Calvin Blanchard and The Art of Real Pleasure
Lyman Tower Sargent is professor emeritus of political science at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. Since retiring, he has been a fellow at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, and the University of Oxford, and has been able to devote all his time to research and writing.
The Art of Real Pleasure (1864) by Calvin Blanchard focuses on sexual pleasure in the context of a significantly improved society as essential for the good life. This essay examines Blanchard's life and works and places them in a often neglected thread of the Western utopian tradition.
Calvin Blanchard (1808–1868) was a prolific, albeit repetitive, author, publisher, and printer who was identified by L. L. and Jessie Bernard as an early American sociologist who helped introduce Americans to Auguste Comte. The Bernards also said that Blanchard was mentally ill.1 The Bernards' discussion of Blanchard is the only recognition of Blanchard that predates the reprinting of one of his novels, The Art of Real Pleasure (1864), in Arthur O. Lewis's 1971 American Utopian Literature set of forty-two volumes. The Bernards' discussion is also unusual in that it includes works in addition to The Art of Real Pleasure, and it is one of two that, while disparaging him, take him somewhat seriously. The other work, by Joel Nydahl, is concerned solely with The Art of Real Pleasure and while speaking fairly negatively of Blanchard, puts the book in the context of other utopian novels of the time and argues that Blanchard is important for his vision of a secular, scientifically based utopianism.2
Lewis rarely included introductions to the reprinted volumes, but he did for The Art of Real Pleasure, and he begins by saying, “If this book were to arrive by mail, the recipient's first reaction might well be one of relief that it had arrived in a plain brown wrapper.”3 This sentence clearly suggests that sex plays a central role in this book, different from that in the other forty-one volumes. But while sex is important in The Art of Real Pleasure and Blanchard's other works, it is placed in the context of other significant economic, political, and social changes. Both the sex and its contexts need to be brought together, and that is my purpose here.
Blanchard's works belong to a long, if fairly minor, thread in the fabric of the Western utopian tradition. The dominant tradition valorizes a narrow range of sexual activity that is heterosexual and takes place within marriage, with a clear recognition of the disruptive power of sex, in that it is necessary to control and channel sexual relations so that they do not compete with the utopian higher good. And in the classic dystopias, such as Evgeniĭ Zamiatin's We (1924), Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932), and George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949), sexual relations are recognized as a problem and manipulated as a mechanism of social control, but in each case the sexual policy failed with one or more of the central characters of the novel, suggesting that sex is too powerful to control.
There is, though, an alternative tradition to which Blanchard belongs that tends to connect sexual freedom with political freedom and social improvement. There have been versions of sexual freedom, such as those that Steven Marcus and others have called “pornotopias,”4 that do not extend beyond a depiction of sexual activity, usually from the male viewpoint, and it is sometimes difficult to be entirely sure where the line is between male sexual fantasy and positive images of sexual freedom as an aspect of social betterment.
For example, James Lawrence's The Empires of the Nairs (1811) has the subtitle or, The Rights of Women. An Eutopian Romance. Lawrence refers to and says that he drew inspiration from Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1782), and there are aspects of the eutopia, such as those concerning women's education, that clearly show her influence. The Empire of the Nairs was lauded by Shelley, who wrote Lawrence that “your ‘Empire of the Nairs,’ which I read this Spring, succeeded in making me a perfect convert to its doctrines.”5 But it was also read differently and was republished with four mildly pornographic illustrations as The Empire of the Nairs; or, the Panorama of Love, Enlivened with the Intrigues Of Several Crowned Heads; And with Anecdotes of Courts, Brothels, Convents, and Seraglios; The Whole Forming A Picture of Gallantry, Seduction, Prostitution, Marriage, And Divorce In All Parts of the World (1824).
According to Lawrence, “This work was designed to shew the possibility of a nation's reaching the highest civilization without marriage,”6 and he contends that “marriage seems ordained exclusively for the comfort of the man, that of the woman being disregarded.”7 The Nair system, which is loosely based on an actual Hindu caste from Kerala in India,8 has radically different gender roles. Men are completely free from all duties except warfare, and women are revered as mothers and supported by the state. There is no marriage, and women choose their lovers as they wish. Most houses belong to some woman, and men generally live with relatives or lovers. Couples who dance the last dance together usually spend the night together, but Lawrence stresses that the same couple usually retires together each night.
If we read The Empire of the Nairs the way Shelley read it, it is part of a long thread of utopian works that have a significant focus on sexual activity in a context of gender equality and other social changes. Blanchard belongs in this subset, and he is closest to Charles Fourier's Le nouveau monde amoreaux/The New Amorous World, which, because it was not published until 1967, he obviously could not have known. But he was familiar with Fourier's sexual theories as expressed in Fourier's Théorie des Quatre Mouvements et des Destinées Générales/The Theory of the Four Movements and of the General Destinies (1808); in fact he published a translation of it as The Social Destiny of Man or Theory of the Four Movements (1857) with a 199-page introduction by Albert Brisbane. Also, although Blanchard does not mention it, he may have known the English translation by Henry James Sr. of Victor Antoine Hennequin's Les amours au Phalanstère/Love in the Phalanstery (1847/1849) that was published in New York City and caused a huge controversy in Horace Greeley's New-York Tribune and George Ripley's The Harbinger.9 In these works neither Fourier nor Hennequin gives much detail, and Fourier writes, “I have only touched on the least of the pleasures of love” that will be the norm in the phalanstery,10 but there is enough to suggest a parallel with and possible influence on Blanchard.
We know little with any certainty about Blanchard, and there are only two sources of biographical evidence. One is in an obituary of his youngest brother, Rufus (1821–1904), who was a mapmaker and publisher in Chicago.11 The obituary was published almost forty years after Calvin Blanchard's death and relies on his brother's memories as recounted by the author of the obituary. It mentions the ten children of a relatively well-off family and says that Rufus went to work for Calvin at age thirteen. According to the obituary, Calvin appears to have been well connected at that time because he got his brother a job with the publisher Harper Brothers, even then a well-established firm. The obituary also notes that Calvin was at least for a time good friends with Horace Greeley, the famous newspaper editor and reformer, and Blanchard and Greeley are reported to have learned typesetting together. Given that Greeley vehemently rejected the sort of sexual theories that Blanchard came to espouse, they must have parted ways at some point.
The other source is what purports to be an autobiography, entitled Secret History of a Votary of Pleasure. His Own Confessions (1866), a title that does not inspire confidence in its veracity. But on the basics the contents correspond with the material in the obituary, which clearly left a lot out, and it explains an oddity about Blanchard's activities, that he started his writing, publishing, and bookstore in his forties.12
As well as recounting his sexual activities, in the Secret History Blanchard presents himself as having a fairly rough life after he left home as a teenager. Although his parents could have provided money, he chose to live by picking up what jobs he could as a printer, having been initially trained by a man whose method of correction was violence; selling lottery tickets; peddling books, papers, broadsides, and “essences”; working in a bookstore; selling fruits and vegetables; being a bartender; and taking on whatever odd jobs he could find.13 He recounts getting to know the prostitutes in one town where he was working and that after their work ended they let him sleep on couches in their parlors rather than having to sleep rough. He also recounts, and this was well before the Civil War, working with and sharing food and sleeping quarters with African Americans. He was entirely self-educated, but besides the classic autodidact's occupation as a printer, he notes that his peddling activities left him a lot of time for reading. He also traveled about the United States in the 1840s, spending time in Texas and with the Mormons as they were being expelled from Missouri, usually accompanied by a woman friend.
Blanchard's Publishing House
Blanchard established a publishing business and bookstore on Nassau Street in New York City where he published his own works and those of others. Blanchard published three categories of books:
Radical political thought, particularly Thomas Paine, who was clearly a favorite author; Comte; and Fourier.
Material attacking religious belief and the religious establishment. He says that he had early rejected his parents' “hellfire and brimstone” theology, and opposition to religion is a constant in his writing and in the books he published.
In addition to the Fourier, Blanchard published, most notably The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte. Freely Translated and Condensed by Harriet Martineu (1855); the first American edition of Ludwig Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity (1855), which was translated by Marian Evans (George Eliot); and the works of Thomas Paine.
Also, in 1865 Blanchard published two burlesques of Jefferson Davis, and there are other attacks on Davis and the Confederacy in his own books and the books he published. In a number of his books, he published a one-page statement entitled “Wisdom and Merriment” that justified publishing books that stimulate “the humorous, gay and mirthful faculties” together with books that “exercise the intellect to the utmost.”15 As far as I can tell, the first books Blanchard published were one that was antireligious, The Creed of Christendom (1850; reprint, 1855) by Greg R. Williams, and one that was erotic, The Secret History of the Court of Charles the Second (1850).
His bookstore and publishing activities were considered disreputable by many both because of the political works he published and sold and because he published and sold works that had sexual content. Edward Livingston Youmans wrote to Herbert Spencer that he had stopped Blanchard from publishing Spencer's Social Statics and that it would be a disaster if Blanchard published Spencer's First Principles. A footnote to the published letter adds that Blanchard was “a disreputable publisher who kept a shop on Nassau Street, where you could buy any kind of book that your minister would frown upon—whether for free thought or for obscenity made little difference to this unsavory Calvin.”16 I expect that Blanchard would have seen the letter as an endorsement if he had known of it.
Blanchard's own writings fell into the same categories as the pieces he published, and it is doubtful that he drew any clear distinctions among the categories because, to him, each implied the others. Most of the writers of works in the first two categories would not have made the connection to the third, but to Blanchard the relationship among the three is obvious.
The first published writing by Blanchard that survives is Blanchard's Bulletin to Independent Thinkers (1856), which was mostly a means of advertising his books for sale. The first issue contained the concluding chapter of Feuerbach's Essence of Christianity, the second issue contained Robert Taylor's Sermon on the Holy Ghost, and the fourth issue contained chapter 12 of Volney's New Researches on Ancient History plus some material by Blanchard on the need to replace the church with science.17
While Blanchard says that he is not a utopian, mocks utopias—criticizing Fourier for his flights of utopian fantasy—and calls himself “Head-Member of the Society for Abolishing Utopia, and Humbug, and Failure,”18 there is a consistent eutopia found throughout his works, and he regularly refers to the future world that will be produced by adopting his ideas as “Heaven on Earth.”19 Blanchard provides something like an overview of his utopia in his Secret History, where he writes,
Now come with me to Nature free and pure; Nature, by her own science, and her own art, fully disenthralled. Superstition vanish. Moral ages roll away. So, here we are in the Realms of Bliss.
What do we behold? Far as the eye can see, a continuous succession of palaces, and palatial manufactories, clear from dust, and smoke, and stifling gases, and darkness. Between these palaces are their appurtenances, and just sufficient land, completely cultivated with every variety of fruit, and grain, and vegetable, and flower, and tree, and shrub; the whole one stupendous world-wide domain, with bathing ponds, and all that can be either useful, ornamental, or amusing. Tempests forever stilled, and gorgeous balloons traverse the air as safely and accurately as birds on the wing. The intellect-faculties cannot conceive aught more good, more true, more magnificent, more enchanting, than all terrestrial conditions now are, and all human beings in accord with these all-glorious conditions. And government, the government of the whole-world—taking, at length, true, and, effectual measures, with a view to its own selfish interests, has arranged all this. And the expense of it is so far from being felt as a tax, that it's all in the way of clear pleasure that the means are raised for paying that vast expense. The system, once put in operation, goes on spontaneously and of itself, like the equitably and immutably balanced, but not equally divided, nor equally shared Solar System.20
In The Religion of Science he spells out the rights that everyone will have, which include the right to be born of healthy parents; to be treated well in infancy; to an excellent mental and physical education; to wholesome food and drink; to pure air; to good living conditions; to sleep, rest, and exercise; to good clothing; to freedom of speech, thought, and print; to good rulers who can be held responsible for their actions; to acquire property in balance with others; to what is necessary to meet our “coherent desires”; and “to live so long and so happily, on Earth, as to perfectly satisfy our desire for conscious existence—to substantially realize Heaven on Earth—‘eternity’ in time—to ring, 'till we are willing to finally stop so doing, all the changes possible on the five senses.”21
Blanchard's utopia is certainly pleasure oriented, but the pleasure is not just sexual, and the entire social system is designed to ensure that life will be easy. He says, “The social machine once right, can by no possibility be put wrong.”22
That social machine is based on the “rulers,” whom he never clearly defines, recognizing that “the only way to secure their own welfare is to secure the welfare of all.”23 Blanchard discusses his rulers in his Religion of Science, which is based on Comte and says that those Blanchard calls “Sociologians” or the “Professors of the Art of Arts and Science of Sciences” or Sociology will be the rulers, who will be judged by one measure only, results.24 Blanchard gives few details of what sort of political system will be put in place by the Sociologians. He rejects voting, and thus the franchise for women,25 and majority rule because he thinks that the vote is a way that those in power have of conning the people into believing that their vote actually means something. He writes, “People, vote no more. Scorn to be the chess-men with which political gamesters play,”26 and that “‘the elective franchise’ is an exploded Utopia; an experiment the failure of which is most complete.”27 He also says that “differences” should be settled “by arbitration, instead of resorting to justice mocking statute law, and the perplexing, expensive, completely deceptive routine of courts.”28 Hence, Blanchard distrusts democracy and expects that people like Plato's Philosopher Kings or Jean-Jacques Rousseau's “Legislator” will be able to create a workable system of government. And to the extent that he had a political theory, it was clearly influenced by Rousseau's notion of the “general will” and the need for a Legislator who would reflect and implement that general will. For Blanchard that role would be filled by his Sociologians.29
In the process of securing the welfare of all, technology, again not clearly defined, is used to abolish “all labor that is the slightest degree repulsive” so that work is a pleasure.30 Also, technology is used to restore and cultivate marshes and deserts and eliminate pollution. Everyone is healthy, and “death itself is practically abolished. Everybody lives as long as they want to; they live till repetition wears out all conceivable variety, and then resign themselves to everlasting forgetfulness with as little pain and regret as they go to sleep every night.”31
People are free to live as they wish, but Blanchard notes ways in which they are not free, saying, “They are not free to beget children under such circumstances as to populate the world with beings either ‘totally depraved,’ or in the slightest degree faulty. They are not free to poison their children, and, through them unborn generations, with unwholesome food; nor spoil their blood, and rot their lungs, and soften their brains, with bad air. They are not free, as they used to be, to build houses and public conveyances apparently for that especial purpose.”32 His comments on childbirth and the care of children reflect a constant theme. Blanchard regularly refers to the high quality of the care given to expectant mothers and the excellent surroundings in which they will give birth. He also reiterates the high quality of care given to children, who are raised in public nurseries with their parents free to spend as much time with their children as they want.33 As he puts it, “The lying-in apartments of [the nurseries] were very far superior to the accouchement chambers of queens and empresses in the days of yore. The accommodations for all children were incomparably better than any royal progeny had ever been provided with.”34
Pollution, poor food and clothing, and poorly constructed housing will no longer exist in Blanchard's eutopia. The buildings, surrounded by agricultural land, will be built by architects with a thorough understanding of ventilation, clothiers will know the needs of the body, and all food will be of the highest quality and handled only by those trained in hygiene.35 And in his Secret History he says that people will eat fresh, wholesome food and drink fine wines.36 Blanchard also notes that as intelligent people, while they are free to drink as much wine as they want, no one will ever get drunk because they know when to stop.37
Given the times, one of Blanchard's most radical points is his insistence that the purpose of sex is pleasure for both partners. And people will be trained to ensure that they know how to provide pleasure. In a practice followed by the Oneida Community about the same time, Blanchard says that sexual initiation would be “by the ripest and most voluptuous adepts.”38 There is, though, one sense in which Blanchard was not particularly radical sexually, in that he rejects any sexual activity that is not between a man and a woman.39
On women Blanchard manages to be both extremely radical and a representative of his times. Blanchard writes that “more than anything else, human emancipation depends on woman finding her right position in the Social Organism,”40 and in A Message to “The Sovereign People” he writes that “we want a religion and government which shall emancipate woman.”41 And in his eutopia, both “men and women prided themselves almost wholly on their skill and agility in what little there was to do.”42 But he often says that in the future all women will be “enchantingly beautiful” and states that their role is to be adored by men;43 women will be pleased to know that men will be “faultless.”44
Throughout his writings, Blanchard consistently criticized religious belief and the religious establishment. He focused on the way religion cooperates with the rich and powerful to maintain its own power and wealth, saying that what he calls “supernatural foolery” is “the foundation of legal and political humbug; whence result human degradation and misery.”45 He represents a “conclave” of priests, politicians, and the rich, arguing, “So long as we can keep mankind under sham law, we can tax them to our hearts content, rob them as much as we please—in short, do with them whatever we like. What anarchy—what confusion, have we not inflicted on the folly-ridden world in the name of law!”46 But he contends that this combination of capital, politics, and religion cannot last once a knowledge of science becomes available, which is why people are kept ignorant.
Blanchard is vague about the economic organization of society. He says that “the interests of labor, capital, and skill, were so adjusted as to completely harmonize, and perfectly secure and sustain each other”47 and that “we want a religion and government which will organize and elevate labor, encourage and suitably reward skill, establish a currency which shall be an exact and unfluctuating measure of value, and make capital perfectly secure.”48 He regularly refers to what he calls the “Universal Mutual Guarantee Company,” which will hold all property, including all machinery, in shares for the benefit of the people of the society.49 Blanchard argues that this approach is more secure than property being held in common or “as now, in instant danger of becoming common, or being wrested from its owners by bankruptcy, or by individual or governmental robbers.”50 And he writes that everyone will have the “Right to the property we can acquire, through an equitable arrangement between the claims of labor, capital, and skill.”51 Thus, while he is clearly aware of the problems with the current system, he is not proposing any form of common or collective ownership. But he does say that people will not be free “to carry raw material four thousand miles, to be manufactured and brought back at their expense, while they go barefooted, and work like mules to pay that expense.”52
But Blanchard's discussions of economics and politics, while of interest, are certainly secondary for him. His central message was quite simply, “I tell you that the ‘salvation’ of mankind—the realization of ‘Heaven,’ depends solely and entirely on the establishment of a social reorganization that shall remove all obstructions and difficulties from the free gratification of the amorous desire.”53
Writing for only about ten years, during much of which he was seriously ill, Blanchard produced a remarkable body of work, albeit repetitive, reasonably well written for a self-educated man, that tells a mostly consistent story, a story that was out of step with the dominant worldview of his time. Add to this his publishing activities, and one can only regret that we know so little of someone who was clearly a remarkable man.
- 1.In their chapter “The Direct Influence of Comte: Calvin Blanchard,” L. L. Bernard and Jessie Bernard refer to “his almost insane methods of propagating Comte” (in Origins of American Sociology: The Social Science Movement in the United States [New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1943], 192–203, at 193) and in a footnote add, “The general style of the man is evidence of poor mental balance. The subtitles of his works are also indicative of imbalance” (193 n. 5). But they also refer to Blanchard throughout the book, and not always in derogatory terms.
- 2.Joel Nydahl, “Early Fictional Futures: Utopia, 1798–1864,” in America as Utopia, ed. Kenneth M. Roemer (New York: Burt Franklin, 1981), 277–78.
- 3.Arthur O. Lewis, “Introduction,” in Calvin Blanchard, The Art of Real Pleasure (New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1971), i.
- 4.See Steven Marcus, “Conclusion: Pornotopia,” in his The Other Victorians: A Study of Sexuality and Pornography in Mid-Nineteenth-Century England (New York: Basic Books, 1966), 266–86; and, on the utopian aspects, Darby Lewes, “Utopian Sexual Landscapes: An Annotated Checklist of British Somatopias,” Utopian Studies 7, no. 2 (1996): 167–95.
- 5.The Letters of Percy Bysshe Shelley, ed. Frederick L. Jones, 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964), 1:323.
- 6.James [Henry] Lawrence, The Empire of the Nairs; or, The Rights of Women. An Eutopian Romance, 4 vols. in 2 (London: Printed for T. Hookham and E. T. Hookham, 1881), 6.
- 7.Ibid., 10.
- 8.Élie Reclus, “The Naïrs, Warrior Nobility and the Matriarchate,” in his Primitive Folk: Studies in Comparative Ethnology (London: Walter Scott, [1891?]), 143–77 (originally published in French; no translator given).
- 9.Blanchard may not have known of the Love in the Phalanstery controversy because he appears to have been in Texas at the time it was published. For the controversy, see Carl J. Guarneri, The Utopian Alternative: Fourierism in Nineteenth-Century America (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991), 353–55; Alfred Habegger, Henry James and the “Woman Business” (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 29–36; Alfred Habegger, The Father: A Life of Henry James, Sr. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1994), 278–83; and Adam Tuchinsky, Horace Greeley's “New-York Tribune”: Civil War–Era Socialism and the Crisis of Free Labor (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009), 112–20. I thank Kathryn Tomasek for providing me with these references.
- 10.Charles Fourier, The Theory of the Four Movements, ed. Gareth Stedman Jones and Ian Patterson, trans. Ian Patterson (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 178.
- 11.Frederick Latimer Wells, “Rufus Blanchard (1821–1904),” Transactions of the Illinois Historical Society for the Year 1907, 1907: 387–91.
- 12.If his Secret History is to be believed, Blanchard never married but lived for shorter or longer periods with a number of different women. Again, if the book is to be believed, he never had children but agreed to sign papers saying that he was the father of one child when he was not and to provide $500 to the mother, whom he had lived with earlier.
- 13.Calvin Blanchard, Secret History of a Votary of Pleasure. His Own Confessions (New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1866), 11.
- 14.Technical aspects of Blanchard's publishing are discussed in Elizabeth Haven Hawley, “American Publishers of Indecent Books, 1840–1890” (Ph.D. dissertation, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2005, http://smartech.gatech.edu/handle/1853/7579, accessed August 1, 2012). Most of the other studies of the erotic publishing of the time do not mention Blanchard. Two that do simply note that he published a translation of Ovid's Art of Love: see Joseph W. Slade, Pornography and Sexual Representation: A Reference Guide, 3 vols. (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2001); and John William Tebbel, A History of Book Publishing in the United States, vol. 1: The Creation of an Industry 1630–1865 (New York: R. R. Bowler, 1972). A slightly longer recognition of Blanchard is found in Helen Lefkowitz Horowitz's Re-reading Sex: Battles over Sexual Knowledge and Suppression in Nineteenth Century America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002), but she calls him an “ideologue” who saw himself as a follower of Thomas Paine and mentions no books.
- 15.For example, in Calvin Blanchard, The New Crisis: or, Our Deliverance from Priestly Fraud, Political Charlatanry, and Popular Despotism (New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1857), 23.
- 16.Quoted in John Fiske, Edward Livingston Youmans: Interpreter of Science for the People. A Sketch of His Life With Selections From His Published Writings and Extracts From His Correspondence With Spencer, Huxley, Tyndall and Others (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1894), 156–57; original emphasis.
- 17.Only the second and fourth issues survive, but the second gives the contents of the first.
- 18.Calvin Blanchard, A Crisis Chapter on Government [New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1865?], 4.
- 19.See, for example, Calvin Blanchard, Religio-Political Physics: The Science and Art of Man's Deliverance From Ignorance-Engendered Mysticism, and Its Resulting Theo-Moral Quackery and Governmental Brigandage (New York: C[alvin] Blanchard, 1861), 27.
- 20.Blanchard, Secret History of a Votary of Pleasure, 132–33; original emphasis.
- 21.Calvin Blanchard, The Religion of Science; or, The Art of Actualizing Liberty, and of Perfecting and Satisfactorily Prolonging Happiness: Being a Practical Answer to the Great Question,—“If You Take Away My Religion, What Will You Give Me In Its Place”? (New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1860), 86–87; original emphasis.
- 22.Calvin Blanchard, The Art of Real Pleasure: That New Pleasure, for which An Imperial Reward Was Offered (New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1864), 46.
- 23.Ibid.; original emphasis.
- 24.Blanchard, Religion of Science, 161.
- 25.On the vote for women, see Blanchard, Secret History of a Votary of Pleasure, 49–53.
- 26.Calvin Blanchard, A Message to “The Sovereign People” of the United States; Exhibiting to Their Majesties the Infernal Treachery or Worse Inability of Their Religious Counsellors, and of Their Political “Servants,” Proving the Identity of the Theological and Ethical Delusions, Exposing the Elective Franchise Hoax, and Revealing a New, and Self-Evidently Efficient Remedy for Superstition, Despotism, and Evil (New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1860), 12.
- 27.Blanchard, Religion of Science, 41.
- 28.Blanchard, New Crisis, 10.
- 29.See A Student of Auguste Comte [Calvin Blanchard], The Essence of Science: or, The Catechism of Positive Sociology and Physical Mentality (New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1859), iv.
- 30.Blanchard, Art of Real Pleasure, 18.
- 31.Ibid.; original emphasis.
- 32.Ibid., 49; original emphasis.
- 33.Blanchard, Secret History of a Votary of Pleasure, 134.
- 34.Blanchard, Art of Real Pleasure, 59; original emphasis.
- 35.Blanchard, Religio-Political Physics, 29. In “Good, Rapturous Scenes. A New Way of Enjoyment! The Quintessent Value of Everything! All You Want!” Calvin Blanchard says that there will be “no meat, no tea, no coffee” (separately paged [thirty-nine pages] at the back of Titus Petronius Arbiter, The Satyricon; or, Trebly Voluptuous [trans. W. K. Kelly] [New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1866], 11).
- 36.Blanchard, Secret History of a Votary of Pleasure, 135.
- 37.Blanchard, Art of Real Pleasure, 78.
- 38.Ibid., 84; original emphasis.
- 39.Calvin Blanchard, The Tell-Tale; Queer Secrets Let Out, bound, without separate publishing information, in his Life Among the Nymphs: A New Excursion through the Empire of Venus (New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1867), 1.
- 40.Blanchard, Religio-Political Physics, 28.
- 41.Blanchard, Message to “The Sovereign People” of the United States, 15.
- 42.Blanchard, Art of Real Pleasure, 70.
- 43.See, for example, Blanchard, Religio-Political Physics, 28–29.
- 44.Calvin Blanchard, An Eye-Opener! A Real Liberty Song. Air, Down with Humbug (New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1862), 1.
- 45.Calvin Blanchard, Hell on Earth! Murder, Rape, Robbery, Swindling, and Forgery Covertly Organized! Cannibalism Made Dainty! An Expose of the Infernal Machinations and Horrible Atrocities of Whited Sepulcherism; Together With A Plan for Its Final Overthrow (New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1858), 1.
- 46.Ibid., 16.
- 47.Blanchard, “Good, Rapturous Scenes,” 3. Titus Petronius Arbiter's Satyricon volume also includes Calvin Blanchard's “The Secret Unveiled! Something Bran-New” (five pages), also separately paged (twice but with textual differences) in Blanchard's Life Among the Nymphs. See also Blanchard, Religio-Political Physics, where he writes that “labor, capital and skill, so long deadly foes, are about to enter into copartnership” (33).
- 48.Blanchard, “Good, Rapturous Scenes,” 3. See also Blanchard, Crisis Chapter on Government, 2; and Blanchard, Eye-Opener! 1.
- 49.Blanchard, Message to “The Sovereign People” of the United States, 14; original emphasis.
- 50.Blanchard, “Good, Rapturous Scenes,” 2–3.
- 51.Blanchard, Religion of Science, 87.
- 52.Blanchard, Art of Real Pleasure, 49.
- 53.Blanchard, Tell-Tale, 7; original emphasis.
- The Art of Real Pleasure: That New Pleasure, for which An Imperial Reward Was Offered. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1864. Reprint, New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1971. Also, separately paged, bound in Life Among the Nymphs: A New Excursion through the Empire of Venus. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1867.
- Blanchard's bulletin to independent thinkers (1856–?).
- Complete works of Thomas Paine: Containing All His Political and Theological Writings, Preceded by a Life of Paine, by Calvin Blanchard. Chicago: Belford, Clarke and Co., 1885. “Introduction” (5–8) and Blanchard's “Life of Thomas Paine” (9–109) and “Appendix” (110–16).
- A Crisis Chapter on Government. [New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1865?].
- The Essence of Science: or, The Catechism of Positive Sociology and Physical Mentality. By A Student of Auguste Comte [pseud.]. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1859.
- Extra! Jeff Davis' Escape!!! Nefarious Scheme for getting rid of the “Drawn Elephant.” A Rascally Plot Exposed. A Miserable Old Farce Played out. The Players. With William P. Wright. New York: Calvin Blanchard, . Blanchard may have just been the publisher. This is identical to Ventrilo-quizum in Court! except for half of the last paragraph.
- An Eye-Opener! A Real Liberty Song. Air, Down with Humbug. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1862.
- “Good, Rapturous Scenes. A New Way of Enjoyment! The Quintessent Value of Everything! All You Want!” Separately paged “Appendix” to Titus Petronius Arbiter. The Satyricon; or, Trebly Voluptuous. [Trans. W. K. Kelly]. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1866. Also separately paged (twice but with textual differences) in Life Among the Nymphs: A New Excursion through the Empire of Venus. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1867.
- Hell on Earth! Murder, Rape, Robbery, Swindling, and Forgery Covertly Organized! Cannibalism Made Dainty! An Expose of the Infernal Machinations and Horrible Atrocities of Whited Sepulcherism; Together With A Plan for Its Final Overthrow. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1858. Another edition has the title Astounding Disclosures!! Hell on Earth! Murder, Rape, Robbery, Swindling, and Forgery Covertly Organized! Cannibalism Made Dainty! An Expose of the Infernal Machinations and Horrible Atrocities of Whited Sepulcherism; Together With A Sure Plan for Its Final Overthrow. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1860.
- Life Among the Nymphs: A New Excursion through the Empire of Venus. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1867.
- The Life of Thomas Paine; Mover of the “Declaration of Independence”; Secretary of Foreign Affairs Under the First American Congress; Member of the National Convention of France; Author of “Common Sense,” “The Crisis,” “Rights of Man,” “Age of Reason,” AC., AC. The Man, Whose Motto Was, “The World Is My Country; To Do Good, My Religion.” Embracing Practical Considerations on Human Rights; Demonstrating That Man Tends Irrepressibly To Actual Freedom; And Showing A Liberty-Aim Connection In the Action of the World's Three Great Author-Heroes,—Rousseau, Paine, and Comte. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1860.
- A Message to “The Sovereign People” of the United States; Exhibiting to Their Majesties the Infernal Treachery or Worse Inability of Their Religious Counsellors, and of Their Political “Servants,” Proving the Identity of the Theological and Ethical Delusions, Exposing the Elective Franchise Hoax, and Revealing a New, and Self-Evidently Efficient Remedy for Superstition, Despotism, and Evil. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1860. Includes at the back Blanchard's “My Undertaking and Its Auspices,” a list of his publications, and on the last page “Wisdom and Merriment,” a one-page justification of publishing books that stimulate “the humorous, gay and mirthful faculties” together with books that “exercise the intellect to the utmost.”
- The New Crisis: or, Our Deliverance from Priestly Fraud, Political Charlatanry, and Popular Despotism. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1857.
- The Religion of Science; or, The Art of Actualizing Liberty, and of Perfecting and Satisfactorily Prolonging Happiness: Being a Practical Answer to the Great Question,—“If You Take Away My Religion, What Will You Give Me In Its Place”? New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1860.
- Religio-Political Physics: The Science and Art of Man's Deliverance From Ignorance-Engendered Mysticism, and Its Resulting Theo-Moral Quackery and Governmental Brigandage. New York: C[alvin] Blanchard, 1861.
- Secret History of a Votary of Pleasure. His Own Confessions. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1866. Also bound without separate publishing information in Life Among the Nymphs: A New Excursion through the Empire of Venus. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1867.
- The Tell-Tale; Queer Secrets Let Out. Bound without separate publishing information in Life Among the Nymphs: A New Excursion through the Empire of Venus. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1867.
- The Theological Works of Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason, Examination of Prophecies, Reply to the Bishop of Llanduff, Letter to Mr. Erskine, Essay on Dreams, Letter to Camille Jordan, and Several other Essays and Lectures. The Whole Preceded by A Life of Paine, By Calvin Blanchard. Chicago: Belfords, Clarke and Co., 1879. Blanchard's “Life” is separately paged (vi). Also published, New York: Truth Seeker Co., n.d. Blanchard's “Life” is separately paged (1–110). An appendix (110–16/104–110) quotes and comments on Paine's speech in opposition to the execution of Louis XVI.
- Ventrilo-quizum in Court! An Old Farce Played Out. With William P. Wright. New York: Calvin Blanchard, . Blanchard may have just been the publisher. Also entitled The Great Treason Trial! Ventrilo-quizum in Court! An Old Farce Played Out. The Players. New York: Calvin Blanchard, .
Works Published by Blanchard (Not All Survive)
- Basia: The Kisses of Joannes Secundus and Jean Bonnefons: With a Selection from the Best Ancient and Modern Authors. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1860.
- Blanchard, Calvin, and William P. Wright. Ventrilo-quizum in Court! An Old Farce Played Out. New York: Calvin Blanchard, . Burlesque trial of Jefferson Davis written in the form of a play.
- Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Decameron, or, Ten Day's Entertainment. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1851. Reprints, 1855 and 1858.
- Brown, J[ohn] Newton (1803–1868), and William B[ower] Taylor (1821–1895). The Obligation of the Sabbath. A Discussion between the Rev. J. Newton Brown, D.D., and William B. Taylor. 2nd ed. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1856.
- Comte, Auguste. Social Physics: From the Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte. [At the head of the title A Book for the Times: To Exterminate Political Vermin and Moral Quacks.] Freely Translated and Condensed by Harriet Martineu. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1855. Also published as The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte. Freely Translated and Condensed by Harriet Martineu. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1856.
- Dryden, John. Fables from Boccaccio and Chaucer. New York: Calvin Blanchard, n.d.
- Edger, Henry. Modern Times, the Labor Question, and the Family. A Brief Statement of Facts and Principles. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1855.
- Feuerbach, Ludwig. The Essence of Christianity. Trans. Marian Evans [George Eliot]. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1855. 2nd ed., 1857.
- Fourier, Charles. The Social Destiny of Man or The Theory of the Four Movements. Trans. Henry Clapp Jr. With a Treatise on the functions of the human passions and an outline of Fourier's system of social science, by Albert Brisbane. New York: Robert M. Dewitt and Calvin Blanchard, 1857. Reprint, New York: Gordon Press, 1972.
- Greg, William R. The Creed of Christendom. Its Foundation and Superstructure. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1850. Reprint, 1855.
- Hittell, John S[hertzer]. The Evidences Against Christianity. 2nd ed. 2 vols. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1857.
- Hittell, John S[hertzer]. A New System of Phrenology. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1857.
- Hittell, John S[hertzer]. A Plea for Pantheism. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1857.
- MacNaught, John. The Doctrine of Inspiration: Being an Inquiry Concerning the Infallibility, Inspiration, and Authority of Holy Writ. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1857.
- Ovid's Art of Love. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1855. Reprint, 1858.
- Paine, Thomas. The Age of Reason: Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1862. Another edition dated 1864. Bound with The Writings of Calvin Blanchard, Announcer of The Religion of Science; Professor of Theo-Religio Political Physics; Expositor of the Statics and Dynamics of God Almighty. New York: Published by the Author, n.d. Not a book but includes a two-page “Presignification,” which is standard Blanchard. This is followed by a separately paged eight-page catalog of his publications entitled “Liberal Books” and a separately paged four-page “My Undertaking and Its Auspices,” again standard Blanchard.
- Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Addressed to the Inhabitants of America, on the following interesting subjects, viz: I. Of the Origin and Design of Government in General, with Concise Remarks on the English Constitution. II. Of Monarchy, and Hereditary Succession. III. Thoughts on the Present State of American Affairs. IV. Of the Present Ability of America, with some Miscellaneous Reflections. To Which Is Added an Appendix. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1862.
- Titus Petronius Arbiter and Calvin Blanchard. The Satyricon, or, Trebly Voluptuous. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1866.
- Reichenbach, Baron [Freiherr von Karl Ludwig Friedrich]. Odic-Magnetic Letters. Trans. John S[hertzer] Hittell. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1860.
- Reichenbach, Baron [Freiherr von Karl Ludwig Friedrich]. Somnambulism and Cramp. Trans. John S[hertzer] Hittell. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1860.
- Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Confessions of J. J. Rousseau. Period First. [Trans. William Swinton.] New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1856.
- Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Confessions of J. J. Rousseau. Period Second. [Trans. William Swinton.] New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1857.
- The Secret History of the Court of Charles the Second. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1850.
- Strauss, David Friedrich. The Life of Jesus, Critically Examined. Trans. Marian Evans [George Eliot]. 2 vols. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1860.
- Taylor, Robert. The Devil's Pulpit: or, Astro-theological Sermons. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1856.
- Taylor, Robert. Who is the Devil? New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1859.
- Taylor, Robert. Who is the Lord God? New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1859.
- Volney, C[onstantin]-F[rançois] (1757–1820). New Researches on Ancient History: Embracing an Examination of the History of the Jews until the Captivity of Babylon: and Showing the Origin of the Mosaic Legends Concerning the Creation, the Fall of Man, Flood, and Confusion of Languages. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1856.
- Volney, C[onstantin]-F[rançois] (1757–1820). The Ruins; or, Meditation on the Revolutions of Empires. Into Which is Added The Law of Nature, A Short Biographical Notice, by Count Daru, and the Controversy Between Dr. Priestly and Volney. New York: Calvin Blanchard, .
- Voltaire. Candide. New York: Calvin Blanchard, 1864. “Candide is now, for the first time, completely rendered into English, without omissions or interpolations” (second preliminary page). Includes Calvin Blanchard's Apostrophe americana (thirteen pages), Perfect happiness (seven pages), and Amours of famous men and women (thirty pages).