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How People Make Their Own Environments: A Theory of Genotype → Environment Effects

Sandra Scarr and Kathleen McCartney
Child Development
Vol. 54, No. 2 (Apr., 1983), pp. 424-435
Published by: Wiley on behalf of the Society for Research in Child Development
DOI: 10.2307/1129703
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1129703
Page Count: 12
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How People Make Their Own Environments: A Theory of Genotype → Environment Effects
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Abstract

We propose a theory of development in which experience is directed by genotypes. Genotypic differences are proposed to affect phenotypic differences, both directly and through experience, via 3 kinds of genotype → environment effects: a passive kind, through environments provided by biologically related parents; an evocative kind, through responses elicited by individuals from others; and an active kind, through the selection of different environments by different people. The theory adapts the 3 kinds of genotype-environment correlations proposed by Plomin, DeFries, and Loehlin in a developmental model that is used to explain results from studies of deprivation, intervention, twins, and families.

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