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The Cutting Edge

The Cutting Edge: Conserving Wildlife in Logged Tropical Forests

Robert A. Fimbel
Alejandro Grajal
John G. Robinson
Copyright Date: 2001
Pages: 700
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  • Book Info
    The Cutting Edge
    Book Description:

    Recent decades have seen unprecedented growth in the scale and intensity of industrial forestry. Directly and indirectly, it has degraded the wildlife and ecological integrity of these tropical forests, prompting a need to evaluate the impact of current forest management practices and reconsider how best to preserve the integrity of the biosphere.

    Synthesizing the body of knowledge of leading scientists and professionals in tropical forest ecology and management, this book's thirty chapters examine in detail the interplay between timber harvesting and wildlife, from hunted and protected habitats to invertebrates and large mammal species.

    Collectively, the contributors suggest that better management is pivotal to the maintenance of the tropics' valuable biodiversity, arguing that we must realize that tropical forests harbor the majority (perhaps 70 to 80 percent) of the world's animal species. Further, they suggest modifications to existing practices that can ensure a better future for our valuable resources.

    eISBN: 978-0-231-50479-9
    Subjects: Environmental Science, Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents (pp. v-viii)
  3. Foreword (pp. ix-xii)
    Jeffrey A. Sayer

    In recent decades, there has been unprecedented growth in the scale and intensity of tropical forest management. Industrial forestry, both directly and indirectly, has wreaked havoc on the wildlife and the ecological integrity of tropical forests. While the mark of human intervention in modern times is quite apparent, forests have in fact been subject to some form of management since the emergence of human beings. The wildlife of forests that we value so highly today is the result of varying intensities of human management over an extraordinarily long period. And the more we study even the most remote forests, the...

  4. Preface (pp. xiii-xvi)
    Robert A. Fimbel, Alejandro Grajal and John G. Robinson
  5. Contributors (pp. xvii-xxiv)
  6. Part I An Introduction to Forestry-Wildlife Interactions in Tropical Forests
    • [Part I Introduction] (pp. 1-6)

      Wildlife serves a crucial role in maintaining the health of natural forests, where up to 90 percent of the plant species in tropical rain forests are dependent on animals for their pollination or dispersal—including many important timber species. Forest animals, in addition, are integral components of all ecosystem processes, such as predator-prey relationships that keep pest species in-check; vectors for mycorrhizal fungi-tree symbiotic relationships; and decomposers-nutrient recyclers that maintain forest productivity.

      Timber management of tropical forests has both direct and indirect effects on wildlife populations and their habitats. Part I briefly reviews the role of wildlife in tropical forests,...

    • Chapter 1 LOGGING-WILDLIFE ISSUES IN THE TROPICS: An Overview (pp. 7-10)
      Robert A. Fimbel, Alejandro Grajal and John G. Robinson

      Protected areas are currently inadequate to conserve the biological diversity found within tropical forests, because of their limited size, number, distribution, composition, and protection status. In 1990, approximately nine percent of the world’s major tropical rain forests were legally preserved in national parks or equivalent reserves (Grieser Johns 1997:4). The area physically protected against intrusions by hunters, settlers, miners, illegal loggers, or road and hydroelectric projects, however, is actually much less. The distribution of preserves also does not represent all forest types or areas of high biodiversity (Frumhoff and Losos 1998).

      In many tropical countries, the large size of timber...

    • Chapter 2 TROPICAL FOREST MANAGEMENT AND WILDLIFE: Silvicultural Effects on Forest Structure, Fruit Production, and Locomotion of Arboreal Animals (pp. 11-34)
      Francis E. Putz, Laura K. Sirot and Michelle A. Pinard

      Silvicultural activities—beginning with timber inventories to estimate exploitable wood volumes and continuing on to include road construction, timber harvesting, treatments to increase stocking of commercial timber trees, and treatments to increase timber yields—all affect wildlife. Given the huge range of logging intensities, the diversity of possible silvicultural treatments, and the incredible diversity of animal species in tropical forests, we cannot expect any single predictive model of the effects of forest management activities on wildlife to be very useful. Silvicultural treatments affect wildlife through a myriad of direct (see chapters 4–14) and indirect (see chapters 15–17) mechanisms,...

      Patrick A. Jansen and Pieter A. Zuidema

      Tropical forestry is increasingly focused on finding systems for sustainable timber harvesting from natural forests. So-called natural regeneration systems are typically polycyclic, selective logging systems that rely on natural regeneration to produce the next crop of timber (Gómez-Pompa and Burley 1991; see chapters 2 and 21). These systems seek to maintain commercial productivity of logged forests by minimizing damage to residual trees and by conserving the natural regeneration potential of the forest (Grieser Johns 1997). Some, such as the CELOS silvicultural system (Centrum voor Landbouwkundig Onderzoek in Suriname; De Graaf 1986; De Graaf and Poels 1990; De Graaf et al....

  7. Part II Wildlife and Chainsaws:: Direct Impacts of Logging on Wildlife
    • [Part II Introduction] (pp. 61-70)

      Logging practices directly impact wildlife by altering habitat, dispersing populations, and (in rare instances) maiming or killing individual animals. In turn, changes in wildlife numbers and behaviors are believed to affect ecological processes ranging from pollination to decomposition. The following eleven chapters review what is known about the direct impacts of logging on tropical wildlife (indirect impacts are addressed in part III). Taxonomic groups evaluated in this section include mammals, birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and aquatic fauna. Responses of individual species and guild assemblages to timber harvesting—both positive and negative—are reviewed. Management options to reduce the impacts of logging...

      Andrew J. Plumptre and Andrew Grieser Johns

      Primates are a conspicuous part of tropical forest ecosystems. They are important seed dispersers, especially in terms of the volume of seeds dispersed (Wrangham et al. 1994; Chapman 1995), and often form a large part of the animal biomass in these forests (White 1992). Consequently, the effects of logging have been studied better in this group of animals than most others.

      Johns and Skorupa (1987) reviewed the effects of forest disturbance on primates and estimated survival ability following disturbance. They argued that survival ability is negatively correlated with the degree of frugivory, and that large-bodied primates are more at risk...

      Glyn Davies, Matt Heydon, Nigel Leader-Williams, John MacKinnon and Helen Newing

      Compared to the primates that have just been discussed, the information on the ecology of most forest dwelling, terrestrial mammals is sparse, often anecdotal, widely scattered in the literature, and supported by very few long-term studies. This chapter focuses on ungulates—a group of medium to large-sized terrestrial mammals, which includes elephants, odd-toed hoofed mammals (such as rhinos and tapirs), and even-toed hoofed mammals (such as cattle and antelopes). These mammals are:

      Important sources of subsistence animal protein for many peoples

      Central to the wild meat (bushmeat) trade in many parts of the world

      A source of opportunity for forest...

      José Ochoa G. and Pascual J. Soriano

      Recent literature on the study of mammal communities in Neotropical rain forests identifies the growing threat to many species (Patterson 1991; Terborgh 1992a, 1992b; Woodman et al. 1995, 1996; Voss and Emmons 1996) as a consequence of increased deforestation rates or degradation of primary forests by unsustainable resource exploitation (Uhl and Vieira 1989; Whitmore and Sayer 1992; Frumhoff 1995; Pinard and Putz 1996; Bryant et al. 1997; Miranda et al. 1998). Among the high levels of diversity that characterize the mammalian fauna in these ecosystems (Emmons and Feer 1990; Chesser and Hackett 1992; Voss and Emmons 1996), some taxonomic groups...

      Pascual J. Soriano and José Ochoa G.

      The wealth of biological diversity in tropical forest ecosystems owes its existence to mutual relationships between species (Gilbert 1980). Some Neotropical forest bats (Chiroptera) are the mobile links in these interrelationships, benefiting plant species that depend on their ecological services for successful reproduction and seed dispersal. The loss of such links may have cascading effects on the health and productivity of tropical forest systems (Terborgh 1986b; Johns 1992a). In Venezuela, for example, approximately 1.3 million hectares of forest were cut in the western lowlands between 1950 and 1975, leading to the severe degradation of the three most important forest reserves...

      Douglas J. Mason and Jean-Marc Thiollay

      Latin America is the largest remaining frontier for tropical forestry. While southeast Asia continues to produce most of the world’s tropical timber, over half of the world’s remaining tropical forests occur in Latin America. Nearly 5,000,000 ha of tropical forests are logged in Latin America each year—a total that is expected to increase as Asian stocks are rapidly depleted and Latin America becomes the primary producer of tropical hardwoods (Grainger 1987; WRI 1994). Even where intact forest remains, huge areas of forest have already been allocated as concessions.

      These forests have tremendous value, not only for their wood, but...

      Mohamed Zakaria Bin Hussin and Charles M. Francis

      The forests of tropical Asia and Australia support rich bird communities, with up to 200 or more bird species co-occurring in some areas of lowland rain forests (Wells 1988). Over the past century, many of these forests have been extensively cleared or exploited for timber. Only a relatively small proportion of the original forest in the region has been designated for protection in a pristine state (Dinerstein et al. 1995), and even less can be considered secure from disturbance. The long-term survival of most forest birds and other animals will depend largely upon their ability to persist in human-altered habitats....

    • Chapter 10 BIRD COMMUNITIES IN LOGGED AND UNLOGGED AFRICAN FORESTS: Lessons from Uganda and Beyond (pp. 213-238)
      Andrew Plumptre, Christine Dranzoa and Isaiah Owiunji

      Tropical forests are subjected to a variety of disturbances in Africa. These include the occasional tree fall, larger-scale wind damage, disturbance from fire (Hart et al. 1997), and human-initiated disturbances such as shifting cultivation and logging. Each of these types of disturbance has different effects on the forest and the bird communities within the forest (see chapter 22).

      Many species of birds respond to small changes in habitat structure and composition, therefore they serve as good indicators of changes in the environment (Furness et al. 1993). Habitat heterogeneity within forests has been shown to increase bird species richness (Freemark and...

      Laurie J. Vitt and Janalee P. Caldwell

      Reptiles and amphibians comprise a significant portion of the vertebrate faunas of tropical forests throughout the world (Inger 1980a, b; Duellman 1990, 1993), where they have an impact on other organisms as predators and prey. The long-term effects of logging on tropical herpetofaunas (assemblages of reptiles and amphibians) are poorly understood, and, as a consequence, most of the discussion in this chapter is based on relatively short-term studies.

      Logging in tropical forests occurs at several scales, each of which has the potential to differentially impact reptile and amphibian populations. Clearcut logging typically creates a patchwork landscape where microhabitats used by...

      Jaboury Ghazoul and Jane Hill

      Invertebrates dominate the animal component of tropical forest habitats in diversity, abundance and biomass. The estimated global number of invertebrate species is five to 15 million (May 1988; Stork 1988; Gaston 1991) compared with less than 45,000 vertebrate species. Described invertebrate species alone outnumber vertebrates by a factor of 30. Invertebrates also comprise over 90 percent of the animal biomass of tropical rain forests—a third of which is composed of ants and termites (Wilson 1987).

      Invertebrates fill a wide variety of niches, occupying all parts of the forest from the canopy to the soil and streams. Many tropical forest...

    • Chapter 13 SOIL FAUNA IN MANAGED FORESTS: Lessons from the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico (pp. 289-304)
      Gerardo R. Camilo and Xiaoming Zou

      Soil organisms play crucial roles in nutrient cycling, food webs and soil properties of terrestrial ecosystems. These processes are the result of intricate ecological interactions among soil fauna, bacteria, fungi, plants, and the stratum of soil in which they are found (Moore et al. 1988, 1993). Modeling studies indicate that the resilience and persistence of ecosystems is closely tied to the recycling of materials through these soil food webs (Moore et al. 1993). The diversity of soil organisms is of great importance not only to ecosystems, but also to the health of people dependent on the land. Structural (Zou et...

      Catherine M. Pringle and Jonathan P. Benstead

      While there is a growing body of literature on logging and its effects on the terrestrial components of tropical ecosystems (e.g., Uhl et al. 1991; Barros and Uhl 1995; Frumhoff 1995; other chapters in this volume), very little is known about logging and effects on tropical aquatic systems. Studies that relate logging practices in tropical regions to changes in surface hydrology and fluvial geomorphology are less common than in temperate regions, as are ecological studies on the effects of logging on tropical aquatic biota. This focus contrasts sharply with that in temperate areas such as North America, where the conservation...

  8. Part III Hunting:: A Major Indirect Impact of Logging on Game Species
    • [Part III Introduction] (pp. 327-332)

      Hunting in tropical forests, for subsistence and commerce, often has a far greater impact on certain kinds of wildlife populations than the direct habitat perturbations associated with silvicultural interventions (see parts I and II). Road networks created during timber harvesting operations substantially increase access to game, while facilitating their transport to markets. These markets are local (created by the influx of concession personnel and their families into rural areas) and external (where truckers and commercial hunters team up to supply urban centers).

      In this section of the book, we examine case studies of hunting associated with logging from three continents...

    • Chapter 15 LOGGING AND HUNTING IN COMMUNITY FORESTS AND CORPORATE CONCESSIONS: Two Contrasting Case Studies in Bolivia (pp. 333-358)
      Damián I. Rumiz, Daniel Guinart S., Luciano Solar R. and José C. Herrera F.

      The hunting of wildlife in forests is a common practice associated with timber extraction in Bolivia (López 1993; Ribera 1996a; Rumiz personal observation). Hunting occurs in community forests exploited by indigenous peoples and in forests awarded as concessions to logging companies. Hunting reduces the density of forest wildlife (Fragoso 1991a; Glanz 1991; Redford 1992) and can be the most detrimental impact that selective logging activities have on biodiversity in Bolivia (Rumiz and Taber 1994).

      A series of policy changes have been taking place in Bolivia during this decade, with the aim to promote a better use of natural resources and...

    • Chapter 16 THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS OF COMMERCIAL LOGGING, HUNTING, AND WILDLIFE IN SARAWAK: Recommendations for Forest Management (pp. 359-374)
      Elizabeth L. Bennett and Melvin T. Gumal

      Since the 1950s, southeast Asia has been the world’s main supplier of tropical hardwoods. The source has changed over time as declining resources follow booms in each country. In the 1950s, most logs came from the Philippines, followed by Malaysia in the 1960s. In the early 1970s, Indonesia was a major source of round logs, but Malaysia again took over as the world’s main supplier (IUCN 1991) when the Indonesian export of round logs was stopped. By 1986, 89 percent of Japan’s tropical timber imports were from Malaysia (Nectoux and Kuroda 1989). Within Malaysia, the early exports were from Peninsular...

    • Chapter 17 DEFAUNATION, NOT DEFORESTATION: Commercial Logging and Market Hunting in Northern Congo (pp. 375-400)
      David S. Wilkie, J. G. Sidle, G. C. Boundzanga, P. Auzel and S. Blake

      Concerns about the unsustainable use of tropical forests have focused primarily on deforestation by commercial loggers, charcoal makers, and by ranchers and farmers (Myers 1980; Barnes 1990; Rudel and Horowitz 1993). Tree felling is responsible for the decline in forest cover as well as forest-dependent plants and animals everywhere that tropical forests exist (Friends of the Earth 1991). Focusing efforts solely on keeping the trees standing, however, may not be sufficient to ensure that healthy, productive, tropical forest ecosystems survive into the future. Defaunation by subsistence and market hunters, though leaving the trees intact, may have as strong an impact...

  9. Part IV Research to Integrate Natural Forest Management and Wildlife Conservation
    • [Part IV Introduction] (pp. 401-404)

      Our understanding of the direct and indirect effects of forest management practices on wildlife (parts I through III) is very incomplete because of the limited number of studies in this field, and problems associated with their experimental designs. In this section of the book, contributors address how applied research efforts should be focused to achieve ecological and economic sustainability of our natural resources. Discussions range from improvements in experimental designs to a demonstration forest model where reduced impact logging practices, protected area networks, and silvicultural systems based upon natural disturbance models are evaluated and refined. The recommendations suggest avenues to...

    • Chapter 18 NATURAL FOREST MANAGEMENT AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION: Field Study Design and Integration at the Operational Level (pp. 405-422)
      Andrew Grieser Johns

      Until the beginning of the 1980s, it was a maxim of practical conservation that areas of disturbed tropical forest were not considered useful in maintaining biodiversity (Johns 1985). This attitude has changed very rapidly. Following the study by Johns (1983b), which illustrated the potential for retention of biodiversity in managed rain forests, there has been a movement toward the development of ecological guidelines for the management of tropical forests that incorporate biodiversity conservation measures (e.g., Poore and Sayer 1987; Blockhus et al. 1992; Dykstra and Heinrich 1994; Sist et al. 1998a, b). These guidelines tend to reiterate the general principles...

      Robert A. Fimbel, Elizabeth L. Bennett and Claire Kremen

      Efforts to assess the impacts of tropical logging on wildlife have provided many insights into the direct and indirect effects of harvesting activities on select forest fauna and their habitat (Grieser Johns 1997; Struhsaker 1997; see chapters 2–17 and 24). Most of these studies, however, have shortcomings associated with their designs (see chapter 18) that limit their capacity to predict and mitigate the impacts of logging on wildlife. Few include longitudinal (pre- and post-treatment) measurements at the same site, making it difficult to separate the responses to forest management activities from the normal spatial variation found in heterogeneous tropical...

  10. Part V Forest Management Programs to Conserve Wildlife in Production Forest Landscapes
    • [Part V Introduction] (pp. 447-452)

      Wildlife habitat in tropical forests is being degraded at an unprecedented rate, due in large part to timber exploitation activities. Direct and indirect environmental impacts associated with these forest management policies (detailed in parts I through III) can be greatly reduced by applying existing forestry technologies. In many areas, economic and political incentives currently exist for promoting the adoption of sustainable forest management (SFM) and wildlife conservation measures within tropical forest landscapes managed for timber production (see part VI). In this section of the book, contributors discuss resource management techniques available to accomplish these conservation goals and where they should...

      Peter C. Frumhoff and Elizabeth C. Losos

      Current patterns of tropical timber production pose a considerable challenge for all concerned with the conservation of tropical forests and their biological diversity. Timber concessionaires widely engage in destructive logging practices, rapidly harvesting trees of marketable species without attempting to protect the forest from structural damage, fire, overhunting, or subsequent conversion to agriculture or pasture (Johnson and Cabarle 1993; Frumhoff 1995; Bawa and Seidler 1998). The area of tropical forest affected by such practices is vast—more than four million hectares of tropical broadleaf forests were logged annually through the 1980s (FAO 1993), and Grieser Johns (1997) estimates that 31...

      Douglas J. Mason and Francis E. Putz

      Some loss of biodiversity is likely when humans extract resources from natural areas. Forestry is not exempt from this rule. While managed tropical forests may not conserve every species, they do have an important role to play in an overall strategy to conserve biodiversity. Production forests cannot replace national parks, but they can complement strictly protected areas that are often too small or too isolated to conserve all species. Because many developing countries are unwilling, or economically unable, to strictly protect all of their remaining forests, some of the largest remaining forested landscapes in the tropics will be managed for...

    • Chapter 22 AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE ON NATURAL DISTURBANCE AND LOGGING: Implications for Forest Management and Habitat Restoration (pp. 511-522)
      Colin A. Chapman and Robert A. Fimbel

      Natural disturbances alter the structure and composition of tropical forests. The intensity and frequency of such events vary from daily limb and treefalls (Denslow 1980, 1987; Brown and Whitmore, 1992; Whitmore and Brown, 1996) to periodic large-scale disturbances, such as landslides, hurricanes, and fires that can damage hundreds of square kilometers (Garwood et al. 1979, Whitmore 1991). Recovery times from these perturbations may range from less than a year (e.g., limbfalls), to a number of centuries (e.g., after landslides that remove topsoil). Where geographical variations occur in the nature or extent of large forest disturbances, forest communities appear to have...

      Bruce G. Marcot, R. E. Gullison and James R. Barborak

      How can plant and animal species, ecological communities and processes, and ecosystems be maintained in areas also being used by people for their natural resources commodities? For most developing societies, extensive preservation of natural resources or reverting to indigenous resource use habits and smaller human population sizes (e.g., Alcorn 1993, Gadgil and Berkes 1993) are simply not options. Rather, the answer may lie in managing forests as ecosystems and for long-term conservation of wildlife habitat, as well as for human use.

      Much scientific literature has highlighted the value of natural areas for conserving the biodiversity of a region (DellaSala et...

    • Chapter 24 LOGGING AND WILDLIFE RESEARCH IN AUSTRALASIA: Implications for Tropical Forest Management (pp. 559-574)
      William F. Laurance

      Because of its long history of biogeographic isolation, Australasia supports a unique biota characterized by exceptionally high levels of endemism. Wet tropical forests occur extensively in the region, especially in New Guinea, with smaller forest areas in the Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, and northern Queensland.

      In socioeconomic terms, the Australasian region contains two distinctive components. Australia is a developed nation with a low population density, a high literacy rate, and a tradition of multiple-use land management. Tropical rain forests are confined to north Queensland and occupy only a small fraction (0.3 percent) of the continent’s land area. This is...

    • Chapter 25 COMMUNITY-BASED TIMBER PRODUCTION: A Viable Strategy for Promoting Wildlife Conservation? (pp. 575-594)
      Nick Salafsky, Max Henderson and Mark Leighton

      The conservation and development community is increasingly interested in linking conservation with sustainable use of biological resources. Integrated conservation and development projects seek to meet these twin goals of promoting conservation and enhancing community economic development by assisting communities in their development of sustainable uses for the wealth contained in their natural resources. From an income generation perspective, it makes sense for local communities in forested areas to develop their own timber resources. But does this make sense from a conservation perspective? Should conservation organizations invest in helping communities to develop their timber resources? At face value, these projects offer...

  11. Part VI Incentives for Integrating Natural Forest Management and Wildlife Conservation
    • [Part VI Introduction] (pp. 595-600)

      Technical (part V) and research (part IV) solutions to the direct and indirect environmental impacts associated with tropical timber-harvests (parts I to III) can only succeed where inducements exist for their adoption. This section reviews several financial, social, and political incentives for advancing wildlife conservation measures into forest management programs. The presentations, while grounded in economics, also touch on public relations and policy issues.

      In chapter 26, Richard Donovan opens this part of the book with an historical summary of the wood certification program, and its utility in assisting forest management organizations in the integration of wildlife concerns into commercial...

      Richard Z. Donovan

      Certification of forest management enterprises was started on a worldwide basis in 1989. In various regions of the world, this type of forest management certification is sometimes referred to as eco-certification, green certification, or in Latin American countries as green stamp or sello verde programs. Initially, certification resulted from a frustration with the limitations of tropical timber bans or boycotts, and a perception that a positive incentive was needed to promote good forestry operations. Certification provides an independent third party seal of approval for forest management operations that are strongly committed to sustainable forest management practices at the field level....

      Elizabeth Losos

      Among the most prominent global environmental challenges facing policy makers and scientists today are tropical de-forestation and global warming. The two are not unrelated. Forest systems respond to and play a role in regulating the global climate. In fact, tropical deforestation and related land use changes contribute approximately one fifth of the carbon released into the atmosphere annually—the burning of fossil fuels being responsible for most of the rest (IGBP Terrestrial Carbon Working Group 1998). It is from this connection that forestry carbon-offset projects—tools aimed at reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere—were developed (see box 27-1). Within...

      Neil Byron

      Measures to conserve wildlife in tropical forests, or to improve the ecological sustainability and long-term timber productivity of these forests, are seldom greeted with enthusiasm by commercial logging operations. Industry (and in some instances, government) has opposed such measures, even when there are very strong grounds to believe they would be in the wider public interest (Ruitenbeck, 1998). Most forest operations follow management practices that prioritize their financial returns, since the bottom line rarely improves from providing nonmonetary benefits to the wider society or to future unborn generations. Wildlife is no exception, as forest animals are often viewed as just...

    • Chapter 29 RAIN FOREST LOGGING AND WILDLIFE USE IN BOLIVIA: Management and Conservation in Transition (pp. 649-664)
      Damián I. Rumiz and Fernando Aguilar

      Bolivia is a land-locked South American country encompassing a total area of 1,098,581 km², 48 percent of which is covered by forest (Robbins et al. 1995). Most of the forests occur in the lowlands east and northeast of the Andes, and range from humid evergreen forests in the north (Departments of Pando, north of La Paz, Beni and a fraction of Cochabamba), to dry deciduous forests in the south (east of Chuquisaca and Tarija). In between lies Santa Cruz, where a gradient from humid evergreen to semideciduous and dry forests occurs (see figure 29-1).

      These diverse forest types harbor a...

  12. Part VII Synopsis
    • Chapter 30 LOGGING AND WILDLIFE IN THE TROPICS: Impacts and Options for Conservation (pp. 667-696)
      Robert A. Fimbel, Alejandro Grajal and John G. Robinson

      Large expanses of tropical forests are subject to logging, with only a fraction of these forests managed sustainably for timber production (Poore et al. 1989; Johnson and Cabarle 1993). Technological, social, political, and economic constraints promote the rapid, unsustainable harvest of forest resources. One consequence of harvesting practices is that many wildlife species in production forests are experiencing population declines and local extinctions (Grieser Johns 1997; Laurance and Bierregaard 1997; see chapters 4–14, 24).

      In recent years, foresters and conservationists have begun promoting sustainable forest management as a means to achieve long-term yields of important timber and non-timber forest...

  13. Literature Cited (pp. 697-776)
  14. Index (pp. 777-808)