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Making Information Technologies Work at the End of the Road

Rob McMahon, Michael Gurstein, Brian Beaton, Susan O'Donnell and Tim Whiteduck
Journal of Information Policy
Vol. 4 (2014), pp. 250-269
DOI: 10.5325/jinfopoli.4.2014.0250
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5325/jinfopoli.4.2014.0250
Page Count: 20
Subjects: Communication Studies Political Science
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Articles

Abstract

Remote and rural areas face many challenges, including the provision of telecommunications services. Regardless of universal service policies or other political promises, rural communities can be deemed unprofitable by service providers while government assistance is managed by faraway regulators who lack understanding of the affected communities and citizens. The authors assess these challenges in the context of the First Nations of Canada, via a decentralized “First Mile” framework. They find that these remote communities are capable of local innovation and can collaborate with intermediary organizations to build digital infrastructures, by bridging the gap between the public and private sectors.

Author Information

Rob McMahonA
Michael GursteinB
Brian BeatonC
Susan O'DonnellD
Tim WhiteduckE
  1. A

    Post-Doctoral Fellow, First Nations Innovation Project, University of New Brunswick; Coordinator, First Mile Project.

  2. B

    Executive Director, Centre for Community Informatics Research, Development and Training (CCIRDT).

  3. C

    Graduate Student, Faculty of Education, University of New Brunswick.

  4. D

    Researcher and Adjunct Professor, Department of Sociology, University of New Brunswick.

  5. E

    Director of Technology, First Nations Education Council.

Bibliography

  1. Alfred, Taiaiake. Wasáse: Indigenous Pathways of Action and Freedom. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.
  2. Babe, Robert E. Telecommunications in Canada: Technology, Industry and Government. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990.
  3. Beaton, Brian, Jesse Fiddler, and John Rowlandson. “Living Smart in Two Worlds: Maintaining and Protecting First Nation Culture for Future Generations.” In Seeking Convergence in Policy and Practice: Communications in the Public Interest, vol. 2, edited by Martia Moll and Leslie R. Shade, 283–297. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2004.
  4. Borrows, John. Canada's Indigenous Constitution. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.
  5. Carpenter, Penny. “The Kuhkenah Network (K-Net).” In Aboriginal Policy Research: Learning, Technology and Traditions, edited by Jerry P. White, Julie Peters, Dan Beavon, and Peter Dinsdale, 119–127. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, 2010.
  6. Carpenter, Penny and Tina Kakepetum-Schultz. “Above and Beyond: Embedding Community Values and Beliefs into an Evolving First Nations IT Health System.” Paper presented at the E-Health COACH Conference, Vancouver, BC, May 29–31, 2010.
  7. Carroll, Thomas F. Intermediary NGOs: The Supporting Link in Grassroots Development. Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 1992.
  8. Castells, Manuel. Communication Power. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  9. Coulthard, Glenn S. “Subjects of Empire: Indigenous Peoples and the ‘Politics of Recognition’ in Canada.” Contemporary Political Theory 6 (2007): 437–460
  10. Crawford, Susan. Captive Audience: The Telecom Industry and Monopoly Power in the New Gilded Age. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.
  11. Fiser, Adam. “A Map of Broadband Deployment in Canada's Indigenous and Northern Communities: Access, Management Models, and Digital Divides (circa 2009).” Communication, Politics & Culture 43 (2010): 7–47.
  12. Fiser, Adam. “First Nations IT Labour Force and Human Capacity: What Are the Socio-Economic Indicators?” Discussion paper, Assembly of First Nations, First Nations E-Community, Feb. 17, 2012.
  13. Fiser, Adam and Andrew Clement. “A Historical Account of the Kuh-Ke-Nah Network: Broadband Deployment in a Remote Canadian Aboriginal Telecommunications Context.” In Connecting Canadians: Investigations in Community Informatics, edited by Andrew Clement, Michael Gurstein, Marita Moll, and Leslie R. Shade, 255–282. Edmonton, AB: Athabasca University Press, 2012.
  14. Fort Severn First Nation. “Technology Showcase.” Accessed May 13, 2014, http://fortsevern.firstnation.ca/tech_showcase.
  15. Gibson, Kerri, Matthew Kakekaspan, George Kakekaspan, Susan O'Donnell, Brian Walmark, Brian Beaton, and the People of Fort Severn First Nation. “A History of Communication by Fort Severn First Nation Community Members: From Hand Deliveries to Virtual Pokes.” Paper presented at the iConference, Toronto (2012). Accessed May 13, 2014, http://meeting.knet.ca/mp19/file.php/16/Publications/2012Fort_Severn_History_of_Communication.pdf.
  16. Gibson, Kerri, Susan O'Donnell, and Vanda Rideout. “The Project-Funding Regime: Complications for Community Organizations and Their Staff.” Canadian Public Administration 50 (2007): 411–436.
  17. Gurstein, Michael. “Community Informatics and Community Innovation: Building National Innovation Capability from the Bottom Up.” Working paper, no date. Accessed May 13, 2014, http://www.cmis.brighton.ac.uk/research/seake/cna/conference/proceedings/docs/Mike%20Gurstein.pdf.
  18. Gurstein, Michael. “Community Innovation and Community Informatics.” Journal of Community Informatics 9, no. 3 (2013). Accessed May 13, 2014, http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/1038/1022.
  19. Gurstein, Michael. What is Community Informatics (and Why Does It Matter?). Milan, Italy: Polimetrica, 2007.
  20. Gurstein, Michael, Brian Beaton, and Kevin Sherlock. “A Community Informatics Model for e-Services in First Nations Communities: The K-Net Approach to Water Treatment in Northern Ontario.” Journal of Community Informatics 5, no. 2 (2009). Accessed May 13, 2104, http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/383/454.
  21. Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  22. Jansen, Hans and George Bentley. “Ontario's Far North Study: Broadband Best Practices and Benefits in Fort Severn First Nation.” White paper, Connect Ontario and Industry Canada (2004).
  23. Jayakar, Krishna. “Promoting University Broadband through Middle Mile Institutions: A Legislative Agenda.” Journal of Information Policy 1 (2011): 102–124.
  24. Kakekaspan, George. “Essential Telecommunication Services: Building a Healthy and Smart Community Using Information Communication Technologies.” Paper presented at the SMART City Summit, Ottawa, Apr. 2002.
  25. Kakekaspan, Matthew, Susan O'Donnell, Brian Beaton, Brian Walmark, and Kerri Gibson. “The First Mile Approach to Community Services in Fort Severn First Nation.” Journal of Community Informatics 10, no. 2 (2014). Accessed May 13, 2014, http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/998/1091.
  26. Keewaytinook Okimakanak. “From Potential to Practice: Telecommunications & Development in the Nishnawbe-Aski Nation.” White paper, Industry Canada/FedNor, Mar. 31, 2001. Accessed May 13, 2014, http://knet.ca/NAN-wide.pdf.
  27. Kleine, Dorothea. Technologies of Choice? ICTs, Development, and the Capabilities Approach. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013.
  28. MacDonald, Susan, Graham Longford, and Andrew Clement. “Community Networking Experiences with Government Funding Programs: Service Delivery Model or Sustainable Social Innovation?” In Connecting Canadians: Investigations in Community Informatics, edited by Andrew Clement, Michael Gurstein, Marita Moll, and Leslie R. Shade, 393–417. Edmonton, AB: Athabasca University Press, 2012.
  29. McChesney, Robert W. Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism Is Turning the Internet Against Democracy. New York: The New Press, 2013.
  30. McMahon, Rob. “Digital Self-Determination: Aboriginal Peoples and the Network Society in Canada.” Doctoral dissertation, Simon Fraser University (2013). Accessed May 13, 2014, http://summit.sfu.ca/system/files/iritems1/13532/etd7913_RMcMahon.pdf.
  31. McMahon, Rob. “The Institutional Development of Indigenous Broadband Infrastructure in Canada and the United States: Two Paths to ‘Digital Self-Determination’.” Canadian Journal of Communication 35 (2011): 115–140.
  32. McMahon, Rob, Heather Hudson and Lyle Fabian. “Indigenous Regulatory Advocacy in Canada's Far North: Mobilizing the First Mile Connectivity Consortium.” Journal of Information Policy 4 (2014): 228–249.
  33. McMahon, Rob, Susan O'Donnell, Richard Smith, Jason Woodman Simmonds, and Brian Walmark. “Putting the ‘Last-Mile’ First: Re-Framing Broadband Development in First Nations and Inuit Communities.” White paper, Centre for Policy Research on Science and Technology at Simon Fraser University, Dec. 2010. Accessed May 13, 2014, http://meeting.knet.ca/mp19/file.php/106/Putting-the-Last-Mile-First-Dec-1-2010.pdf.
  34. McMahon, Rob, Susan O'Donnell, Richard Smith, Brian Walmark, Brian Beaton and Jason Simmonds. “Digital Divides and the ‘First Mile’: Framing First Nations Broadband Development in Canada.” The International Indigenous Policy Journal 2, no. 2 (2011): article 2.
  35. Middleton, Catherine and Barbara Crow. “Building Wi-Fi Networks for Communities: Three Canadian Cases.” Canadian Journal of Communication 33 (2008): 419–441.
  36. Mignone, Javier and Heather Henley. “Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Social Capital in Aboriginal Communities in Canada.” Journal of Information, Information Technology, and Organizations 4 (2009): 127–145.
  37. Moll, Marita and Leslie R. Shade. “From Information Highways to Digital Economies: Canadian Policy and the Public Interest.” Paper prepared at the World Social Science Forum, Montreal, Oct.13–15, 2013.
  38. O'Donnell, Susan, George Kakekaspan, Brian Beaton, Brian Walmark, Raymond Mason, and Michael Mak. “A New Remote Community-Owned Wireless Communication Service: Fort Severn First Nation Builds Their Local Cellular System with Keewaytinook Mobile.” Canadian Journal of Communication 36 (2011): 663–673.
  39. O'Donnell, Susan, Sonia Perley, Brian Walmark, Kevin Burton, Brian Beaton, and Andrew Sark. “Community Based Broadband Organizations and Video Communications for Remote and Rural First Nations in Canada.” In Communities in Action: Papers in Community Informatics, edited by Larry Stillman, Graeme Johanson, and Rebecca French, 107–119. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009.
  40. Palmater, Pamela D. “Stretched Beyond Human Limits: Death By Poverty in First Nations.” Canadian Review of Social Policy, 65–66 (2011): 112–127.
  41. Philpot, Duncan, Brian Beaton, and Tim Whiteduck. “First Mile Challenges to Last Mile Rhetoric: Exploring the Discourse between Remote and Rural First Nations and the Telecom Industry.” Journal of Community Informatics 10 (2014). Accessed May 12, 2014, http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/992/1080.
  42. Potter, Darrin. “Keewaytinook Internet High School Review (2003–2008).” In Aboriginal Policy Research: Learning, Technology and Traditions, edited by Jerry P. White, Julie Peters, Dan Beavon, and Peter Dinsdale, 147–155. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, 2010.
  43. Quarter, Jack and Laurie Mook. “An Interactive View of the Social Economy.” Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research (ANSERJ) 1 (2010): 8–22.
  44. Rideout, Vanda N. and Andrew J. Reddick. “Sustaining Community Access to Technology: Who Should Pay and Why!” Journal of Community Informatics 1 (2005): 45–62.
  45. Rideout, Vanda N., Andrew J. Reddick, Susan O'Donnell, William McIver, Sandy Kitchen, and Mary Milliken. “Community Organizations in the Information Age: A Study of Community Intermediaries in Canada.” White paper, Community Intermediaries Research Project (2007). Accessed May 13, 2014, http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/414/314.
  46. Servon, Lisa J. Bridging the Digital Divide: Technology, Community, and Public Policy. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
  47. Simpson, Leanne. Dancing on Our Turtle's Back: Stories of Nishnaabeg Re-Creation, Resurgence and a New Emergence. Winnipeg, MB: Arbeiter Ring Publishing, 2011.
  48. Walmark, Brian. “Digital Education in Remote Aboriginal Communities.” In Aboriginal Policy Research: Learning, Technology and Traditions, edited by Jerry P. White, Julie Peters, Dan Beavon, and Peter Dinsdale, 140–146. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, 2010.
  49. Whiteduck, Gilbert, Anita Tenasco, Susan O'Donnell, Tim Whiteduck, and Emily Lockhart. “Broadband-Enabled Community Services in Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg First Nation: Developing an e-Community Approach.” Paper presented at the International Rural Network Forum, Whyalla and Upper Spencer Gulf, Australia, Sept. 24–28, 2012.
  50. Whiteduck, Judy. “Building the First Nation e-Community.” In Aboriginal Policy Research: Learning, Technology and Traditions, edited by Jerry P. White, Julie Peters, Dan Beavon, and Peter Dinsdale, 95–103. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, 2010.
  51. Whiteduck, Tim and Brian Beaton. “Building First Nation Owned and Managed Fibre Networks across Quebec.” Journal of Community Informatics 10 (2014). Accessed May 13, 2014, http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/1107/1084.
  52. Williams, Donna. “Telehealth/Telemedicine Services in Remote First Nations in Northern Ontario.” In Aboriginal Policy Research: Learning, Technology and Traditions, edited by Jerry P. White, Julie Peters, Dan Beavon, and Peter Dinsdale, 159–168. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, 2010.
  53. Wu, Tim. The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010.

Bibliography

  1. Alfred, Taiaiake. Wasáse: Indigenous Pathways of Action and Freedom. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009.
  2. Babe, Robert E. Telecommunications in Canada: Technology, Industry and Government. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990.
  3. Beaton, Brian, Jesse Fiddler, and John Rowlandson. “Living Smart in Two Worlds: Maintaining and Protecting First Nation Culture for Future Generations.” In Seeking Convergence in Policy and Practice: Communications in the Public Interest, vol. 2, edited by Martia Moll and Leslie R. Shade, 283–297. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2004.
  4. Borrows, John. Canada's Indigenous Constitution. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2010.
  5. Carpenter, Penny. “The Kuhkenah Network (K-Net).” In Aboriginal Policy Research: Learning, Technology and Traditions, edited by Jerry P. White, Julie Peters, Dan Beavon, and Peter Dinsdale, 119–127. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, 2010.
  6. Carpenter, Penny and Tina Kakepetum-Schultz. “Above and Beyond: Embedding Community Values and Beliefs into an Evolving First Nations IT Health System.” Paper presented at the E-Health COACH Conference, Vancouver, BC, May 29–31, 2010.
  7. Carroll, Thomas F. Intermediary NGOs: The Supporting Link in Grassroots Development. Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 1992.
  8. Castells, Manuel. Communication Power. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  9. Coulthard, Glenn S. “Subjects of Empire: Indigenous Peoples and the ‘Politics of Recognition’ in Canada.” Contemporary Political Theory 6 (2007): 437–460
  10. Crawford, Susan. Captive Audience: The Telecom Industry and Monopoly Power in the New Gilded Age. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.
  11. Fiser, Adam. “A Map of Broadband Deployment in Canada's Indigenous and Northern Communities: Access, Management Models, and Digital Divides (circa 2009).” Communication, Politics & Culture 43 (2010): 7–47.
  12. Fiser, Adam. “First Nations IT Labour Force and Human Capacity: What Are the Socio-Economic Indicators?” Discussion paper, Assembly of First Nations, First Nations E-Community, Feb. 17, 2012.
  13. Fiser, Adam and Andrew Clement. “A Historical Account of the Kuh-Ke-Nah Network: Broadband Deployment in a Remote Canadian Aboriginal Telecommunications Context.” In Connecting Canadians: Investigations in Community Informatics, edited by Andrew Clement, Michael Gurstein, Marita Moll, and Leslie R. Shade, 255–282. Edmonton, AB: Athabasca University Press, 2012.
  14. Fort Severn First Nation. “Technology Showcase.” Accessed May 13, 2014, http://fortsevern.firstnation.ca/tech_showcase.
  15. Gibson, Kerri, Matthew Kakekaspan, George Kakekaspan, Susan O'Donnell, Brian Walmark, Brian Beaton, and the People of Fort Severn First Nation. “A History of Communication by Fort Severn First Nation Community Members: From Hand Deliveries to Virtual Pokes.” Paper presented at the iConference, Toronto (2012). Accessed May 13, 2014, http://meeting.knet.ca/mp19/file.php/16/Publications/2012Fort_Severn_History_of_Communication.pdf.
  16. Gibson, Kerri, Susan O'Donnell, and Vanda Rideout. “The Project-Funding Regime: Complications for Community Organizations and Their Staff.” Canadian Public Administration 50 (2007): 411–436.
  17. Gurstein, Michael. “Community Informatics and Community Innovation: Building National Innovation Capability from the Bottom Up.” Working paper, no date. Accessed May 13, 2014, http://www.cmis.brighton.ac.uk/research/seake/cna/conference/proceedings/docs/Mike%20Gurstein.pdf.
  18. Gurstein, Michael. “Community Innovation and Community Informatics.” Journal of Community Informatics 9, no. 3 (2013). Accessed May 13, 2014, http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/1038/1022.
  19. Gurstein, Michael. What is Community Informatics (and Why Does It Matter?). Milan, Italy: Polimetrica, 2007.
  20. Gurstein, Michael, Brian Beaton, and Kevin Sherlock. “A Community Informatics Model for e-Services in First Nations Communities: The K-Net Approach to Water Treatment in Northern Ontario.” Journal of Community Informatics 5, no. 2 (2009). Accessed May 13, 2104, http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/383/454.
  21. Harvey, David. A Brief History of Neoliberalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  22. Jansen, Hans and George Bentley. “Ontario's Far North Study: Broadband Best Practices and Benefits in Fort Severn First Nation.” White paper, Connect Ontario and Industry Canada (2004).
  23. Jayakar, Krishna. “Promoting University Broadband through Middle Mile Institutions: A Legislative Agenda.” Journal of Information Policy 1 (2011): 102–124.
  24. Kakekaspan, George. “Essential Telecommunication Services: Building a Healthy and Smart Community Using Information Communication Technologies.” Paper presented at the SMART City Summit, Ottawa, Apr. 2002.
  25. Kakekaspan, Matthew, Susan O'Donnell, Brian Beaton, Brian Walmark, and Kerri Gibson. “The First Mile Approach to Community Services in Fort Severn First Nation.” Journal of Community Informatics 10, no. 2 (2014). Accessed May 13, 2014, http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/998/1091.
  26. Keewaytinook Okimakanak. “From Potential to Practice: Telecommunications & Development in the Nishnawbe-Aski Nation.” White paper, Industry Canada/FedNor, Mar. 31, 2001. Accessed May 13, 2014, http://knet.ca/NAN-wide.pdf.
  27. Kleine, Dorothea. Technologies of Choice? ICTs, Development, and the Capabilities Approach. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2013.
  28. MacDonald, Susan, Graham Longford, and Andrew Clement. “Community Networking Experiences with Government Funding Programs: Service Delivery Model or Sustainable Social Innovation?” In Connecting Canadians: Investigations in Community Informatics, edited by Andrew Clement, Michael Gurstein, Marita Moll, and Leslie R. Shade, 393–417. Edmonton, AB: Athabasca University Press, 2012.
  29. McChesney, Robert W. Digital Disconnect: How Capitalism Is Turning the Internet Against Democracy. New York: The New Press, 2013.
  30. McMahon, Rob. “Digital Self-Determination: Aboriginal Peoples and the Network Society in Canada.” Doctoral dissertation, Simon Fraser University (2013). Accessed May 13, 2014, http://summit.sfu.ca/system/files/iritems1/13532/etd7913_RMcMahon.pdf.
  31. McMahon, Rob. “The Institutional Development of Indigenous Broadband Infrastructure in Canada and the United States: Two Paths to ‘Digital Self-Determination’.” Canadian Journal of Communication 35 (2011): 115–140.
  32. McMahon, Rob, Heather Hudson and Lyle Fabian. “Indigenous Regulatory Advocacy in Canada's Far North: Mobilizing the First Mile Connectivity Consortium.” Journal of Information Policy 4 (2014): 228–249.
  33. McMahon, Rob, Susan O'Donnell, Richard Smith, Jason Woodman Simmonds, and Brian Walmark. “Putting the ‘Last-Mile’ First: Re-Framing Broadband Development in First Nations and Inuit Communities.” White paper, Centre for Policy Research on Science and Technology at Simon Fraser University, Dec. 2010. Accessed May 13, 2014, http://meeting.knet.ca/mp19/file.php/106/Putting-the-Last-Mile-First-Dec-1-2010.pdf.
  34. McMahon, Rob, Susan O'Donnell, Richard Smith, Brian Walmark, Brian Beaton and Jason Simmonds. “Digital Divides and the ‘First Mile’: Framing First Nations Broadband Development in Canada.” The International Indigenous Policy Journal 2, no. 2 (2011): article 2.
  35. Middleton, Catherine and Barbara Crow. “Building Wi-Fi Networks for Communities: Three Canadian Cases.” Canadian Journal of Communication 33 (2008): 419–441.
  36. Mignone, Javier and Heather Henley. “Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Social Capital in Aboriginal Communities in Canada.” Journal of Information, Information Technology, and Organizations 4 (2009): 127–145.
  37. Moll, Marita and Leslie R. Shade. “From Information Highways to Digital Economies: Canadian Policy and the Public Interest.” Paper prepared at the World Social Science Forum, Montreal, Oct.13–15, 2013.
  38. O'Donnell, Susan, George Kakekaspan, Brian Beaton, Brian Walmark, Raymond Mason, and Michael Mak. “A New Remote Community-Owned Wireless Communication Service: Fort Severn First Nation Builds Their Local Cellular System with Keewaytinook Mobile.” Canadian Journal of Communication 36 (2011): 663–673.
  39. O'Donnell, Susan, Sonia Perley, Brian Walmark, Kevin Burton, Brian Beaton, and Andrew Sark. “Community Based Broadband Organizations and Video Communications for Remote and Rural First Nations in Canada.” In Communities in Action: Papers in Community Informatics, edited by Larry Stillman, Graeme Johanson, and Rebecca French, 107–119. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009.
  40. Palmater, Pamela D. “Stretched Beyond Human Limits: Death By Poverty in First Nations.” Canadian Review of Social Policy, 65–66 (2011): 112–127.
  41. Philpot, Duncan, Brian Beaton, and Tim Whiteduck. “First Mile Challenges to Last Mile Rhetoric: Exploring the Discourse between Remote and Rural First Nations and the Telecom Industry.” Journal of Community Informatics 10 (2014). Accessed May 12, 2014, http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/992/1080.
  42. Potter, Darrin. “Keewaytinook Internet High School Review (2003–2008).” In Aboriginal Policy Research: Learning, Technology and Traditions, edited by Jerry P. White, Julie Peters, Dan Beavon, and Peter Dinsdale, 147–155. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, 2010.
  43. Quarter, Jack and Laurie Mook. “An Interactive View of the Social Economy.” Canadian Journal of Nonprofit and Social Economy Research (ANSERJ) 1 (2010): 8–22.
  44. Rideout, Vanda N. and Andrew J. Reddick. “Sustaining Community Access to Technology: Who Should Pay and Why!” Journal of Community Informatics 1 (2005): 45–62.
  45. Rideout, Vanda N., Andrew J. Reddick, Susan O'Donnell, William McIver, Sandy Kitchen, and Mary Milliken. “Community Organizations in the Information Age: A Study of Community Intermediaries in Canada.” White paper, Community Intermediaries Research Project (2007). Accessed May 13, 2014, http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/414/314.
  46. Servon, Lisa J. Bridging the Digital Divide: Technology, Community, and Public Policy. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
  47. Simpson, Leanne. Dancing on Our Turtle's Back: Stories of Nishnaabeg Re-Creation, Resurgence and a New Emergence. Winnipeg, MB: Arbeiter Ring Publishing, 2011.
  48. Walmark, Brian. “Digital Education in Remote Aboriginal Communities.” In Aboriginal Policy Research: Learning, Technology and Traditions, edited by Jerry P. White, Julie Peters, Dan Beavon, and Peter Dinsdale, 140–146. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, 2010.
  49. Whiteduck, Gilbert, Anita Tenasco, Susan O'Donnell, Tim Whiteduck, and Emily Lockhart. “Broadband-Enabled Community Services in Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg First Nation: Developing an e-Community Approach.” Paper presented at the International Rural Network Forum, Whyalla and Upper Spencer Gulf, Australia, Sept. 24–28, 2012.
  50. Whiteduck, Judy. “Building the First Nation e-Community.” In Aboriginal Policy Research: Learning, Technology and Traditions, edited by Jerry P. White, Julie Peters, Dan Beavon, and Peter Dinsdale, 95–103. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, 2010.
  51. Whiteduck, Tim and Brian Beaton. “Building First Nation Owned and Managed Fibre Networks across Quebec.” Journal of Community Informatics 10 (2014). Accessed May 13, 2014, http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/1107/1084.
  52. Williams, Donna. “Telehealth/Telemedicine Services in Remote First Nations in Northern Ontario.” In Aboriginal Policy Research: Learning, Technology and Traditions, edited by Jerry P. White, Julie Peters, Dan Beavon, and Peter Dinsdale, 159–168. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing, 2010.
  53. Wu, Tim. The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010.