Educational Supervision in Social Work

Educational Supervision in Social Work: A Task-Centered Model for Field Instruction and Staff Development

Jonathan Caspi
William J. Reid
Copyright Date: 2002
Pages: 274
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  • Book Info
    Educational Supervision in Social Work
    Book Description:

    This book provides a comprehensive examination of instructional supervision and introduces the Task-Centered Model for Educational Supervision (TCS). It begins by reviewing the history of educational supervision in social work and principles of effective teaching practices in the field. While theories about the principles and purposes of educational supervision abound, it has proven difficult to translate these ideas into a coherent model of supervisory practice. Educational Supervision in Social Work answers that need, presenting in detail TCS, an ordered series of discrete activities that supervisors and supervisees follow during and between supervision meetings. Designed to promote the continuous attainment of learning and practice objectives, TCS accommodates new models of field instruction, addresses common accountability concerns in social work supervision, and teaches practitioners how to be self-initiating and evaluative. Focusing on the practical implementation of TCS, Caspi and Reed have included detailed case vignettes throughout the book that provide concrete examples of putting theory into practice. Both supervisors of interns and staff as well as supervisees will find TCS a helpful tool in the supervisory process.

    eISBN: 978-0-231-52843-6
    Subjects: Sociology
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter (pp. i-vi)
  2. Table of Contents (pp. vii-viii)
  3. Preface (pp. ix-xii)
    J.C. and W.J.R.
  4. 1 A New Model of Educational Supervision (pp. 1-30)

    You picked up this book because you have an interest in educational supervision—teaching interns in field practica, training staff, or assisting the ongoing professional development of social work clinicians. If you are like many staff supervisors, field instructors, and clinical consultants, you are looking for a book that helps you do supervision. Much literature on this subject provides helpful theoretical principles of effective supervision but gives little direction about how to apply them in practice. Additionally, because these principles often address different aspects of the encounter, it can be challenging to work them into a coherent model of supervisory...

  5. 2 A History of Educational Supervision in Social Work (pp. 31-54)

    To understand the purpose and utility of TCS, it is important to consider it within the historical and contemporary contexts of educational supervision. This chapter provides a historical overview of educational supervision in social work and considers ways in which various approaches relate to TCS.

    Educational supervision existed prior to formal, school-based social work education (George 1982). As the training of new social workers became formalized in academic settings, the experiential learning process was maintained and became known as “field instruction” (discussed in depth later in this chapter). Social workers not in formal degree-granting programs typically learned on the job,...

  6. 3 Principles of Effective Instruction (pp. 55-95)

    This chapter provides an overview of principles commonly associated witheffective fieldinstruction. The purpose of reviewing these features is threefold. First, it familiarizes the reader with what elements are considered important for maximizing the educational experience. Second, it helps to give meaning to the power and utility of the Task-Centered Model for Supervision (TCS). How TCS addresses these principles and aids in promoting a positive supervisory relationship will be demonstrated throughout this book. Third, understanding principles of effective instruction is critical for forming a productive supervisory relationship. We posit that the development and maintenance of such a relationship can be achieved...

  7. 4 The Supervisory Relationship (pp. 96-125)

    This chapter continues the discussion of features of effective educational supervision, focusing particularly on the relationship between the supervisor and the supervisee. This relationship is, perhaps, the most critical part of the learning experience. An abundance of literature discusses its importance (Bogo 1993: Fortune et al. 1985; Fortune and Abramson 1993; Webb 1988).

    The supervisory relationship has a tremendous impact on the development of the supervisee and the effectiveness of supervision. In simple terms, a positive relationship is likely to result in a productive learning experience, and a poor relationship is likely to result in a negative and less productive...

  8. 5 The Person of the Supervisor (pp. 126-155)

    This chapter takes an in-depth look at a significant part of supervision that has largely been overlooked. As discussed in chapter 4, the supervisor’s experience is an important aspect of the encounter. How supervisors handle themselves has a major impact on the quality of learning for supervisees. Because supervision typically involves intense emotions, the supervisor’s ability to monitor and utilize their personal reactions is in the best interest of the supervisee’s learning.

    This chapter first looks at the supervisor’s influential role and reviews positive supervisor attributes. A brief overview of the concept of use of self is given; then the...

  9. 6 Preparing for Supervision Beginnings and Endings (pp. 156-171)

    The previous chapters have given an overview of the various facets of the educational supervision encounter. This chapter is concerned with the beginning and ending of supervision. The first part presents steps supervisors should consider in preparing for the initial meeting. Instrumental and affective considerations for making new supervisees feel welcome and less anxious about their experience are discussed.

    The second part presents issues related to endings. Though it may seem strange to introduce this topic in the middle of this book rather than in the final chapter, we believe it is important to plan for the end of supervision...

  10. 7 The Development and Basic Principles of TCS (pp. 172-181)

    This chapter provides an overview of the development of the Task-Centered Model for Educational Supervision (TCS). Chapter 1 formally introduced TCS and its activities; subsequent chapters will discuss its steps and functions in great detail. Here we continue the introduction to the model by reviewing the various considerations that went into building it. The purpose is to provide greater understanding of TCS through explication of its origins. The chapter concludes with an overview of its basic principles.

    Three areas provided the foundation for the model: the task-centered model for social work practice, which was identified as a promising approach for...

  11. 8 The Social and Direct Teaching Functions of TCS (pp. 182-210)

    As discussed in chapter 1, the TCS model entails a series of steps that are carried out by the supervisor and supervisee. This chapter presents the social and direct teaching functions of TCS. These are typically used prior to the task planning and implementation sequence, which is outlined in subsequent chapters. Illustrative vignettes are provided in order to show the model “in action.”

    The process of TCS involves a collection of sequenced stages that can be organized within three phases: beginning, middle, and ending. Each phase entails similar stages but emphasizes different facets of relationship and skill development. The beginning...

  12. 9 Target Goals (pp. 211-241)

    This chapter continues the presentation of the TCS stages and sequence with an in-depth discussion of the target goals stage. This stage begins the task planning and implementation sequence (TPIS), which includes generating and prioritizing target goals, selecting tasks to achieve these goals, predicting obstacles to successful implementation of tasks, revising tasks based upon consideration of potential obstacles, and clearly articulating selected target goals and tasks in the form of a written contract. TPIS is a central part of TCS, and is found in each phase of the model. It is shown below in bold.

    Social stage

    Explaining supervision and...

  13. 10 Tasks, Obstacles, and Contracting (pp. 242-275)

    This chapter continues presentation of the task planning implementation sequence (TPIS). After target goals are selected, tasks to attain them are identified, potential obstacles to successful task implementation are considered, and a contract stating what will be accomplished by the next supervision meeting is completed. This sequence is carried out in every meeting, throughout the supervision encounter. This chapter describes the stages of identifying, prioritizing, and selecting tasks; anticipating and negotiating obstacles; and contracting. These stages are listed in bold in the TCS sequence below.

    Social stage

    Explaining supervision and TCS

    Educational stage

    Target goals stage

    Identifying, prioritizing, and selecting...

  14. 11 Task Review (pp. 276-288)

    This chapter presents an important component of the task-centered model for educational supervision (TCS): the task review stage. This stage begins the task planning and implementation sequence (TPIS), covered in the previous chapters. After implementation of contracted tasks, the supervisee and supervisor enter into a collaborative appraisal of how well the tasks were completed. This generally follows the social stage, toward the start of each supervision meeting. Task review and the TPIS sequence continue throughout the supervisory encounter after the completion of the first contract.

    Social stage

    Task review

    Educational stage

    Target goals stage

    Identifying, prioritizing, and selecting tasks


  15. 12 Applications of TCS (pp. 289-304)

    TCS offers a process for conducting educational supervision. It does not prescribe particular learning content (i.e., educational objectives) or structures (e.g., one-to-one, group, peer). Therefore, the model can be applied for an array of purposes and in a variety of settings. This chapter provides an overview of the various applications of TCS, demonstrating the model’s flexibility and practicality. It begins with a presentation of how TCS handles varied learning content, then discusses the use of TCS in supervision with different theoretical and practice orientations. The adaptability of TCS for use within varied structures is demonstrated, and the differences in using...

  16. Appendix: TCS Guidelines (pp. 305-312)
  17. References (pp. 313-328)
  18. Name Index (pp. 329-334)
  19. Subject Index (pp. 335-338)


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