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The Theory of Qualifications and the Conflict of Laws

Ernest G. Lorenzen
Columbia Law Review
Vol. 20, No. 3 (Mar., 1920), pp. 247-282
DOI: 10.2307/1112546
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1112546
Page Count: 36
Subjects: Law
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The Theory of Qualifications and the Conflict of Laws
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Notes and References

This item contains 148 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 1
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • (1910) 10Columbia Law Rev.190, 327
    • (1918) 27Yale Law Jour- nal, 509
    • (1919) 29 ibid. 214
    • (1918) 31Harvard Law Rev.523.
  • 2
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Art. 102, French Civil Code
    • Art. 16, Italian Civil Code.
    • Art. 13, Civil Code.
  • 3
    This reference contains 7 citations:
    • Cass. Oct. 22, 1900, Clunet 1900, 964.
    • App. Nancy, May 8, 1875, Sirey 1876, 2, 137
    • App. Toulouse, May 22, 1880
    • Sirey 1880, 2, 294.
    • App. Brussels, Jan. 18, 1888, Dalloz 1888, 2, 249.
    • Juristische Wochenschrift 1884, 28.
    • ibid., 1895, 393.
  • 4
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Bar, Private International Laaw (Gillespie's transl.) 112.
    • Code X, 40, 7.
  • 5
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • 3 Weiss, Traité de droit international privé (2d ed.) 323
    • Valery, Manuel de droit international prive', 113
    • Durand, Essai de droit intemational prive, 373.
  • 6
    3 Weiss, op. cit., 323.
  • 7
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • 1 Contuzzi, 1 codice civile nei rapporti del diritto internazionale privato, 134
    • Despagnet & de Boeck, Précis de droit international privé (5th ed.), 501
    • Vincent & Penaud, Dictionnaire de droit international prive', "Domicile" nos. 2-3.
  • 8
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Kahn, 30 Jhering's Jahrbiicher fur die Dogmatik, 76
    • Levis, Das inter- nationale Entmiindigungsrecht des deutschen Reichs, 24.
  • 9
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Neurmann, Internationales Privatrecht, 51
    • Niemeyer, Das internationale Privatrecht des biirgerlichen Gesetzbuchs, 71
    • 1 Zitelmann, Internationales Privatrecht, 178-179.
    • 1 Zitelmann, op. cit., 178-179.
  • 10
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Das internationale Privatrecht des biirgerlichen Gesetzbuchs, 73.
    • Barazetti, Das internationale Privatrecht im biirgerlichen Gesetzbuche fur das deutsche Reich, 22
    • 1 Gierke, Deutsches Privatrecht, 220.
  • 11
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • I Zitelmann, op cit., 180.
    • Habicht, Das internationale Privatrecht nach dem Einfiihrungsgesetze zum biirgerlichen Gesetzbuche, 230
    • Niedner, Das Einführungsgesetz zum bürgerlichen Gesetzbuche (2nd ed.) 85
    • Kuhlenbeck, Das Einfiihrungsgesetz (Vol. 6 of Staudinger's Kommentar zum biirgerlichen Gesetzbuche) 146.
    • Neuman, op. cit., 52.
    • Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch (3d ed.), Vol. 6, 110.
  • 12
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Bisocchi, Acquisto e perdita della nazionalita nella legislazione com- parata e nel diritto internazionale, 112
    • 1 Sieber, Das Staatsbiirgerrecht im internationalen Verkehr 190
    • 1 Weiss, op. cit., 255.
  • 13
    This reference contains 17 citations:
    • Art. 16 of the Japanese Civil Code.
    • Cass. Belge, June 12, 1876, Clunet 1878k 522
    • App. Toulouse, Jan. 26, 1876, Clunet 1877, 235
    • Court of First Instance of Luxembourg, Jan. 5, 1887, Clunet 1887, 674
    • Swiss Federal Tribunal, June 10, 1876, Clunet 1876, 231
    • Despagnet, op. cit., 369-370
    • Esperson, Condizione ginridico dello straniero, 560
    • Habicht, op. cit., 229
    • Kuhlenbeck, op. cit., 145
    • Niedner, op. cit., 83
    • Niemeyer, Das internationale Privatrecht des biirgerlichen Gesetzbuchs, 64
    • Das internationale Privatrecht im Entwurf eines biirgerlichen Gesetzbuchs, 25
    • 6 Planck, op. cit., 111
    • Valery, op cit., 321
    • Venzi, Foro italiano, 1904, 1, 761-762
    • 1 Weiss, op. cit., 784
    • 1 Zitel- mann, op. cit., 175.
  • 14
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Art. 16, Civil Code.
    • Barazetti, op. cit., 22
    • Das internationale Privatrecht des biirgerlichen Gesetzbuchs, 64, Vorschlige und Materialien zur Kodifikation des internationalen Privatrechts, 125.
  • 15
    Cass. June 2, 1908, Revue de droit international prive, 1909, 247.
  • 16
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • App. Aix, July 9, 1903, Clunet 1904, 150.
    • Bar op. cit., 205
    • Kahn, 30 Jhering's Jahrbiicher, 69
    • Laurent, Avant projet de revision du Code Civil, art. 18, par. 3.
  • 17
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • THabicht, op. cit., 230
    • Niedner, op. cit., 84
    • 1 Weiss, op. cit., 785.
    • 6 Planck, op. cit., 111.
  • 18
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Barazetti, op. cit., 22
    • Kuhlenbeck, op. cit., 145
    • Niemeyer, Das inter- nationale Privatrecht im Entwurf eines biirgerlichen Gesetzbuchs, 25.
  • 19
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Barazetti, op. cit., 22
    • Habicht, op. cit., 230
    • Kuhlenbeck, op. cit., 145
    • Niemeyer, Das internationale Privatrecht des biirgerlichen Gesetzbuchs, 64
    • Vorschlage und Materialien zum Entw%urf eines biirgerlichen Gesetz- buchs, 25.
  • 20
    I Zitelmann, op. cit., 176.
  • 21
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Barazetti, op. cit., 22
    • Niemeyer, Das internationale Privatrecht im Entwwurf eines biirgerlichen Gesetzbuchs, 25.
  • 22
    1 Weiss, op. cit., 785.
  • 23
    Fiore, Le droit internationale privé (4th ed., Antoine's translation) No. 332.
  • 24
    6 Planck, op. cit., 112.
  • 25
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Op. cit., 568.
    • Op. cit., 578.
  • 26
    24 Archiv fur die civilistische Praxis, 265.
  • 27
    Clunet 1897, 471; Reprint 39.
  • 28
    0p. cit., 328.
  • 29
    Foro italiano, 1904, 1, 762.
  • 30
    L'ordre publique, 89-91.
  • 31
    3 Klibanski, Handbuch des gesammten, riissiscihen Zivilrechts, 5.
  • 32
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • App. Liege, Feb. 15, 1876, Pasicrisie, 1876, 2, 145; Apr. 22, 1885, Pasi- crisie, 1885, 2, 335
    • Clunet 1886, 369; App. Brussels, Dec. 1, 1884, Pasi- crisie, 1885, 2, 303
    • Clunet 1886, 369, Feb. 17, 1905, Revue de droit inter- national prive, 1908, 288
    • Trib. Comn Louvain, July 26, 1887, Gazette du Palais, 1887, 2, 606
    • Trib. Con. Bruges, July 28, 1888, Pandectes Periodiques, 1889, 380
    • Trib. Conm. Antwerp, Aug. 27, 1906, Clunet 1909, 235.
  • 33
    This reference contains 12 citations:
    • Art. 36, Commercial Code
    • Art. 1098, Civil Code
    • App. Milan, Dec. 11, 1888, Clunet 1892, 512
    • Cass. Turin, Apr. 26, 1881, Foro italiano, 1881, 1, 620
    • Jan. 13, 1891, Monitore dei tribunali 1891, 189
    • La Legge 1891, 1, 519
    • Clunet 1891, 1026
    • Cass. Rome, March 23, 1892, Monitore, 1892, 711.
    • Giurisprudenza sul codice civile, art. 1098 No. 324
    • jurisdiction of courts, Cass. Turin. Feb. 9, 1884, Monitore 1884, 268
    • Oct. 27, 1905, Monitore 1906, 101
    • App. Milan Dec. 1, 1888, Moni- tore 1889, 55.
  • 34
    Com. Code, Arts. 35-38.
  • 35
    This reference contains 24 citations:
    • App. Lyons, June 27, 1867, Dalloz 1867, 2, 193
    • App. Chambe'ry June 8, 1877, Dalloz 1878, 2, 113
    • App. Orleans, June 26, 1885, Dalloz 1886, 2, 135
    • App. Aix, Nov. 23, 1908, Dalloz 1909, 2, 61
    • Clunet 1909, 746
    • App. Nimes, June 15, 1900, Dalloz, 1901, 2, 415
    • March 4, 1908, Dallozz 1908, 2, 248.
    • jurisdiction of courts, App. Bourges, Jan. 19, 1866, Sirey 1866, 2, 218
    • App. Lyons Apr. 29, 1875, Sirey 1875, 2, 263.
    • App. Pau, July 16, 1852, Dalloz 1854, Z 205
    • App. Lyons June 1, 1857, DIalloz 1858, 2, 21
    • App. Caen, June 15, 1871, Dalloz 1872, 5, 111
    • AMarch 30, 1889, Gazette du Palais, 1889, 1, 825
    • App. Douai, March 25, 1886, Dalloz 1888, 2, 37
    • App. Poitiers Nov. 4, 1886 Gazette du Palais, 1886, 2, 907
    • Jan. 21, 1891, Dalloz 1892, 2, 249, May 14, 1901, Dalloz 1902, 2, 12
    • Oct. 28, 1907, Revue de droit international prive'6 1908, 222
    • App. Rennes, Dec. 15, 1891, Clunet 1892, 912
    • App. Paris, Feb. 5, 1910, Dalloz 1913, 2, 553.
    • Cass. Aug. 6, 1867, Sirey 1867, 1, 400
    • Dalloz 1868, 1, 35
    • Dec. 1, 1875, Dalloz 1877, 1, 450
    • March 30, 1881, Sirey 1882, 1, 56
    • Journal du Palais, 1882, 1, 125.
  • 30
    This reference contains 14 citations:
    • (1) the common nationality of the parties, Surville, Clunet 1891, 369-370
    • (2) the common domicile, Pillet, Principes de droit international prive, 441
    • Cours de droit international priv6, '325
    • 20 Annuaire de l'Institut de droit international prive, 153
    • Bar, op. cit., 443- 446
    • (4) the national law of the offeror, Cass. Turin, Jan. 13, 1891, Clunet 1891, 1026.
    • Bartin, Clunet, 1897, 476, Reprint 44-45
    • Chretien, Clunet 1891, 1028
    • Dreyfus, L'acte juridique en droit international prive, 363
    • Barazetti, op. cit., 54
    • Hinden- burg, Revue de droit international et de legislation comparee, 1897, 263, 285
    • 2 Zitelmann, op. cit., 164.
    • Clunet 1891, 369-371.
    • 22 Annuaire de l'Institut de droit international prive, 289-292.
  • 37
    This reference contains 8 citations:
    • Despagnet & de Boeck, op cit., 893
    • Clunet 1898, 271
    • 1 Diena, Diritto commerciale internazionale, 476, 479
    • Kahn, 30 Jhering's Jahrbiicher, 99
    • Surville et Arthuys, Cours élémentaire de droit international privé (6th ed.), 306
    • Valery, op. cit., 956
    • Louis Perez Verdia, Tratado elemental de derecho internacional privado, 188
    • 4 Weiss, op. cit., 373.
  • 38
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Gemma, Propedeutica al diritto internazionale privato,- La cosidetta teoria delle qualificazioni, 113-114
    • Niemeyer, Vorschlage und Materialien zur Kodifikation des internationalen Privatrechts, 242.
  • 39
    This reference contains 7 citations:
    • Imperial Court, Oit. 13, 1894, 34 R G 191
    • Apr. 28, 1900, 46 R G 193
    • May 26, 1900, 46 R G 112
    • Apr. 21, 1902, 51 R G 218
    • June 16, 1903, 55 R G 105
    • July 4, 1904, 14 Zeitschrift fur internationales Privat-und Strafrecht, 285
    • April 26, 1907, 18 ibid., 177.
  • 40
    Beale, 23Harvard Law Rev.82, 194.
  • 41
    Gemma, op. cit., 115-116.
  • 42
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Kahn, 30 Jhering's Jahrbiicher, 99
    • Dreyfus, op. cit., 308, note 1.
  • 43
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • 2 Op. cit., 479.
    • 1 Op. cit., 112
    • 2 op. cit., 480, 485.
  • 44
    30 Jhering's Jahrbiicher, 100.
  • 45
    This reference contains 21 citations:
    • Cass. April 5, 1887, Clunet 1889, 827
    • Sirey, 1889, 1, 387
    • Bartin, Clunet 1897, 251
    • Reprint 29
    • Bustamente, Orden publico, 256
    • 2 Cattellani, II, diritto internazionale privato, 424
    • II Diritto Comnerciale, 1910, 4849
    • Despagnet & deBoeck, op. cit., 355
    • Diena, I diritti reall, 70
    • Prin- cipi di diritto internazionale, 75
    • Sui limiti all' applicabilitd del diritto straniero, 27-28
    • Jettel, Handbuch des internationalen Privat-und Stra- frechts, 106
    • Jitta, Renovation of international lawY, 125
    • Kosters, Inter- nationaal burgerlijk Recht, 148
    • 7 Laurent, Le droit civil international, 201
    • Schaffner, Entwickelung des internationalen Privatrechts, 80
    • Surville & Arthuys, op. cit., 254
    • Valery, op. cit., 879-880.
    • 2 Gierke, op. cit., 226
    • 2 Zitelmann, op. cit., 131
    • 0 L G Bayern, Nov. 11, 1882, 38 Seuffert's Archiv, no. 161.
  • 46
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • Bar, op. cit., 506
    • Crome, Allgemeiner Teil der modernen franz6sischen Privatrechtswvissenschaft, 88 and note 55
    • 1 Regelsberger, Pandekten, 172
    • 1 Stobbe. Handbuch des deutschen Privatrechts (2d ed.), sec. 32
    • Venzi, Foro italiano, 1904, 1, 763
    • 2 Zitelmann, op. cit., 131.
  • 47
    Vorschl5ge und Materialien zum Entwurf eines biirgerlichen Gesetz- buchs, 261.
  • 48
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Kahn, 30 Jhering's Jahrbiicher, 91, 95-97.
    • Baudry-Lacantinerie & Wahl, Successions, Vol. I, 654
    • Trib. de la Chatre, July 5, 1910, Clunet 1911, 588 and note.
  • 49
    (1919) 28Yale Law Journal492.
  • 50
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Fedozzi, II diritto processuale civile internazionale, 534-535
    • Kahn, 30 Jhering's Jahrbiicher, 133.
  • 51
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Cass. Florence, Nov. 12, 1897, Monitore, 1898, 245 (sub- stance)
    • Cass. Rome, April 24, 1876, Giurisprudenza italiana XXVIII, 1, 708 (forn)
    • Niedner, op. cit., 35 (form)
    • 2 Zitelmann, op. cit., 154 (form)
    • Contuzzi, II diritto ereditario internazionale, 533-538.
  • 52
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Bartin, Clunet 1897, 236, 480, 490-491
    • Reprint 14, 48, 58-59.
  • 53
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Diena, Sui limiti, 30.
    • Op. cit., 825.
  • 54
    This reference contains 14 citations:
    • Belgium: App. Liege, June 18, 1874, Pasicrisie 1874, 2, 301
    • Trib. civ. Brussels, July 21, 1886, Pandectes frangaises 1887, 5, 7
    • Clunet 1887, 495, Feb. 10, 1892, Pasicrisie 1892, 3, 139.
    • France: Trib. civ. Seine, Aug. 13, 1903, Clunet 1904, 166
    • Trib. civ. Termnonde, March 24, 1907, Clunet 1908, 885.
    • Holland: Trib. Amsterdam, July 6, 1885, Clunet 1889, 175
    • Feb. 15, 1901, Clunet 1903, 417
    • Weekblad von het Recht, no. 7624.
    • Italy: App. Genoa, Aug. 4, 1891, Foro Italiano 1892, 1,-116
    • Clunet 1893, 955
    • Cass. Turin April 12, 1892, Clunet 1894, 1083
    • Monitore 1892, 346
    • Annali 1S92, 1, 242
    • Foro italino 1892, 801-802.
  • 55
    This reference contains 9 citations:
    • Despagnet, Clunet 1898, 267
    • Durand, op. cit., 401-402
    • 1 Laurent, Principes de droit civil fran(;ais, 159
    • 6 Laurent, Le droit civil international, 695
    • Renault, Revue critique de legislation, 1884, 736
    • 2 Rolin, Principes de droit international prive, 406
    • Di Stefano-Napolitani, La masima "locus regit actum," 58-59
    • Surville & Arthuys, op. cit., 20, note 277
    • 4 Weiss, op. cit., 667.
  • 56
    Cass. Aug. 25, 1847, Dalloz 1847, 1, 273.
  • 57
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • App. Orleans, Aug. 4,1859
    • Dalloz 1859, 2,158.
  • 58
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Clunet 1897, 229, 233, 236, 480
    • Reprint 7, 11, 14, 48.
  • 59
    Sui lirniti, 26.
  • 60
    Di una neuva categoria di conflitti di leggi.-I conflitti di qualificazione (Studi giuridici varii pel cinquantesimbo anno d' insegnamento di Enrico Pessina, Vol. III; Reprint, 16.
  • 61
    II digesto italiano, vol. 22', 828.
  • 62
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Colin, Clunet 1897, 937
    • Pillet, Clunet 1894, 722.
  • 63
    2 Cattellani, op. cit., 424.
  • 64
    Bartin, Clunet 1897, 236, 480, 726; Reprint, 14, 48, 70.
  • 65
    Italy, Art. 58, Commercial Code.
  • 66
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Bustamante, Autarquia, 232
    • 2 Catellani, op. cit., 424
    • Cavaglieri, II Diritto Commerciale, 1910, 37
    • Fedozzi, II diritto processuale civile inter- nazionale, 328.
    • Calvo, Le droit international (5th ed.) 394.
  • 67
    This reference contains 8 citations:
    • App. Milan, July 1, 1914, Foro italiano, 1914, 1, 1326
    • Rivista di diritto internazionale, 1914, 610
    • (1919) 28Yale Law Journal806
    • Asser & Rivier, op. cit., 187-188
    • Bustamante, Autarquia, 232
    • Grasso, Principii di diritto internazionale 279.
    • Olivi, Manuale di diritto internazionale (2d ed.), 848-849
    • Surville & Arthuys, op. cit., 641.
  • 68
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • 1 Diena, Diritto commerciale internazionale, 62
    • 35 Rivista italiana per le scienze giuridiche 1903, 364
    • Valery, op. cit., 1251.
  • 69
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Cavaglieri, II Diritto Commerciale, 1910, 50
    • 1 Lyon-Caen & Renault, Traité de droit commercial, (4th ed.) no. 183.
  • 70
    Clunet 1897, 236-239; Reprint 14-17.
  • 71
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • CIunet 1897, 469-470
    • Reprint 37-38.
  • 72
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Clunet 1897, 250-253
    • Reprint 29-32.
  • 73
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Clunet 1897, 476
    • Reprint 44.
  • 74
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Anzilotti, Rivista di diritto internazionale, 1914, 614
    • Cavaglieri, II Diritto Commerciale, 1910, 53
    • Fedozzi, II digesto italiano.-Diritto internazionale. -Successione, Vol. 22', 810
    • Venzi, Foro italiano, 1904, 1, 761.
  • 75
    Clunet 1905, 1234.
  • 76
    Op. cit., 15-17.
  • 78
    Sui limiti all' applicabilita del diritto straniero, 30.
  • 79
    Kahn's view is adopted by Regelsberger. 1 Pandekten, 165.
  • 80
    30 Jhering's Jahrbiicher, 76, 91, 99.
  • 81
    Ibid., 69.
  • 82
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Clunet 1898, 261-262.
    • Despagnet & de Boeck, op. cit., 357.
  • 83
    2 Catellani II diritto internazionale privato, 426.
  • 84
    Propedeutica al diritto internazionale privato, 111-112.
  • 85
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • La methode, 125.
    • internazionaal Privatrecht, 69-71.
  • 86
    La methode, 136.
  • 87
    (1819) 4 Madd. 474, n.
  • 88
    (1872) L. R. 7 Ch. 192.
  • 89
    (1873) L. R. 16 Eq. 461.
  • 90
    (1889) L. R. 41 Ch. D. 394.
  • 91
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Newcomer v. Orem (1852) 2 Md. 297
    • Crandell v. Barker (1898) 8 N. Dak 263, 78 N. W. 347
    • Martin v. Stovall (1899) 103 Tenn. 1, 52 S. W. 296
    • Hoyles (1910, C. A.) 27T. L. R.131.
  • 92
    (1900) P. D. 211, 227.
  • 93
    (1903) 1 Ch. 821.
  • 94
    Ibid. 828.
  • 95
    Private International Law (5th ed.) 41.
  • 96
    Conflict of Laws (2d ed.), 118.
  • 97
    Op. cit., 353.
  • 98
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Op cit.
    • 10Columbia Law Rev.190, 327
    • 27Yale Law Journal, 509
    • 29 ibid., 214.
  • 99
    (1906) 22T. L. R711.
  • 100
    International Private Law, 13-14.
  • 101
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Harral v. Wallis (1883) 37N. J. Eq.458
    • Harral v. Harral (1884) 37N. J. Eq.279
    • Dupuy v. Wurtz (1873) 53 N. Y. 556
    • Martin's Estate (1916) 94 Misc. 81, 157 N. Y. Supp. 474.
  • 102
    (Iowa, 1919) 173 N. W. 35.
  • 103
    Hansen v. Dixon (1906) 23T. L. R.56.
  • 104
    (1908) P. 46.
  • 105
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Beale, Conflict of Laws, 86, et seq.
    • Baty, Polarized Law, 148 et seq.
    • Bar, Private International Law, 42 et seq.
  • 106
    This reference contains 11 citations:
    • Holland, Jurisprudence (10th ed.) 402.
    • Story, Conflict of Laws (8th ed.), 25
    • Wheaton, International Law (9th ed.) 133-134
    • Woolsey, International law (6th ed.) 102-109
    • Baty, op. cit. 9
    • Hall, International law (8th ed.) 51
    • Lawrence, International law (4th ed.) 246
    • Twiss, Law of Nations, new ed., 261.
    • Bluntschli, Das moderne Volkerrecht, 27-28
    • Diena, Principi di diritto internazionale, 23
    • Kahn, 40 Jhering's Jahrbiicher, 40.
  • 107
    Borchard, Diplomatic Protection of Citizens Abroad, 13, 178, 196-199, 330 et seq.
  • 108
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • 40 Jhering's Jahrbiicher, 40.
    • Ibid 41-42.
  • 109
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Torres Campos, Elementos de derecho internacional privado, (4th ed.) 108
    • Aubry, Clunet 1901, 664.
    • 13Illinois Law L. Rev.396-401
    • Wigmore, Celebration Legal Essays, 220-225.
  • 110
    Op. cit., 32, 33, 35.
  • 111
    (Praelect!' pt. 2, bk 1, tit. 3, n. 2.
  • 113
    Op. cit., sec. 20.
  • 114
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Op. cit., 411.
    • Kahn, 30 Jhering's Jahrbucher 28.
  • 115
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Op. cit., 11, 26
    • 6Law Quarterly Rev.10
    • 7 ibid. 114.
  • 116
    Op. cit., 105.
  • 117
    Wfichter, 25 Archiv fur die civilistische Praxis, 2 et seq.
  • 118
    Sumnmary, sec. 1.
  • 119
    Ibid. sec. 90.
  • 120
    23Harvard Law Rev., 267, 268, 271.
  • 121
    (1904) 194 U. S. 120, 126, 24 Sup. Ct. 581.
  • 122
    Stewart v. Baltimore & 0. R. Co. (1897) 168 U. S. 445, 18 Sup. C t.l105.
  • 123
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Stoult v. W"ood (1820) 1 Blackf. (Ind.) 71
    • Dennick v. Railroad Co. (1880) 103 U. S. 11.
  • 124
    Smith v. Condry (1843) 42 U. S. 28.
  • 125
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Davis v. Mills (1904) 194 U. S. 451, 24 Sup. Ct. 692
    • West- ern Union Tel. Co. v. Brown (1914) 234 U. S. 542. 34 Sun. Ct. 955
    • Spokane Inland R. R. v. WAthitley (1915) 237 U. S. 487, 35 Sup. Ct. 655.
  • 126
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • (1918) 27Yale Law Journal816
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