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Mare Nostrum? Ethics and Archaeology in Mediterranean Waters

Elizabeth S. Greene, Justin Leidwanger, Richard M. Leventhal and Brian I. Daniels
American Journal of Archaeology
Vol. 115, No. 2 (April 2011), pp. 311-319
DOI: 10.3764/aja.115.2.0311
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.3764/aja.115.2.0311
Page Count: 9
Subjects: Architecture & Architectural History Classical Studies Archaeology Art & Art History
Find more content in these subjects: Architecture & Architectural History Classical Studies Archaeology Art & Art History
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Abstract

The 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage came into force on 2 January 2009. As of November 2010, the convention has 35 signatories, of which 10 are states that border the Mediterranean Sea. Because the convention has not been universally adopted by all Mediterranean states, underwater cultural heritage in different areas around the Mediterranean is subject to different claims of ownership and interest. We argue here that maritime archaeologists should play an active role in the stewardship and protection of underwater cultural heritage by working to establish ethical guidelines, best practices, and a clear plan of action for research that falls within, but also outside, current national and international legal protections. This article is available as open access on AJA Online.

Keywords: Antiquities Trade/Art Market, Maritime Archaeology

Author Information

Elizabeth S. Greene Department of Classics Brock University St. Catharines, Ontario l2S 3A1 Canada
Justin Leidwanger Graduate Group in the Art and Archaeology of the Mediterranean World University of Pennsylvania Philadephia, Pennsylvania 19104
Richard M. Leventhal Penn Cultural Heritage Center University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104
Brian I. Daniels Penn Cultural Heritage Center University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104

Works Cited

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  5. Atwood, R. 2004. Stealing History: Tomb Raiders, Smugglers, and the Looting of the Ancient World. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.
  6. Aznar-Gómez, M.J. 2010. “Treasure Hunters, Sunken State Vessels and the 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage.” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 25:209-36.
  7. Ballard, R.D., F.T. Hiebert, D.F. Coleman, C. Ward, J.S. Smith, K. Willis, B. Foley, K. Croff, C. Major, and F. Torre. 2001. “Deepwater Archaeology of the Black Sea: The 2000 Season at Sinop, Turkey.” AJA 105(4):607-23.
  8. Ballard, R.D., L.E. Stager, D. Master, D. Yoerger, D. Mindell, L.L. Whitcomb, H. Singh, and D. Piechota. 2002. “Iron Age Shipwrecks in Deep Water off Ashkelon, Israel.” AJA 106(2):151-68.
  9. Brodie, N., M. Kersel, C. Luke, and K.W. Tubb, eds. 2008. Archaeology, Cultural Heritage, and the Antiquities Trade. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
  10. Chippindale, C., and D.W.J. Gill. 2000. “Material Consequences of Contemporary Classical Collecting.” AJA 104(3):463-511.
  11. Colla, E. 2007. Conflicted Antiquities: Egyptology, Egyptomania, Egyptian Modernity. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
  12. Colwell-Chanthaphonh, C., and T. Ferguson. 2006. “Trust and Archaeological Practice: Towards a Framework of Virtue Ethics.” In The Ethics of Archaeology, edited by C. Scarre and G. Scarre, 115-30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  13. Croff, K. 2009. “The Underwater Cultural Heritage and Marine Scientific Research in the Exclusive Economic Zone.” Marine Technology Society Journal 43:93-100.
  14. Cunningham Dobson, N., and E. Gerth. 2010. “The Shipwreck of the SS Republic (1865). Experimental Deep Sea Archaeology. Part 2: Cargo.” In Oceans Odyssey: Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar & Atlantic Ocean, edited by G. Stemm and S. Kingsley, 25-68. Oxford: Oxbow.
  15. Cuno, J. 2008. Who Owns Antiquity? Museums and the Battle Over Our Ancient Heritage. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  16. Cuno, J, ed. 2009. Whose Culture? The Promise of Museums and the Debate Over Antiquities. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  17. Delaporta, K., M. Jasinski, and F. Søreide. 2006. “The Greek-Norwegian Deep-Water Archaeological Survey.” IJNA 35(1):79-87.
  18. Dromgoole, S. 2010. “Revisiting the Relationship Between Marine Scientific Research and the Underwater Cultural Heritage.” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 25:33-61.
  19. Dyson, S.L. 1998. Ancient Marbles to American Shores: Classical Archaeology in the United States. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  20. Flatman, J. 2007. “The Origins and Ethics of Maritime Archaeology, Part I.” Public Archaeology 6(2):77-97.
  21. Foley, B.P., K. Dellaporta, D. Sakellariou, B.S. Bingham, R. Camilli, R.M. Eustice, D. Evangelistis, V.L. Ferrini, K. Katsaros, D. Kourkoumelis, A. Mallios, P. Micha, D.A. Mindell, C. Roman, H. Singh, D.S. Switzer, and T. Theodoulou. 2009. “The 2005 Chios Ancient Shipwreck Survey: New Methods for Underwater Archaeology.” Hesperia 78:269-305.
  22. Gill, D.W.J., and C. Chippindale. 1993. “Material and Intellectual Consequences of Esteem for Cycladic Figures.” AJA 97(4):601-59.
  23. Greene, E.S., and J. Leidwanger. Forthcoming. “Law, Ethics, and Deep-Water Archaeology: The Wreck of Cesnola’s Napried.” In Beyond Boundaries: Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Underwater Archaeology. Frankfurt: Roman-Germanic Commission.
  24. Greene, E.S., J. Leidwanger, R.M. Leventhal, and B.I. Daniels. 2010. “Toward Best Practices in Mediterranean Underwater Archaeology.” IJNA 39(2):437-39.
  25. Kingsley, S. 2010a. “Deep-Sea Fishing Impacts on the Shipwrecks of the English Channel & Western Approaches.” In Oceans Odyssey: Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar & Atlantic Ocean, edited by G. Stemm and S. Kingsley, 191-233. Oxford: Oxbow.
  26. Kingsley, S. 2010b. “Introduction.” In Oceans Odyssey: Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar & Atlantic Ocean, edited by G. Stemm and S. Kingsley, ix-xii. Oxford: Oxbow.
  27. Lawall, M.L. 2005-2006. “Deep Water Survey and Amphoras: A Terrestrial Ceramicist’s Point of View.” Skyllis 7:76-81.
  28. Lee, R.F. 2006. “The Origins of the Antiquities Act.” In The Antiquities Act: A Century of American Archaeology, Historic Preservation, and Nature Conservation, edited by D. Harmon, F.P. McManamon, and D.T. Pitcaithley, 15-34. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  29. Marangou, A.G. 2000. The Consul Luigi Palma Di Cesnola, 1832-1904: Life and Deeds. Nicosia: Cultural Centre, Popular Bank Group.
  30. McCann, A.M., and J. Freed. 1994. Deep Water Archaeology: A Late-Roman Ship from Carthage and an Ancient Trade Route near Skerki Bank off Northwest Sicily. JRA Suppl. 13. Ann Arbor: Journal of Roman Archaeology.
  31. McCann, A.M., and J.P. Oleson. 2004. Deep-Water Shipwrecks off Skerki Bank: The 1997 Survey. JRA Suppl. 58. Portsmouth, R.I.: Journal of Roman Archaeology.
  32. Pulak, C.M. 2001. “The Cargo of the Uluburun Ship and Evidence for Trade with the Aegean and Beyond.” In Italy and Cyprus in Antiquity: 1500-450 BC, edited by L. Bonfante and V. Karageorghis, 13-60. Nicosia: The Costakis and Leto Severis Foundation.
  33. Renfrew, C. 2000. Loot, Legitimacy, and Ownership. London: Duckworth.
  34. Sakellariou, D., P. Georgiou, A. Mallios, V. Kapsimalis, D. Kourkoumelis, P. Micha, T. Theodoulou, and K. Dellaporta. 2007. “Searching for Ancient Shipwrecks in the Aegean Sea: The Discovery of Chios and Kythnos Hellenistic Wrecks with the Use of Marine Geological-Geophysical Methods.” IJNA 36(2):365-81.
  35. Society for American Archaeology. 1996. “Principles of Archaeological Ethics.” Society for American Archaeology. http://www.saa.org/aboutthesociety/principlesofarchaeologicalethics/tabid/203/default.aspx (15 July 2010).
  36. Stemm, G. 2010a. “Preface.” In Oceans Odyssey: Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar & Atlantic Ocean, edited by G. Stemm and S. Kingsley, vii-viii. Oxford: Oxbow.
  37. Stemm, G. 2010b. “Protecting the Past: UNESCO Versus the Private Collector.” Odyssey Marine Exploration Papers 13: 13-16.
  38. Stemm, G., and S. Kingsley, eds. 2010. Oceans Odyssey: Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar & Atlantic Ocean. Oxford: Oxbow.
  39. Tolson, H. 2010. “The Jacksonville ‘Blue China’ Shipwreck & the Myth of Deep-Sea Preservation.” In Oceans Odyssey: Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar & Atlantic Ocean, edited by G. Stemm and S. Kingsley, 145-57. Oxford: Oxbow.
  40. UNESCO. 2001. “Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage 2001.” UNESCO. http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13520&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html (30 June 2010).
  41. United Nations. 1982. “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982.” United Nations. http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindx.htm (30 June 2010).
  42. Wachsmann, S., V. Tsoukala, D. Sakellariou, D. Davis, C. Smith, B. Buxton, S. Maroulakis, G. Rousakis, P. Georgiou, J. Hale, R. Hohlfelder, D. Griffin, D. Theodoridou, E. Chyssocheri, and P. Fix. 2009. “The Danaos Project, 2008: Reconstructing the Crete to Egypt Route.” In Proceedings of the 9th Hellenic Symposium on Oceanography & Fisheries, May 13-16, 2009, Patras, Greece. Vol. 1, 146-51.
  43. Watson, P., and C. Todeschini. 2006. The Medici Conspiracy: The Illicit Journey from Italy’s Tomb Raiders to the World’s Greatest Museums. New York: Public Affairs.
  44. Webster, S. 2008. “The Development of Excavation Technology for Remotely Operated Vehicles.” In Archaeological Oceanography, edited by R.D. Ballard, 41-64. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Works Cited

  1. Adams, J. 2001. “Ships and Boats as Archaeological Source Material.” WorldArch 32:292-310.
  2. American Association of Museums. 2008. “Standards Regarding Archaeological Material and Ancient Art.” American Association of Museums. http://www.aam-us.org/museumresources/ethics/upload/Standards%20Regarding%20Archaeological%20Material%20and%20Ancient%20Art.pdf (30 June 2010).
  3. Antiquity. 1970. “Editorial.” Antiquity 44(175):171-72.
  4. Archaeological Institute of America. 1997. “Code of Ethics.” Archaeological Institute of America. http://www.archaeological.org/news/advocacy/130 (15 July 2010).
  5. Atwood, R. 2004. Stealing History: Tomb Raiders, Smugglers, and the Looting of the Ancient World. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.
  6. Aznar-Gómez, M.J. 2010. “Treasure Hunters, Sunken State Vessels and the 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage.” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 25:209-36.
  7. Ballard, R.D., F.T. Hiebert, D.F. Coleman, C. Ward, J.S. Smith, K. Willis, B. Foley, K. Croff, C. Major, and F. Torre. 2001. “Deepwater Archaeology of the Black Sea: The 2000 Season at Sinop, Turkey.” AJA 105(4):607-23.
  8. Ballard, R.D., L.E. Stager, D. Master, D. Yoerger, D. Mindell, L.L. Whitcomb, H. Singh, and D. Piechota. 2002. “Iron Age Shipwrecks in Deep Water off Ashkelon, Israel.” AJA 106(2):151-68.
  9. Brodie, N., M. Kersel, C. Luke, and K.W. Tubb, eds. 2008. Archaeology, Cultural Heritage, and the Antiquities Trade. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
  10. Chippindale, C., and D.W.J. Gill. 2000. “Material Consequences of Contemporary Classical Collecting.” AJA 104(3):463-511.
  11. Colla, E. 2007. Conflicted Antiquities: Egyptology, Egyptomania, Egyptian Modernity. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press.
  12. Colwell-Chanthaphonh, C., and T. Ferguson. 2006. “Trust and Archaeological Practice: Towards a Framework of Virtue Ethics.” In The Ethics of Archaeology, edited by C. Scarre and G. Scarre, 115-30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  13. Croff, K. 2009. “The Underwater Cultural Heritage and Marine Scientific Research in the Exclusive Economic Zone.” Marine Technology Society Journal 43:93-100.
  14. Cunningham Dobson, N., and E. Gerth. 2010. “The Shipwreck of the SS Republic (1865). Experimental Deep Sea Archaeology. Part 2: Cargo.” In Oceans Odyssey: Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar & Atlantic Ocean, edited by G. Stemm and S. Kingsley, 25-68. Oxford: Oxbow.
  15. Cuno, J. 2008. Who Owns Antiquity? Museums and the Battle Over Our Ancient Heritage. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  16. Cuno, J, ed. 2009. Whose Culture? The Promise of Museums and the Debate Over Antiquities. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  17. Delaporta, K., M. Jasinski, and F. Søreide. 2006. “The Greek-Norwegian Deep-Water Archaeological Survey.” IJNA 35(1):79-87.
  18. Dromgoole, S. 2010. “Revisiting the Relationship Between Marine Scientific Research and the Underwater Cultural Heritage.” International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 25:33-61.
  19. Dyson, S.L. 1998. Ancient Marbles to American Shores: Classical Archaeology in the United States. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  20. Flatman, J. 2007. “The Origins and Ethics of Maritime Archaeology, Part I.” Public Archaeology 6(2):77-97.
  21. Foley, B.P., K. Dellaporta, D. Sakellariou, B.S. Bingham, R. Camilli, R.M. Eustice, D. Evangelistis, V.L. Ferrini, K. Katsaros, D. Kourkoumelis, A. Mallios, P. Micha, D.A. Mindell, C. Roman, H. Singh, D.S. Switzer, and T. Theodoulou. 2009. “The 2005 Chios Ancient Shipwreck Survey: New Methods for Underwater Archaeology.” Hesperia 78:269-305.
  22. Gill, D.W.J., and C. Chippindale. 1993. “Material and Intellectual Consequences of Esteem for Cycladic Figures.” AJA 97(4):601-59.
  23. Greene, E.S., and J. Leidwanger. Forthcoming. “Law, Ethics, and Deep-Water Archaeology: The Wreck of Cesnola’s Napried.” In Beyond Boundaries: Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Underwater Archaeology. Frankfurt: Roman-Germanic Commission.
  24. Greene, E.S., J. Leidwanger, R.M. Leventhal, and B.I. Daniels. 2010. “Toward Best Practices in Mediterranean Underwater Archaeology.” IJNA 39(2):437-39.
  25. Kingsley, S. 2010a. “Deep-Sea Fishing Impacts on the Shipwrecks of the English Channel & Western Approaches.” In Oceans Odyssey: Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar & Atlantic Ocean, edited by G. Stemm and S. Kingsley, 191-233. Oxford: Oxbow.
  26. Kingsley, S. 2010b. “Introduction.” In Oceans Odyssey: Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar & Atlantic Ocean, edited by G. Stemm and S. Kingsley, ix-xii. Oxford: Oxbow.
  27. Lawall, M.L. 2005-2006. “Deep Water Survey and Amphoras: A Terrestrial Ceramicist’s Point of View.” Skyllis 7:76-81.
  28. Lee, R.F. 2006. “The Origins of the Antiquities Act.” In The Antiquities Act: A Century of American Archaeology, Historic Preservation, and Nature Conservation, edited by D. Harmon, F.P. McManamon, and D.T. Pitcaithley, 15-34. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  29. Marangou, A.G. 2000. The Consul Luigi Palma Di Cesnola, 1832-1904: Life and Deeds. Nicosia: Cultural Centre, Popular Bank Group.
  30. McCann, A.M., and J. Freed. 1994. Deep Water Archaeology: A Late-Roman Ship from Carthage and an Ancient Trade Route near Skerki Bank off Northwest Sicily. JRA Suppl. 13. Ann Arbor: Journal of Roman Archaeology.
  31. McCann, A.M., and J.P. Oleson. 2004. Deep-Water Shipwrecks off Skerki Bank: The 1997 Survey. JRA Suppl. 58. Portsmouth, R.I.: Journal of Roman Archaeology.
  32. Pulak, C.M. 2001. “The Cargo of the Uluburun Ship and Evidence for Trade with the Aegean and Beyond.” In Italy and Cyprus in Antiquity: 1500-450 BC, edited by L. Bonfante and V. Karageorghis, 13-60. Nicosia: The Costakis and Leto Severis Foundation.
  33. Renfrew, C. 2000. Loot, Legitimacy, and Ownership. London: Duckworth.
  34. Sakellariou, D., P. Georgiou, A. Mallios, V. Kapsimalis, D. Kourkoumelis, P. Micha, T. Theodoulou, and K. Dellaporta. 2007. “Searching for Ancient Shipwrecks in the Aegean Sea: The Discovery of Chios and Kythnos Hellenistic Wrecks with the Use of Marine Geological-Geophysical Methods.” IJNA 36(2):365-81.
  35. Society for American Archaeology. 1996. “Principles of Archaeological Ethics.” Society for American Archaeology. http://www.saa.org/aboutthesociety/principlesofarchaeologicalethics/tabid/203/default.aspx (15 July 2010).
  36. Stemm, G. 2010a. “Preface.” In Oceans Odyssey: Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar & Atlantic Ocean, edited by G. Stemm and S. Kingsley, vii-viii. Oxford: Oxbow.
  37. Stemm, G. 2010b. “Protecting the Past: UNESCO Versus the Private Collector.” Odyssey Marine Exploration Papers 13: 13-16.
  38. Stemm, G., and S. Kingsley, eds. 2010. Oceans Odyssey: Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar & Atlantic Ocean. Oxford: Oxbow.
  39. Tolson, H. 2010. “The Jacksonville ‘Blue China’ Shipwreck & the Myth of Deep-Sea Preservation.” In Oceans Odyssey: Deep-Sea Shipwrecks in the English Channel, Straits of Gibraltar & Atlantic Ocean, edited by G. Stemm and S. Kingsley, 145-57. Oxford: Oxbow.
  40. UNESCO. 2001. “Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage 2001.” UNESCO. http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13520&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html (30 June 2010).
  41. United Nations. 1982. “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982.” United Nations. http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindx.htm (30 June 2010).
  42. Wachsmann, S., V. Tsoukala, D. Sakellariou, D. Davis, C. Smith, B. Buxton, S. Maroulakis, G. Rousakis, P. Georgiou, J. Hale, R. Hohlfelder, D. Griffin, D. Theodoridou, E. Chyssocheri, and P. Fix. 2009. “The Danaos Project, 2008: Reconstructing the Crete to Egypt Route.” In Proceedings of the 9th Hellenic Symposium on Oceanography & Fisheries, May 13-16, 2009, Patras, Greece. Vol. 1, 146-51.
  43. Watson, P., and C. Todeschini. 2006. The Medici Conspiracy: The Illicit Journey from Italy’s Tomb Raiders to the World’s Greatest Museums. New York: Public Affairs.
  44. Webster, S. 2008. “The Development of Excavation Technology for Remotely Operated Vehicles.” In Archaeological Oceanography, edited by R.D. Ballard, 41-64. Princeton: Princeton University Press.