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Control and Early Socioemotional Development: Infant Rhesus Monkeys Reared in Controllable versus Uncontrollable Environments
Susan Mineka, Megan Gunnar and Maribeth Champoux
Vol. 57, No. 5 (Oct., 1986), pp. 1241-1256
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1130447
Page Count: 16
You can always find the topics here!Topics: Infants, Mental stimulation, Child development, Primates, Legal objections, Sugars, Mothers, Bottles, Psychological reinforcement, Locomotion
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The effects of controllable versus uncontrollable appetitive stimulation on socioemotional development were studied in 20 infant rhesus monkeys reared in 5 peer groups consisting of 4 monkeys each. In 2 groups (Masters), subjects had access to operant manipulanda that permitted them to control the delivery of food, water, and treats. In 2 other groups (Yoked), subjects received access to these reinforcers noncontingently. In a fifth group (Standard Rearing Control), subjects were reared in a standard laboratory cage without access to the manipulanda and the variety of reinforcers available in the Master and Yoked groups. Subjects were introduced to these rearing environments during the second month of life; during the second half of the first year, tests of socioemotional behavior commenced. Results indicated that Master subjects displayed less fear, as measured by reactions to a mechanical toy robot, and exhibited more exploratory behavior, as measured by responses to a standard primate playroom, than did Yoked subjects. Master and Yoked subjects did not differ on measures of response to social separation from peers, unless opportunities to make active coping attempts were provided, in which case Master subjects appeared to adapt or cope better. On most measures, Yoked subjects did not differ from Standard Rearing Controls. Thus the above results could be attributed to the effects of experience with increased control over appetitive environmental events rather than to the effects of prolonged exposure to noncontingent or uncontrollable appetitive stimulation.
Child Development © 1986 Society for Research in Child Development