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Journal Article

The Initiative, Referendum and Recall in Switzerland

William E. Rappard
The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science
Vol. 43, The Initiative, Referendum and Recall (Sep., 1912), pp. 110-145
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1012542
Page Count: 36
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Notes and References

This item contains 150 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 1
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • Rüttimann in his work entitled Das nordamerikanische Bundesstaatsrecht verglichen mit den politischen Einrichtungen der Schweis, 3 vols., Zurich, 1867-1876, vol. I, p. 25
    • Th. Curti's Die schweiserischen Volksrechte 1848 bis 1900, Bern 1900, pp. 1-12
    • Hilty, "Das Referendum im schweizerischen Staatsrecht," Archip für öffentliches Recht, 1887, p. 207
    • W. D. McCrackan, "The Swiss and American Constitutions," Arena, vol. IV, July, 1891, p. 173
    • A. V. Dicey, "The United States and the Swiss Confederation," The Nation, October, 1885, vol. XLI, p. 297
    • "Initiative and the Refer- endum in Switzerland," in the August, 1912, number of the American Political Science Review
  • 2
    G. Bradford, The Lesson of Popular Government, 2 vols., New York, 1899, vol. II, p. 231.
  • 3
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Statistisches Jahr- buch der Schweiz, Jahrgang, 1907
    • Ergebnisse der eidg. Betriebssäthlung von 1905
    • Statistical Abstract of the United States for 1911
  • 4
    A. D. Wells, the New Dictionary of Statistics, London, 1911, p.209.
  • 7
    President Lowell in his recent article in the Quarterly Review, vol. CCXIV, April, 1911, p. 525
  • 8
    "American Commonwealth," Pol. Sci. Quarterly, vol. I, pp. 26-30
  • 9
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Spectator, vol. LXXI, p. 904
    • E. V. Raynolds, Yale Review, vol. IV, p. 289
  • 10
    Boston, 1898, Chapter IV, pp. 96-145.
  • 11
    Hon. Thomas E. Watson, Member of Congress from Georgia, under the title, Not a Revolt; It is a Revolution, Washington, 1892
  • 12
    Save the Republic, No. 3, Present Day Problems, Boston, 1893, p. 1.
  • 13
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Art. "Democracy in Switzerland," Edin. Rev., vol. CLXXI, Jan., 1890, p. 113
    • A. W. Hutton, "Switzerland as a School of Politics," Living Age, vol. CLXXXVIII, Jan., 1891, p. 150
    • E. A. Free- man, "The Referendum," Universal Rev., vol. VII, May-August, 1890, p. 331
  • 14
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Vol. LVI, p. 1340
    • vol. LVII, p. 672
  • 15
    Loc. cit., p. 135.
  • 16
    National Rev., vol. XXIII, March, 1894, p. 65.
  • 17
    "Swiss Referendum" published in the Cosmopolitan, vol. XV, July, 1893, p. 333
  • 18
    Loc. cit. National Rev.
  • 19
    Democracy and Liberty, 2 vols., 1st ed., London, 1896, vol. I, p. 277.
  • 20
    Loc. cit. Cosmopolitan.
  • 21
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Arena, vol. XVI, p. 42
    • F. Parsons, The City for the People, Philadelphia, 1900, p. 287
  • 22
    London, 1885, p. 97.
  • 23
    "Democracy in Switzerland II," Nation, vol. XLIII, December, 1886, p. 494.
  • 24
    The "United States and the Swiss Confederation," Nation, vol. XLI, Oct., 1885, p. 298.
  • 25
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Vol. 129, February, pp. 204-213
    • Living Age, vol. LXXVII, March, pp. 643-648
  • 26
    London, 1889.
  • 28
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Spectator, vol. LXII, May, 1889, pp. 650-651
    • Athenaum, vol. II, July, 1889, pp. 59-60
    • Edin. Rev., vol. CLXXI, Jan., 1890, pp. 113-150
  • 29
    Referendum in America, Mr. E. P. Oberholtzer declares that "this book started discussion in this country." 2d ed., New York, 1912, p. iii
  • 30
    Oakland, Cal., 1889.
  • 32
    Pomeroy, Arena, vol. XVI, p. 37.
  • 33
    Direct Legislation by the People vs. Representative Government, translated by E. Oswald, London, 1869.
  • 34
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Annual Convention of the A. F. of L. in New York on Dec. 12, 1895
    • "It is . . . an honor to be asked to speak on the cause you were the first to champion in this country." American Federationist, vol. II, p. 201
  • 35
    Pomeroy, Arena, vol. XVI, p. 34.
  • 36
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • C. B. Spahr: "Mr. Sullivan, whose little book has stirred the American trade-unions into action." Outlook, vol. L, p. 423
    • American Federationist, vol. II, p. 202
    • F. Parsons writes: "The popular movement began in 1892, with the publication of Mr. Sullivan's book." The City for the People, Philadelphia, 1900, p. 287
  • 37
    Mr. Pomeroy, Arena, vol. XVI, p. 32
  • 38
    Mr. F. K. Foster's "Labor Leader" quoted in American Federationist, vol. I, p. 14
  • 39
    Pomeroy, Arena, vol. XVI, p. 33.
  • 40
    "As early as 1891," declares Frank Parsons, "ten of the largest and national and inter- national trade unions (with a membership close to 200000) were using direct legislation." Op. cit., p. 326.
  • 41
    G. W. Perkins, President of this Union, quoted in Senate Document No. 340, 55th Congress, 2d Session, p. 68.
  • 42
    S. & B. Webb, Industrial Democracy, new ed., 1902, pp. 15 et seq.
  • 43
    E. Pomeroy, Arena, vol. XVI, p. 35.
  • 44
    Pomeroy, loc. cit., p. 36
  • 45
    J. A. Woodburn, Political Parties and Party Problems in the United States, New York, 1906, p. 110.
  • 46
    National Party Platforms, compiled by J. M. H. Frederick, Akron, 1892, p. 83
  • 47
    D. Robinson, A brief history of South Dakota, New York, 1905, p. 208.
  • 48
    "The amendment was carried through the legislature mainly by the Populists. It passed the Senate by a party, vote, but in the House received the votes of all the Populists, six Republicans and two Democrats." Parsons, op. cit., p. 282.
  • 50
    Aberdeen, S. D., May 6, 1912
  • 51
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Oberholtzer, The Referendum in America, p. 309
    • ibid, p. 385
  • 52
    July, Aug., Sept., Oct., 1911, vol. XXXVII.
  • 53
    McClure's Magazine, vol. XXXVII, July, 1911, p. 241.
  • 54
    Oberholtzer, op. cit., p. 406.
  • 56
    Letter dated Oregon City, April 19, 1912.
  • 57
    Letter dated Los Angeles, April 13, 1912.
  • 58
    Letter dated New York, April 1, 1912.
  • 59
    Letter dated Washington, April 4, 1912
  • 60
    Oberholtzer, op. cit., p. 268.
  • 61
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • F. A. Cleveland, op. cil., pp. 177-190, 210-242
    • A. B. Hart, National Ideals Historically Traced. New York and London, 1907, pp. 88, 107
  • 62
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Ibid., p. 174
    • American Commonwealth, Mr. Bryce, speaking of the Western States which have adopted the Swiss form of direct legislation, says that "they have taken what may prove to be a momentous new departure." New York, 1911, vol. I, p. 479.
  • 63
    p. 2
  • 64
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • M. A. Schaffner, Yale Rev., vol. XVIII, p. 206
    • Oberholtzer, op. cit., pp. 455, 456
  • 65
    Oberholtzer, op. cit., p. 455.
  • 66
    Pacific Outlook, vol. VII, Dec, 18, 1909, p. 2
  • 67
    As he assures me in a letter dated Los Angeles, May 6, 1912.
  • 68
    Ibid.
  • 69
    Op. cit., p. 386.
  • 70
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Politisches Jahrbuch der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft, 1890, p. 1066
    • A. E. Cherbuliez, De la démocratie en Suisse, 2 vols., Paris, 1843, vol. I, p. 85
  • 71
    Federal Constitution of 1874, art. 123.
  • 72
    Ibid., art. 89.
  • 73
    Ibid., arts. 120-122.
  • 74
    L. R. von Salis, Schweizerisches Bundesrecht, Berne, 1891, vol. I, pp. 398 et seq
  • 75
    The World To-day, vol. XXI, December, 1911
  • 78
    T. Curti, Die Resultate des Schweizerischen Referendums, 2d ed., Berne 1911, p. 4
  • 79
    C. Borgeaud, Etablissement et revision des constitutions, Paris, 1893, pp. 339, 344
  • 81
    Curti, op. cit., p. 3.
  • 83
    Curti, op. cit., p. 4.
  • 84
    Curti, op. cit., pp. 10-16.
  • 85
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Curti, op. cit., p. 8
    • J. Dubs, Das öffentliche Recht der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft, 2 vols., Zurich, 1878, vol. I, pp. 78, 87
  • 86
    Helvetic Constitution of 1798, arts. 106, 107.
  • 87
    A. Aulard, Histoire politique de la révolution française, Paris, 1901, pp. 543-579.
  • 88
    op. cit., pp. 27-31, 243, 284
  • 89
    T. Curti, in his Open Letter to Mr. George J. King, reprinted in the January, 1910
  • 90
    T. Curti, Geschichte der Schweiserischen Volksgesetzgebung, 2d ed., Zurich, 1885, p. 109.
  • 91
    Federal Constitution of 1848, art. 6, litt. c.
  • 92
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Cherbuliez, op. cit., vol. I, p. 92
    • K. Hilty, above quoted article in Archiv für öffentliches Recht, 1887, pp. 172 et seq.
    • P. Linder, Die direkte Volksgesetzgebung im schweizerischen Staats- recht, Halle 1905, pp. 41-70
    • Geneva Constitution of 1794, Lois Politiques, arts. 107, 108
  • 93
    Curti, Geschichte, pp. 128 et seq.
  • 94
    Ibid., p. 126.
  • 95
    Ibid., p. 127.
  • 96
    Ibid., p. 207.
  • 97
    Federal Constitution of 1874, art. 89.
  • 98
    Borgeaud, "Practical results which have attended the introduction of the Referendum in Switzerland." Arena, vol. XXXIII, May, 1905, p. 482.
  • 99
    Curti, Geschichte, p. 211.
  • 100
    Ibid., pp. 212-214.
  • 101
    Ibid., p. 209.
  • 102
    Cherbuliez, op. cit., vol. I, p. 83
  • 103
    Op. cit., vol. I, p. 85
  • 104
    Federal Constitution of 1848, art. 6, litt. c.
  • 105
    Ibid., art. 113.
  • 106
    Borgeaud, Etablissement, pp. 370 et seq.
  • 107
    Numa Droz, Etudes et portraits politiques, Geneva, 1898, p. 453
  • 108
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Curti, Geschichte, pp. 148-157
    • Aulard, op. cit., p. 285
    • C. S. Lobingier, The People's Law, New York, 1909, pp. 79, 80, 155, 358
  • 109
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • W. Marr, Dasjunge Deutschland in der Schweiz, Leipzig, 1846, pp. 287-289, 358
    • G. Adler, Die Geschichte der ersten sozial-politischen Arbeiterbewegung in Deutschland, Breslau, 1885, p. 69
  • 110
    Curti, Gesichie, p. 208.
  • 111
    Ibid., p. 211.
  • 112
    Ibid., pp. 212-213.
  • 113
    Ibid., p. 209.
  • 114
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Ibid., pp. 215-238
    • Dubs, Die Schweizerische Democratie in ihrer Fortentwick- lung, Zurich, 1868, pp. 72 et seq
    • Burkli, Direct Legislation by the People, London, 1869, pp. 1-16
  • 115
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Dubs, op. cit., p. 76
    • K. Hilty, Theoretiker and Idealisten der Demokratie, Berne, 1868, p. 27
    • S. Deploige, Le référendum en Suisse, Brussels, 1892, pp. 168-172
    • Borgeaud, Etablis- sement, p. 375
  • 116
    note 109 above.
  • 117
    Adler, op. cit., p. 71.
  • 118
    Curti, Geschichte, etc., p. 216.
  • 119
    Leonard Meister, Abriss des Eydgenössischen Staatsrechts, St. Gall, 1786, p. 342.
  • 120
    Acte de Médiation fail par le Premier Consul de la République française, 2d ed., Lausanne, 1807
  • 121
    Aulard, op. cit., p. 258.
  • 122
    Curti, Resultate, p. 36.
  • 123
    Ibid., p. 29.
  • 124
    Ibid., p. 26.
  • 125
    Ibid., pp. 68, 69
  • 126
    Curti, Geschichte, p. 144
  • 127
    Curti, Open Letter, etc.
  • 128
    Curti, Resultate, pp. 12, 27, 31, 32.
  • 129
    Ibid., pp. 58, 59, 64
  • 130
    Ibid., p. 59
  • 131
    Ibid., p. 62
  • 132
    Ibid., 24, 32
  • 133
    Ibid., p. 23
  • 134
    Ibid., p. 23
  • 135
    Ibid., p. 24
  • 136
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Borgeaud, "Le plébiscite du 4 Novembre, 1894," Revue du Droit Public, 1894, p. 536
    • Droz, op. cit., p. 474
  • 137
    Ibid., pp. 537-539.
  • 139
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Droz, op. cit., p. 473
    • Borgeaud, Le plebiscite, p. 535
    • Curti, Resultate, etc., p. 51
  • 140
    Curti, Resultate, p. 63, 304,923
  • 141
    American vice-consul at Berne, Switzerland, con- cerning "The practical workings of the Popular Initiative in Switzerland." 61st Congress. Sen- ate Document, No. 126, Washington, 1909, p. 32
  • 142
    Curti, Resultate, p. 48
  • 143
    Ibid., p. 54
  • 144
    Ibid., pp. 45-47
  • 145
    Curti, Resultate, p. 14.
  • 146
    Ibid., pp. 48, 49, 56, 57
  • 147
    Ibid., p. 57.
  • 148
    Ibid., pp. 12, 13, 14, 21, 26, 30
  • 149
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Op. cit., vol. I, p. 89
    • Ges- chichte des schweizerischen Bundesrechts, 2 vols., 2d ed., Stuttgart, 1875, vol. II, p. 543
  • 150
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Dubs, op. cit., p. 20
    • Droz, op. cit., p. 464
    • A. B. Hart, Actual Government, New York, 1906, pp. 79, 81
    • Sir J. MacDonald, C. B., "The Referendum vs. Representative government," Cont. Rev., March, 1911, p. 307
  • 151
    Revue de Droit Public, 1896, p. 528
  • 152
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Berne in 1880
    • Zurich in 1899
    • Curti, Resultate, p. 4
  • 153
    The World To-day, vol. XXI, Dec., 1911, p. 1472
  • 154
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • J. W. Sullivan, Direct Legislation, p. 17
    • A. L. Lowell, Atlantic Monthly, vol. LXXIII, April, 1894, p. 517
    • A. V. Dicey, Cont. Rev., vol. LVII, April, 1890, p. 496
  • 155
    Hilty, above mentioned article in Archiv für Öffentliches Recht, 1887, p. 405
  • 156
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Hilty, loc. cit., p. 405
    • Curti, Resultate, p. 70
  • 157
    Lecky, op. cit., p. lxii.
  • 158
    Origines de la France contemporaire
  • 159
    National Rev., vol. XXIII, March, 1894, p. 78.
  • 160
    Edin. Rev., vol. CLXXI, Jan., 1890, p. 139.
  • 161
    Senate Document No. 340, 55th Congress, 2d Session, Washington, 1898, p. 31