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Fourteenth Century England VII

Fourteenth Century England VII

Edited by W. Mark Ormrod
Volume: 7
Copyright Date: 2012
Pages: 252
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt81w6h
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    Fourteenth Century England VII
    Book Description:

    This collection represents the fruits of new research, by both established and young scholars, on the politics, society and culture of England and its dependencies in the fourteenth century. Drawing on a diverse range of documentary, literary and material evidence, the studies offer a range of methods, from micro-history and prosopography to the study of institutions, texts and events. The early fourteenth century provides a particular focus of interest, with studies contributing new reflections on the personnel of parliament, the household of Edward II, the politics of Edward III's minority, and reactions to the great famine of 1315-22 and the Black Death of 1348-9. The wars with Scotland and France give the opportunity for significant new assessments of international diplomacy, the role of the mariner in the logistics of war, English loyalties in Gascony and the pious practices of medieval knights. Richly textured with personal and local detail, these new studies provide numerous insights into the lives of great and small in this tumultuous period of medieval history. W. Mark Ormrod is Professor of Medieval History at the University of York. Contributors: Benoît Grévin, Alison K. McHardy, J.S. Hamilton, Guilhem Pépin, Eliza Hartrich, Phil Bradford, J.S. Bothwell, Craig Lambert, Andrew Ayton, Graham St John, Christopher Phillpotts.

    eISBN: 978-1-84615-866-7
    Subjects: History
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Table of Contents

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  1. Front Matter (pp. i-iv)
  2. Table of Contents (pp. v-v)
  3. CONTRIBUTORS (pp. vi-vi)
  4. PREFACE (pp. vii-vii)
    W. Mark Ormrod
  5. ABBREVIATIONS (pp. viii-x)
  6. WRITING TECHNIQUES IN THIRTEENTH- AND FOURTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLAND: THE ROLE OF THE SICILIAN AND PAPAL LETTER COLLECTIONS AS PRACTICAL MODELS FOR THE SHAPING OF ROYAL PROPAGANDA (pp. 1-30)
    Benoît Grévin

    Although it is well known that the southern Italian ars dictaminis² exercised a strong influence on the shaping of chancery styles at the European level from the end of the thirteenth to the end of the fourteenth century, attempts to establish the exact modalities of this influence have been rare.³ In the case of England, an exception is represented by the pioneering studies of Ernst Kantorowicz. Kantorowicz examined the links established in the third decade of the thirteenth century between the imperial court of Frederick II of Sicily and the English court of Henry III, under the auspices of the...

  7. THE GREAT BARDNEY ABBEY SCANDAL, 1303–18 (pp. 31-46)
    Alison K. McHardy

    In the late 1270s Robert Kilwardby, archbishop of Canterbury, conducted a visitation of the diocese of Lincoln.¹ When he reached Bardney, a Benedictine abbey in the Witham valley, east of the city of Lincoln, he found a house already in disarray. The abbot, Peter Barton, had recently been removed by the bishop of Lincoln, Richard Gravesend, but he appealed to Kilwardby who reinstated him.² The pattern was already set for future conflict. Kilwardby identified four monks as troublemakers, and ordered their removal: Nicholas (de) Hagworthingham (Hagwinchingham), Henry Merle, Richard (de) Hayntone, and Robert (de) Wainfleet (Wainflete). It was Wainfleet who...

  8. A REASSESSMENT OF THE LOYALTY OF THE HOUSEHOLD KNIGHTS OF EDWARD II (pp. 47-72)
    J. S. Hamilton

    Edward II has been accused of many things, few of them good. It has generally been recognized, however, that one of his more attractive qualities was loyalty to his friends and favourites, albeit often a superfluity of loyalty.¹ That being said, it seems surprising that one of the recent criticisms levelled at Edward is his failure to inspire loyalty among his household knights, and particularly so in the later years of the reign.² Michael Prestwich has bluntly stated that ‘there was rapid turnover of royal household knights, with few remaining in service for long’.³ Similarly, Alistair Tebbit has argued that...

  9. RAMON DURAND OF TOULOUSE: A LAWYER TURNED KNIGHT IN THE SERVICE OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND (pp. 73-88)
    Guilhem Pépin

    Since the development of Annales history, and despite the popularity of historical biography, the role of individuals seems to be often underestimated by historians.¹ It is claimed that individual destinies do not influence the evolution of societies, but simply provide isolated cases. In fact, the study of individual careers can often illuminate many facets of a particular society, and is consequently not merely anecdotal. The Gascon rolls (National Archives series C 61) tell us much about many different individuals, allowing us to observe many behavioural patterns and also to reconstruct in some detail the biographies of some important members of...

  10. URBAN IDENTITY AND POLITICAL REBELLION: LONDON AND HENRY OF LANCASTER’S REVOLT, 1328–29 (pp. 89-106)
    Eliza Hartrich

    In a letter of 27 september 1328 from the mayor, aldermen and commonalty of London to Edward III, the city reported that, thirteen days earlier, Thomas de Wake and John Stratford, bishop of Winchester, came to the London Guildhall ‘to talk about your own good and the common profit of your people’ with the civic elite.¹ Wake and Stratford, acting on behalf of Henry, earl of Lancaster, were contemplating a revolt against Roger Mortimer, who was governing the realm unofficially during Edward III’s minority. They complained that the king was not living off his own resources, that he had not...

  11. ‘THE OBSCURE LIVES OF OBSCURE MEN’? THE PARLIAMENTARY KNIGHTS OF THE SHIRES IN THE EARLY FOURTEENTH CENTURY (pp. 107-130)
    Phil Bradford

    Writing in the mid-1970s, G. O. Sayles argued in a typically forthright manner that ‘to still pretend that the history of the medieval parliament is being written when the sparse and uninformative details of the obscure lives of obscure men are laboriously collected because they made a fitful appearance among the commons is merely to veil the hard realities of medieval politics in what was an essentially aristocratic society’.¹ It was a restatement, in blunter terms, of an argument put forward five decades earlier by A. F. Pollard, who cautioned against exaggerating the parliamentary importance of the representatives in the...

  12. THE FIVE GIANTS: INSTITUTIONAL HIERARCHY AND SOCIAL PROVISION IN LATER MEDIEVAL LEICESTERSHIRE (pp. 131-152)
    J. S. Bothwell

    The following is a survey of the main medieval power structures (monarchy, upper landholding classes, urban elite and the Church) and their relationship with the welfare of the medieval populace, using the Midlands town of Leicester, and its county of Leicestershire, as a case study. The title comes from The Beveridge Report(1942), the findings of a commission set up to examine the challenges connected with the development of a welfare state in England after the end of the Second World War – namely, ‘Want is one only of five giants on the road of reconstruction; the others are Disease, Ignorance, Squalor,...

  13. THE MARINER IN FOURTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLAND (pp. 153-176)
    Craig Lambert and Andrew Ayton

    The Shipman is among the most colourful, and yet enigmatic, of the Canterbury pilgrims who rub shoulders in Geoffrey Chaucer’s exuberantly drawn group portrait of the middling ranks of late fourteenth-century English society.¹ The vivid character sketch assigned to him is surely connected with the poet’s personal experience during the 1370s and 1380s, which took him – no doubt significantly – to Dartmouth to arrange the release of an unjustly arrested Genoese vessel and, as a customs official, brought him into direct contact with shipmasters and mariners on the London quayside.² Here, he would have recognized, was a world that could plausibly...

  14. DYING BEYOND THE SEAS: TESTAMENTARY PREPARATION FOR CAMPAIGNING DURING THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR (pp. 177-196)
    Graham St John

    Historiography on testamentary practices in later medieval history has highlighted the contemporary fear of mors improvisa: dying intestate suddenly and without shrift and housel.¹ Historians have also emphasized the importance of death rites, in which the production of a will looms large.² In addition, it has been discussed recently that, along with the well-known military preparations soldiers made before going on campaign, many made spiritual arrangements, including petitioning for the right to choose confessors, have a portable altar, hear mass before daybreak or abstain from fasting while on campaign.³ Considering all of these preparations, one might presume that men-at-arms would...

  15. RICHARD II AND THE MONASTERIES OF LONDON (pp. 197-224)
    Christopher Phillpotts

    By the time of Richard II’s accession to the throne in 1377, large parts of the city of London and its suburbs were occupied by ecclesiastical and monastic precincts. St Paul’s Cathedral was prominent in the west part of the city and the Benedictine abbey of St Peter in Westminster; near to each was a collegiate royal free chapel, St Martin le Grand in the city and St Stephen at Westminster. In the north-east part of the city lay the Benedictine nunnery of St Helen, Bishopsgate. The Cluniacs were represented by Bermondsey Priory to the south of the River Thames....

  16. INDEX (pp. 225-236)
  17. Back Matter (pp. 237-241)