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The Historical Origin of the Prison System in America

Harry Elmer Barnes
Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology
Vol. 12, No. 1 (May, 1921), pp. 35-60
DOI: 10.2307/1133652
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1133652
Page Count: 26
Subjects: Law Criminology & Criminal Justice
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The Historical Origin of the Prison System in America
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Notes and References

This item contains 57 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 3
    P. A. Parsons, Responsibility for Crime, pp. 95ff.
  • 4
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • F. H. Wines, Punishment and Reformation, pp. 107ff
    • E. C. Wines, State of Prisons and Child Saving Institutions, pp. 1-67
    • A. C. Hall, Crime In Its Rela- tion to Social Progress
  • 5
    Wines, Punishment and Reformation, pp. 117ff.
  • 6
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Wines, op. cit., chap. vi
    • George Ives, A History of Penal Methods, chap. i
  • 7
    H. E. Barnes, History of the Penal, Reformatory and Correctional Insti- tutions of New Jersey, pp. 32-5, 41-2, 86-93, 432-3.
  • 8
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • F. H. Wines, Punishment and Reformation, chaps. v-vi.
    • George Ives, A History of Penal Methods, chap. i
    • Maurice Parmelee, Criminology, pp. 357-72
    • J. F. Stephen, A History of the Criminal Law of England, especially Vol. I, chap. xiii.
  • 9
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, Vol. I, pp. 509ff.
    • The Charter and Laws of Pennsylvania, 1682-1700, pp. 14-15
    • Colonial Laws of New York, Albany, 1894, J. B. Lyon, Vol. I, pp. 6ff.
  • 10
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Leaming and Spicer, The Grants, Concessions and Original Constitutions of the Province of New Jersey, pp. 382-411.
    • Charter and Laws of Pennsylvania, pp. 107ff.
  • 11
    Wines, op. cit., pp. 142f., 147, 344.
  • 12
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Ibid.
    • Barnes, op. cit., pp. 32-5, 38-42, 60, 87-8
  • 13
    Laws of the Colony of New York, 1788, chap 37, sec. 1, Greenleaf Edition, 1792, Vol. II, pp. 78-79.
  • 14
    Philip Klein, Prison Methods in New York State, chap. i
  • 15
    Frank Carleton, "The Abolition of Imprisonment for Debt in the United States," Yale Review, Vol. XVII, pp. 338-344
  • 16
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Colonial Laws of New York, Albany, 1894, Vol. II, pp. 745-6, 920
    • Vol. III, pp. 377-9
  • 17
    Ibid., Vol. I, p. 17.
  • 18
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Laws of the State of New York, 1776-1797, Greenleaf Edition, 1792, Vol. II, pp. 52-54
    • Vol. III, pp. 291-99
  • 19
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • John Morley's biographies of Rousseau, Diderot and Voltaire and his essays on eighteenth century thought in France in his Critical Miscellanies
    • H. Higgs, The Physiocrats
    • J. M. Rob- ertson, A History of Free Thought
    • Leslie Stephen, History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century
    • Robinson and Beard, Development of Modern Europe, Vol. I, pp. 157-82
    • Cambridge Modern History, Vol. VIII, Chap. I
  • 20
    I. Woodbridge Riley, American Philosophy, the Early Schools
  • 21
    M. Parmelee, The Principles of Anthropology and Sociology in Their Relation to Criminal Procedure, pp. 10-16, 202.
  • 22
    W. L. Davidson, Political Thought in England, the Utilitarians, pp. 107-113
  • 23
    Extracts and Remarks on the Subject of the Punishment and Reformation of Criminals. Published by Order of the Society Established in Philadelphia for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, February 25, 1790.
  • 24
    Robert Vaux, Notices of the Original and Successive Attempts to Improve the Discipline of the Prison at Philadelphia and to Reform the Criminal Code of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1810, pp. 24-5.
  • 25
    Ibid., pp. 18-20.
  • 25
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Ibid., p. 25, note.
    • The London Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline was not established until 1815
  • 27
    Acts of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, 1820-21, p. 181.
  • 28
    J. B. Lindsley, Prison Discipline and Penal Legislation, Nash- ville, 1874. A copy exists in the New York Public Library
  • 29
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Roberts Vaux, Notices, pp. 8-9
    • Sketch of the Principal Transactions of the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, Phila- delphia, 1859, p. 3
  • 30
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Roberts Vaux, Notices, p. 9
    • Sketch of Principal Transactions, p. 3
  • 31
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania, Vol. XII, pp. 280-81.
    • Caleb Lownes, An Account of the Alteration and Present State of the Penal Laws of Penn- sylvania, Philadelphia, 1792, pp. 5-6
  • 32
    Lownes, op. cit., Report of the Commissioners on the Penal Code, 1828, p. 13.
  • 33
    Roberts Vaux, Notices, pp. 10-11.
  • 34
    William Bradford, An Inquiry How Far the Punishment of Death Is Necessary in Pennsylvania, With Notes and Illustrations, Philadelphia, 1793, p. 20.
  • 35
    Constitution of Pennsylvania, 1776, Chapter II, Sections 38-39.
  • 36
    The Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania, Vol. XII, pp. 280ff.
  • 37
    Ibid., Vol. XV, pp. 174-181.
  • 38
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Ibid., Vol. XIII, pp. 246, 250-51
    • Ibid., pp. 523-5
    • Ibid., Vol. XV, pp. 178-9
  • 39
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • A Statistical View of the Operation of the Penal Code of Pennsylvania, 1817, passim
    • Lownes, op. cit., pp. 12-13, 19ff.
  • 40
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Acts of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, 1817-18, pp. 13840
    • Ibid., 1820-21, pp. 94-7
  • 41
    Ibid., 1828-9, pp. 351-54.
  • 42
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Report of the Inspectors of the Western Penitentiary, 1854
    • Legislative Documents, 1854, p. 271
    • George Ives, History of Penal Methods
    • The Evolution of Penology in Pennsylvania
  • 43
    Notices, p. 34.
  • 44
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • J. L. Sullivan, "Note on the Penitentiary System of New York State," in G. E. Baker's edition of The Works of William H. Seward, Vol. II, pp. 173-80.
    • C. G. Haines, Report on the Penitentiary System of the United States, 1822
  • 45
    Laws of the State of New York, from the First to the Twentieth Session of the Legislature, Greenleaf edition, 1797, Vol. III, pp. 291-99.
  • 46
    Laws of the State of New York, Thirty-ninth to Forty-first Sessions, Albany, 1818, pp. 79-80.
  • 47
    Ibid., 45th to 47th Sessions, Albany, 1825, pp. 134-135.
  • 48
    Ibid., 42nd to 44th Sessions, Albany, 1821, pp. 87-90.
  • 49
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Ibid., pp. 215-18.
    • Sketch of the Principal Transactions, p. 12
    • Pennsyl- vania Journal of Prison Discipline and Philanthropy, Vol. II, Number 2, 1846, p. 116
  • 50
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Journal of the Assembly of the State of New York, 48th Session, Albany, 1825, pp. 91-133.
    • pp. 121-126
  • 51
    Letter of Gershom Powers, Esq., in Answer to a Letter of the Hon. Ed- ward Livingston in Relation to the Auburn State Prison, Albany, 1829, pp. 5-11.
  • 52
    Gershom Powers, A Brief Account of the Construction, Management and Discipline of the New York State Prison at Auburn, Auburn, 1826
  • 53
    Laws of New York, 1825, Chap XXV, pp. 16-17.
  • 55
    This reference contains 22 citations:
    • Roberts Vaux, Letters on the Penitentiary System of Pennsylvania, Ad- dressed to William Roscoe, Esquire, Philadelphia, 1827
    • George W. Smith, A Defense of the Pennsylvania System of the Solitary Confinement of Prisoners, 1829, 1833
    • Edward Livingston, Introductory Report to the Code of Prison Discipline, Philadelphia, 1827
    • Letters on the Penn- sylvania System to Roberts Vaux, 1828
    • Francis Lieber, The Penitentiary System of Pennsylvania, in the appendix to his translation of Beaumont and De Tocqueville
    • A Popular Essay on the Subjects of Penal Law and on Uninterrupted Solitary Confinement at Labor, Philadelphia, 1838
    • John Sibley, A Letter on the Superior Advantages of Solitary Confine- ment, London. 1838
    • L. M. Moreau-Christophe, Emprisonnement Individuel, Paris, 1842
    • W. H. Suringar, Considerations sur la reclusion individuelle, Paris, 1843
    • Report of a Minority of the Special Committee of the Boston Prison Discipline Society, Boston, 1846
    • F. A. Packard, A Vindication of the Separate System of Prison Discipline, Philadelphia, 1839
    • An Inquiry into the Alleged Tendency of the Separation of Convicts One from the Other to Produce Death and Derangement. Philadelphia, 1849
    • W. P. Foulke, Remarks on Cellular Sep- aration, Philadelphia, 1860
    • The Pennsylvania System of Separate Confinement Explained and Defended, Philadelphia, 1867
    • William Roscoe, A Brief Statement of the Causes which Had Led to the Abandonment of the Celebrated System of Penitentiary Discipline in Some of the United States of America, London, 1826
    • The North American Review, July, 1839, pp. 1-43
    • Ibid, January, 1848
    • Sir Peter Laurie, A Letter on the Disad- vantages and Extravagance of the Separate System of Prison Discipline, Lon- don, 1848
    • "Killing No Murder," or the Effects of Solitary Confinement on Prisoners, London, 1846
    • George Combe, Notes on the United States of North America, 1838-40, (1841) especially, pp. 220-224
    • F. C. Gray, Prison Discipline in America, 1847
    • The Christian Examiner, March, 1848
  • 56
    Philip Klein, Prison Methods on New York State, Chap. II
  • 57
    B. J. Lossing, History of New York City, pp. 348ff, 398.
  • 58
    Wines, Punishment and Reformation, Chaps. IX-X.
  • 59
    Osborne, T. M., Society and Its Prisons.
  • 60
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Mental Hygiene, January, April and October, 1918.
    • B. De Quiros, Modern Theories of Crime