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The Third Duke of Buccleuch and Adam Smith

The Third Duke of Buccleuch and Adam Smith: Estate Management and Improvement in Enlightenment Scotland

Copyright Date: 2014
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  • Book Info
    The Third Duke of Buccleuch and Adam Smith
    Book Description:

    Combining the approaches of intellectual, economic and landscape history, this book examines the life and career of the third Duke, focusing in particular on his relationship with Adam Smith and the improvement of his extensive Scottish estates. By examining the influence of one of the eighteenth century’s foremost philosophers of improvement upon the career of one Scotland’s largest landowners, this book explores the various influences - intellectual, economic, moral and political - which helped shape Scotland’s distinctive agricultural revolution.

    eISBN: 978-0-7486-9469-3
    Subjects: History, Sociology
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter
    (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents
    (pp. v-v)
  3. Figures
    (pp. vi-vi)
  4. Acknowledgements
    (pp. vii-vii)
  5. Abbreviations
    (pp. viii-viii)
  6. Glossary of Terms
    (pp. ix-ix)
  7. Map of the Buccleuch Estates
    (pp. x-x)
  8. Introduction
    (pp. 1-8)

    In early September 1767, Henry Scott, the twenty-year-old 3rd Duke of Buccleuch, arrived in Scotland to celebrate his coming of age and the full inheritance of his estates. The Duke, together with his new wife, Lady Elizabeth Montagu, and his younger sister, Lady Frances Scott, crossed the border at Scotch Dyke before travelling on to nearby Langholm Castle in Eskdale. Here they were joined by John Craigie of Kilgraston, the advocate who had been responsible for the administration of his Scottish estates during much of his minority and whose role now was to guide the Duke on his journey north...

  9. CHAPTER ONE Inheritance (1750–66)
    (pp. 9-33)

    On 1 April 1750, after a brief illness, Francis, Earl of Dalkeith, the son and heir to the 2nd Duke of Buccleuch, died of smallpox at Adderbury House, Oxfordshire. In a hastily dictated will he appointed his pregnant wife, Lady Caroline, the eldest daughter of the 2nd Duke of Argyll, as ‘tutrix and guardian’ to his four young children: Caroline, Henry, Campbell, and James. As the eldest son, Henry inherited the courtesy title of Earl of Dalkeith along with those parts of the Buccleuch estates settled on his father in his marriage contract. Barely a year later his grandfather, Francis,...

  10. CHAPTER TWO Education (1746–66)
    (pp. 34-52)

    In later life, the 3rd Duke of Buccleuch would look back on his early childhood as a profoundly unhappy one, characterised above all by a sense of neglect. Lady Dalkeith, herself the product of an unorthodox upbringing, seems to have been a distant and at times vindictive mother whose parenting style was described by one observer as little short of ‘domestic tyranny’.¹ She had no qualms in sending Henry off at ‘a very young age’ to a private boarding school, Dr Fountaine’s of Marylebone, where, he would later recall, he languished ‘almost neglected by my mother, neglected in every respect...

  11. CHAPTER THREE Majority (1767–70)
    (pp. 53-81)

    On 21 September 1767, around fifty of the neighbouring ‘Noblemen and Gentlemen’ were invited to Dalkeith House to mark the formal celebration of the Duke’s coming of age and beginning of his personal administration of his estates. In what was described as ‘one of the most elegant [entertainments] that has, at any time, been given in this country’, the Incorporations of Dalkeith marched round the house with their banners flying, before making their ‘obeisance’ to the Duke and his new Duchess. The celebrations continued on into the night, with the inhabitants of the town being entertained at the family’s expense...

  12. CHAPTER FOUR Improvement I: The Lowland Estates (1767–1800)
    (pp. 82-115)

    At the end of July 1770, two months after the Entail Act had finally been passed, the Duke embarked on a ten-day tour of his South Country estates. On leaving Dalkeith he travelled south, first to Yair in northern Selkirkshire, then on to Bowhill near Selkirk, before travelling on through Teviotdale and Ewesdale, finally arriving at his summer residence of Langholm Castle in Eskdale. As soon became evident, the main purpose of the tour was to inspect his estates with a view to instigating the improvements enabled by the new legislation. In Langholm, after an inspection of the existing tradesmen’s...

  13. CHAPTER FIVE Improvement II: The Upland Estates (1767–1812)
    (pp. 116-148)

    The Duke’s predominantly upland estates of Ettrick Forest, Teviotdalehead, Eskdale, and Liddesdale formed by far the largest part of the South Country estate. Comprising tens of thousands of acres of the central Southern Uplands massif, stretching over southern Roxburghshire, south-west Selkirkshire, and north-east Dumfriesshire, as an estate report of 1767 summarised, this was ‘a country of great extent, but from its soil and climate not suited for much artificial improvement in the way of agriculture’. ‘Its chief purpose’, the report continued, was for sheep breeding, ‘and whatever plan of improvement may be thought of, this grand purpose should ever be...

  14. CHAPTER SIX Interest (1767–1812)
    (pp. 149-193)

    The process of Scottish agrarian ‘improvement’ has been largely portrayed in terms of commercialisation and the drive to maximise estate incomes, a process that went hand in hand with the erosion of feudal practices and fundamentally altered the relationship between landlords and those who resided upon their estates. As one historian of Scottish agrarian change has described, ‘paternalistic traditions of the older world came under enormous pressure’, while for another, what was left of ‘lingering paternalism’ was ‘eliminated under the pressure of the commercial ethos’.¹ However, the relationship between paternalism and improvement is perhaps more complex and nuanced than these...

  15. Conclusion
    (pp. 194-197)

    Henry Scott, 3rd Duke of Buccleuch, died aged sixty-four, at Dalkeith House on 11 January 1812. It was less than a year since the death of his old friend Henry Dundas, and only twelve months after he had finally inherited the Dukedom of Queensberry and the majority of the Douglas estates.¹ At Langholm, the members of the Eskdale Farmers Club gathered in full mourning at their next meeting to pay their respect to their fellow member, while at Langholm church, its pulpit and gallery draped in black cloth, the minister delivered ‘an eloquent and faithful delineation of his Grace’s amiable...

  16. Bibliography
    (pp. 198-210)
  17. Index
    (pp. 211-222)