012.
  76. Shiel, M. P. The Yellow Danger. London: Richards, 1898. Internet Archive. 30 Oct. 2014.
  77. Small, Helen. “George Eliot and the Cosmopolitan Cynic.” Victorian Studies 55.1 (2012): 85–105.
  78. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. An Aesthetic Education in the Era of Globalization. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2012.
  79. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. Death of a Discipline. New York: Columbia UP, 2003.
  80. Stetz, Margaret Diane. “Sex, Lies, and Printed Cloth: Bookselling at the Bodley Head in the Eighteen-Nineties.” Victorian Studies 35.1 (1991): 71–86.
  81. Svitavsky, William L. “From Decadence to Racial Antagonism: M. P. Shiel at the Turn of the Century.” Science Fiction Studies 31.1 (2004): 1–24.
  82. Taylor, Jesse Oak. The Sky of Our Manufacture: The London Fog in British Fiction from Dickens to Woolf. Charlottesville: U of Virginia P, 2016.
  83. Thomson, William. “On the Age of the Sun's Heat.” Macmillan's Magazine Mar. 1862: 388–93.
  84. Verlaine, Paul. “Langueur.” One Hundred and One Poems by Paul Verlaine. Trans. Norman R. Shapiro. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1999. 134.
  85. Waters, Colin N. et al. “The Anthropocene Is Functionally and Stratigraphically Distinct from the Holocene.” Science 351.6269 (2016): 137.
  86. Wilde, Oscar. The Picture of Dorian Gray. Eds. Joseph Bristow and Ian Small. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005.
  87. Williams, Mark et al. “The Anthropocene Biosphere.” The Anthropocene Review 2.3 (2015): 196–219.
  88. Wynne-Tyson, Jon. “M. P. Shiel: Right Royal Fantasist.” The Antiquarian Book Monthly Review 8 (1981): 412–23.
  89. Yaeger, Patricia. “Editor's Column: Literature in the Ages of Wood, Tallow, Coal, Whale Oil, Gasoline, Atomic Power, and Other Energy Sources.” PMLA 126.2 (2011): 305–10.
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