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The Jalayirids

The Jalayirids: Dynastic State Formation in the Mongol Middle East OPEN ACCESS

Patrick Wing
Copyright Date: 2016
Pages: 256
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    The Jalayirids
    Book Description:

    This books investigates the background and nature of the Ottoman Jihad proclamation, but also its effects in the wider Middle East. It looks at the German hopes and British fears of a worldwide rising of Muslims in the colonial empires.

    eISBN: 978-1-4744-0226-2
    Subjects: History, Religion
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  1. In his chapter ‘The Jalayirids, Muzaffarids and Sarbadārs’ in volume six of theCambridge History of Iran, Hans Robert Roemer characterised the period between the fall of the Mongol Ilkhanate and the arrival of Tīmūr in Iran as ‘ grim and unedifying’, and mainly significant for its intellectual achievements, as well as for understanding Tīmūr’s subsequent success in Iran.¹ The period of fifty years, from c. 1335 to 1385, certainly wit nessed examples of sublime cultural production; this was the period of Ḥāfiẓ, and the refinement of painted manuscript illustration, to name two important examples. In addition, indeed, a student...

  2. The Jalayirid dynasty takes its name from Jalayir, the name of a Mongolian tribe from which it was descended. In order to understand the historical factors that led to members of the Jalayir establishing an Islamic sultanate in Iran and Iraq in the fourteenth century, we need first to examine some aspects of tribal society in inner Asia. Foremost, we need to address the question, what do we mean when we talk about ‘tribes’? This chapter provides an overview of scholarship on inner Asian tribes, particularly those in Mongolia on the eve of the empire of Chinggis Qan. In addition,...

  3. The military governorships that the Mongols had established in Khurasan and Azarbayjan were replaced by the Ilkhanate in the 1250s. Unlike the former governorships, which were responsible directly to the great qan in Qaraqorum, the Ilkhanate was a new princelyulūs, or appanage state, under the rule of Hülegü Khan, the brother of Möngke Qa’an. Hülegü’s primary missions were to eliminate the Nizārī Ismā‘īlīs, or Assassins, who had made an attempt on Möngke’s life, and the Abbasid caliphate in Baghdad. Hülegü’s forces were successful in both of these missions, and by 1260 the lands between the Oxus and the Euphrates...

  4. In the preceding chapter, an attempt was made to trace the ways in which several Jalayir tribal families participated in the formation of the Ilkhanate and subsequent political events up until approximately the year 1300 CE. Most branches of the Jalayir tribe, whose members had attained prominent positions in the political hierarchy, had been eliminated by the end of the seventh/thirteenth century. These included the family of the vizier Buqa, as well as a number of Jalayir amirs who had led revolts in Anatolia against Ghazan Khan in the first years after his accession in 694/1295. By the beginning of...

  5. When Abū Sa‘īd Bahādur Khan died on 13 Rabī‘ II 736/30 November 1335, in the words of Ḥāfiẓ Abrū, ‘the kingdom without a sultan became like a body without a soul and a flock without a shepherd’.¹ With no clear heir to the throne, the Ilkhanid political order broke down. This had been an order based on the royal leadership of the Chinggisid dynasty descended from Hülegü, which by 1295 had settled in the line of Abaqa Khan. The centralising tendency that gained traction with Ghazan Khan and had reached its height under Abū Sa‘īd had created strong ties between...

  6. This chapter examines the political history of the reign of the Jalayirid sultan Shaykh Uvays (757/1356–776/1374). This period witnessed several developments in the dynamics of power and authority in the former Ilkhanid realm. The most significant developments were the Jalayirid conquest of Azarbayjan, Shaykh Uvays’s claiming of independent royal authority, and the elimination of the Chubanids as contenders for the Ilkhanid throne. The eighteen-year reign of Shaykh Uvays represents the height of the Jalayirid dynasty’s political power, and a critical turning point between the disappearance of the Chinggisid Ilkhans and the rise to power of Tīmūr and his descendants...

  7. By 1360, Sultan Shaykh Uvays had taken control of Azarbayjan, the first step in consolidating Jalayirid rule over the lands of the western Ilkhanate. In addition to this military conquest, and the consolidation of authority as described in the previous chapter, the ideological foundations of the Jalayirid sultanate were elaborated during the reign of Shaykh Uvays. In this period, the servants and supporters of Shaykh Uvays created a complex narrative and official image of the Jalayirid dynasty as the right ful successors to the Ilkhanids. Unlike previous Chubanid amirs like Malik Ashraf, as well as Shaykh Ḥasan Jalayir, who had...

  8. The period following the death of Sultan Shaykh Uvays was one of disruption of the central authority he had attempted to establish in Tabriz. Between 776/1374 and 788/1386 the rule of the Jalayirid sultans was challenged by the power of the amirs, who rallied support around alternative Jalayirid princes. The most powerful amir in this period was Amīr ‘Ādil Āqā, who enjoyed support from the Oyrat tribesmen, and whose author ity in Sultaniyya was confirmed by Tīmūr. Power in the sultanate became divided between Tabriz, Baghdad and Sultaniyya, each home to a Jalayirid contender for the throne. In addition, this...

  9. The period of Jalayirid rule lasted only about seventy-five years in Baghdad, while Jalayirid rule in Tabriz was considerably less. The dynasty comprised only four rulers who held any considerable power, and perhaps can be understood as an irrelevant footnote to the fourteenth century, between the eras of the far more significant Ilkhanids and Timurids. Yet, an examination of the history of the Jalayirid dynasty requires an assessment of several of the most significant social and political changes in the central Islamic lands in the late medieval period. Tracing the origins of the Jalayirids and their emergence as the heirs...

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This book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 International.
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