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Is an Intervention Program Necessary in Order to Improve Economically Disadvantaged Children's IQ Scores?

Edward Zigler, Willa D. Abelson, Penelope K. Trickett and Victoria Seitz
Child Development
Vol. 53, No. 2 (Apr., 1982), pp. 340-348
Published by: Wiley on behalf of the Society for Research in Child Development
DOI: 10.2307/1128975
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1128975
Page Count: 9
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Is an Intervention Program Necessary in Order to Improve Economically Disadvantaged Children's IQ Scores?
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Abstract

The hypothesis was investigated that alleviation of negative motivational factors underlies much of the 10-point IQ increase commonly found in economically disadvantaged children's performance following a preschool intervention program. Head Start and non-Head Start groups were tested on IQ and motivational measures 3 times before and during the Head Start year (pretest, retest, posttest). Both groups showed comparable IQ gains on retesting, but only the Head Start group showed continued gain from retest to posttest. Parallel changes were found on a motivational measure of wariness of an unfamiliar examiner. The test-retest improvement of both groups was interpreted as resulting from increased familiarity with the testing situation. The continued improvement of the Head Start children was interpreted as reflecting changes in the children's motivational structures as a result of attending a preschool intervention program.

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