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Locating the Proper Authorities

Locating the Proper Authorities: The Interaction of Domestic and International Institutions

Daniel W. Drezner Editor
Copyright Date: 2003
Pages: 288
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  • Book Info
    Locating the Proper Authorities
    Book Description:

    In an era of democratization and globalization, the number of decision makers has multiplied exponentially. Parliamentarians, bureaucrats, international secretariats, regional governors, and nongovernmental organizations have all gained influence at the expense of heads of state. How do these competing layers of authority bargain with each other to govern? International relations theorists have traditionally focused on how leaders' domestic constraints affect their bargaining position internationally. However, there has been much less work on the flip side of this question--how foreign policy leaders can use international institutions as a means of circumventing or co-opting domestic opposition.Locating the Proper Authoritiesoffers some preliminary answers, drawn from a number of theoretical perspectives by the contributors to this volume.

    Written by some of the most promising theorists in the field of international relations, the essays inLocating the Proper Authoritiesaddress a broad array of substantive issue areas, including humanitarian intervention, trade dispute settlement, economic development, democratic transition, and security cooperation. This broad case selection has the virtue of incorporating developing countries, which are too often ignored in international relations, as well as less well-known international organizations. Each chapter examines the mechanisms and strategies through which policy entrepreneurs use international organizations as a means of bypassing or overcoming opposition to policy change. By examining the effects of different institutional design features,Locating the Proper Authoritieshelps us understand the variety of influence mechanisms through which international institutions shape the interaction of policy initiators and ratifiers.

    Daniel W. Drezner is Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Chicago.

    eISBN: 978-0-472-02727-9
    Subjects: Political Science
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents (pp. v-vi)
  3. Acknowledgments (pp. vii-viii)
  4. Introduction: The Interaction of International and Domestic Institutions (pp. 1-22)
    Daniel W. Drezner

    Following the third wave of democratization, several prominent international relations scholars predicted a growing sensitivity to the preference of domestic actors in world politics (Simmons 1995; Moravcsik 1997).With a larger role for public opinion and interest groups to play in the crafting of foreign policies, fewer states would be prepared to incur significant domestic costs for the sake of international cooperation (Milner 1997). Robert Putnam’s (1988) twolevel games approach stressed that domestic institutions could block agreements that diverged too much from their preferences. In short, the primacy of domestic politics would lead to a fraying of multilateral collaboration.

    The events...

  5. Part 1. Contracting
    • Democratization, Credible Commitments, and Joining International Organizations (pp. 25-48)
      Jon C. Pevehouse

      International institutions and organizations have become the centerpiece of the heated debate between realists and neoliberals over the past two decades. Realists and their neorealist counterparts contend that institutions have little influence on state behavior and are simply epiphenomenal to outcomes in world politics (Mearshimer 1994–95; Grieco 1988). Neoliberals argue that institutions provide essential functions to facilitate cooperation that would not otherwise occur between rational, egoistic actors (Keohane 1984; Keohane and Martin 1995). Although there are no easy answers in this debate, part of the question of whether institutions matter for international cooperation turns on why sovereign states join...

    • Giving the Unrecognized Their Due: Regional Actors, International Institutions, and Multilateral Economic Cooperation in Northeast Asia (pp. 49-74)
      Jean-Marc F. Blanchard

      There has been a surge of interest in the way domestic and international variables act together to produce outcomes (Evans, Jacobson, and Putnam 1993; Putnam 1988). The Tumen River Area Development Programme (TRADP), a multinational economic development initiative for the Tumen River area at the tri-juncture of the Chinese, Russian, and North Korean borders, represents an important but poorly known case resulting from the interaction of domestic and international factors. It presents a puzzle for extant approaches in two ways. First, the TRADP has made meaningful progress since it appeared on the international agenda in 1990.¹ This progress has occurred...

  6. Part 2. Coercion
    • Tying Hands without a Rope: Rational Domestic Response to International Institutional Constraints (pp. 77-104)
      Eric Reinhardt

      How do international institutions interact with domestic politics to affect states’ policy choices? One familiar way is through the device of “blame shifting” or “tying the hands” of national leaders. Imagine a leader who wants to impose unpopular economic reforms but whose plans are resisted by the legislature. What happens if an international institution such as the IMF or the WTO prescribes liberalization? The leader may be able to claim that the institution is tying his hands, with the hope of avoiding the political backlash following reforms. In short, by serving as a commitment device for reformist leaders facing domestic...

    • Tying Hands and Washing Hands: The U.S. Congress and Multilateral Humanitarian Intervention (pp. 105-142)
      Kenneth A. Schultz

      Among the new issues that national governments and international institutions have grappled with in the post–Cold War period is armed humanitarian intervention, or the deployment of military force primarily for the purposes of protecting citizens of a target state from widespread violations of human rights (see, for example, Murphy 1996, 11–12). While such missions are not unprecedented historically, they have been greatly facilitated in recent years by a number of developments. The end of the superpower rivalry freed the UN and regional security institutions from their Cold War fetters, creating opportunities for them to play a more active...

  7. Part 3. Persuasion
    • The Social Effects of International Institutions on Domestic (Foreign Policy) Actors (pp. 145-196)
      Alastair Iain Johnston

      There has been a growing interest in recent years in so-called sociological approaches in international relations (IR) theory. Typically these are juxtaposed with so-called economic approaches. In the study of international institutions and cooperation, this usually means juxtaposing arguments that stress socially constructed “ideas” versus material “interests” as the primary sources of motivation for actors inside institutions.¹ More specifically, the fairly common claim is that sociological approaches stress normative motivations (social obligation, for instance), while economic approaches stress material motivations.

      The reality is a little more complex than the stereotyping (on both sides of this divide, I might add). Sociological...

    • International Commitments and Domestic Politics: Institutions and Actors at Two Levels (pp. 197-230)
      Duncan Snidal and Alexander Thompson

      In the last two decades, international relations (IR) scholars have responded to the parsimony of systemic theory, with its exclusive focus on interactions among states, by looking both above and below the level of states. Thus international cooperation and institutions, on the one hand, and domestic politics and institutions, on the other, have assumed important positions as both independent and dependent variables. However, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the interaction of international and domestic institutions, although there is no theoretical reason to presume that the two should be analytically separated. The primary exception is the two-level games literature...

  8. References (pp. 231-264)
  9. Contributors (pp. 265-266)
  10. Index (pp. 267-280)