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The Historical Origin of the Prison System in America
Notes and References
This item contains 57 references.
3P. A. Parsons, Responsibility for Crime, pp. 95ff.
4This reference contains 3 citations:
- F. H. Wines, Punishment and Reformation, pp. 107ff
- E. C. Wines, State of Prisons and Child Saving Institutions, pp. 1-67
- A. C. Hall, Crime In Its Rela- tion to Social Progress
5Wines, Punishment and Reformation, pp. 117ff.
6This reference contains 2 citations:
- Wines, op. cit., chap. vi
- George Ives, A History of Penal Methods, chap. i
7H. E. Barnes, History of the Penal, Reformatory and Correctional Insti- tutions of New Jersey, pp. 32-5, 41-2, 86-93, 432-3.
8This reference contains 4 citations:
- F. H. Wines, Punishment and Reformation, chaps. v-vi.
- George Ives, A History of Penal Methods, chap. i
- Maurice Parmelee, Criminology, pp. 357-72
- J. F. Stephen, A History of the Criminal Law of England, especially Vol. I, chap. xiii.
9This reference contains 3 citations:
- The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, Vol. I, pp. 509ff.
- The Charter and Laws of Pennsylvania, 1682-1700, pp. 14-15
- Colonial Laws of New York, Albany, 1894, J. B. Lyon, Vol. I, pp. 6ff.
10This reference contains 2 citations:
- Leaming and Spicer, The Grants, Concessions and Original Constitutions of the Province of New Jersey, pp. 382-411.
- Charter and Laws of Pennsylvania, pp. 107ff.
11Wines, op. cit., pp. 142f., 147, 344.
12This reference contains 2 citations:
- Barnes, op. cit., pp. 32-5, 38-42, 60, 87-8
13Laws of the Colony of New York, 1788, chap 37, sec. 1, Greenleaf Edition, 1792, Vol. II, pp. 78-79.
14Philip Klein, Prison Methods in New York State, chap. i
15Frank Carleton, "The Abolition of Imprisonment for Debt in the United States," Yale Review, Vol. XVII, pp. 338-344
16This reference contains 2 citations:
- Colonial Laws of New York, Albany, 1894, Vol. II, pp. 745-6, 920
- Vol. III, pp. 377-9
17Ibid., Vol. I, p. 17.
18This reference contains 2 citations:
- Laws of the State of New York, 1776-1797, Greenleaf Edition, 1792, Vol. II, pp. 52-54
- Vol. III, pp. 291-99
19This reference contains 6 citations:
- John Morley's biographies of Rousseau, Diderot and Voltaire and his essays on eighteenth century thought in France in his Critical Miscellanies
- H. Higgs, The Physiocrats
- J. M. Rob- ertson, A History of Free Thought
- Leslie Stephen, History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century
- Robinson and Beard, Development of Modern Europe, Vol. I, pp. 157-82
- Cambridge Modern History, Vol. VIII, Chap. I
20I. Woodbridge Riley, American Philosophy, the Early Schools
21M. Parmelee, The Principles of Anthropology and Sociology in Their Relation to Criminal Procedure, pp. 10-16, 202.
22W. L. Davidson, Political Thought in England, the Utilitarians, pp. 107-113
23Extracts and Remarks on the Subject of the Punishment and Reformation of Criminals. Published by Order of the Society Established in Philadelphia for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, February 25, 1790.
24Robert Vaux, Notices of the Original and Successive Attempts to Improve the Discipline of the Prison at Philadelphia and to Reform the Criminal Code of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1810, pp. 24-5.
25Ibid., pp. 18-20.
25This reference contains 2 citations:
- Ibid., p. 25, note.
- The London Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline was not established until 1815
27Acts of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, 1820-21, p. 181.
28J. B. Lindsley, Prison Discipline and Penal Legislation, Nash- ville, 1874. A copy exists in the New York Public Library
29This reference contains 2 citations:
- Roberts Vaux, Notices, pp. 8-9
- Sketch of the Principal Transactions of the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons, Phila- delphia, 1859, p. 3
30This reference contains 2 citations:
- Roberts Vaux, Notices, p. 9
- Sketch of Principal Transactions, p. 3
31This reference contains 2 citations:
- Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania, Vol. XII, pp. 280-81.
- Caleb Lownes, An Account of the Alteration and Present State of the Penal Laws of Penn- sylvania, Philadelphia, 1792, pp. 5-6
32Lownes, op. cit., Report of the Commissioners on the Penal Code, 1828, p. 13.
33Roberts Vaux, Notices, pp. 10-11.
34William Bradford, An Inquiry How Far the Punishment of Death Is Necessary in Pennsylvania, With Notes and Illustrations, Philadelphia, 1793, p. 20.
35Constitution of Pennsylvania, 1776, Chapter II, Sections 38-39.
36The Statutes at Large of Pennsylvania, Vol. XII, pp. 280ff.
37Ibid., Vol. XV, pp. 174-181.
38This reference contains 3 citations:
- Ibid., Vol. XIII, pp. 246, 250-51
- Ibid., pp. 523-5
- Ibid., Vol. XV, pp. 178-9
39This reference contains 2 citations:
- A Statistical View of the Operation of the Penal Code of Pennsylvania, 1817, passim
- Lownes, op. cit., pp. 12-13, 19ff.
40This reference contains 2 citations:
- Acts of the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, 1817-18, pp. 13840
- Ibid., 1820-21, pp. 94-7
41Ibid., 1828-9, pp. 351-54.
42This reference contains 4 citations:
- Report of the Inspectors of the Western Penitentiary, 1854
- Legislative Documents, 1854, p. 271
- George Ives, History of Penal Methods
- The Evolution of Penology in Pennsylvania
43Notices, p. 34.
44This reference contains 2 citations:
- J. L. Sullivan, "Note on the Penitentiary System of New York State," in G. E. Baker's edition of The Works of William H. Seward, Vol. II, pp. 173-80.
- C. G. Haines, Report on the Penitentiary System of the United States, 1822
45Laws of the State of New York, from the First to the Twentieth Session of the Legislature, Greenleaf edition, 1797, Vol. III, pp. 291-99.
46Laws of the State of New York, Thirty-ninth to Forty-first Sessions, Albany, 1818, pp. 79-80.
47Ibid., 45th to 47th Sessions, Albany, 1825, pp. 134-135.
48Ibid., 42nd to 44th Sessions, Albany, 1821, pp. 87-90.
49This reference contains 3 citations:
- Ibid., pp. 215-18.
- Sketch of the Principal Transactions, p. 12
- Pennsyl- vania Journal of Prison Discipline and Philanthropy, Vol. II, Number 2, 1846, p. 116
50This reference contains 2 citations:
- Journal of the Assembly of the State of New York, 48th Session, Albany, 1825, pp. 91-133.
- pp. 121-126
51Letter of Gershom Powers, Esq., in Answer to a Letter of the Hon. Ed- ward Livingston in Relation to the Auburn State Prison, Albany, 1829, pp. 5-11.
52Gershom Powers, A Brief Account of the Construction, Management and Discipline of the New York State Prison at Auburn, Auburn, 1826
53Laws of New York, 1825, Chap XXV, pp. 16-17.
55This reference contains 22 citations:
- Roberts Vaux, Letters on the Penitentiary System of Pennsylvania, Ad- dressed to William Roscoe, Esquire, Philadelphia, 1827
- George W. Smith, A Defense of the Pennsylvania System of the Solitary Confinement of Prisoners, 1829, 1833
- Edward Livingston, Introductory Report to the Code of Prison Discipline, Philadelphia, 1827
- Letters on the Penn- sylvania System to Roberts Vaux, 1828
- Francis Lieber, The Penitentiary System of Pennsylvania, in the appendix to his translation of Beaumont and De Tocqueville
- A Popular Essay on the Subjects of Penal Law and on Uninterrupted Solitary Confinement at Labor, Philadelphia, 1838
- John Sibley, A Letter on the Superior Advantages of Solitary Confine- ment, London. 1838
- L. M. Moreau-Christophe, Emprisonnement Individuel, Paris, 1842
- W. H. Suringar, Considerations sur la reclusion individuelle, Paris, 1843
- Report of a Minority of the Special Committee of the Boston Prison Discipline Society, Boston, 1846
- F. A. Packard, A Vindication of the Separate System of Prison Discipline, Philadelphia, 1839
- An Inquiry into the Alleged Tendency of the Separation of Convicts One from the Other to Produce Death and Derangement. Philadelphia, 1849
- W. P. Foulke, Remarks on Cellular Sep- aration, Philadelphia, 1860
- The Pennsylvania System of Separate Confinement Explained and Defended, Philadelphia, 1867
- William Roscoe, A Brief Statement of the Causes which Had Led to the Abandonment of the Celebrated System of Penitentiary Discipline in Some of the United States of America, London, 1826
- The North American Review, July, 1839, pp. 1-43
- Ibid, January, 1848
- Sir Peter Laurie, A Letter on the Disad- vantages and Extravagance of the Separate System of Prison Discipline, Lon- don, 1848
- "Killing No Murder," or the Effects of Solitary Confinement on Prisoners, London, 1846
- George Combe, Notes on the United States of North America, 1838-40, (1841) especially, pp. 220-224
- F. C. Gray, Prison Discipline in America, 1847
- The Christian Examiner, March, 1848
56Philip Klein, Prison Methods on New York State, Chap. II
57B. J. Lossing, History of New York City, pp. 348ff, 398.
58Wines, Punishment and Reformation, Chaps. IX-X.
59Osborne, T. M., Society and Its Prisons.
60This reference contains 2 citations:
- Mental Hygiene, January, April and October, 1918.
- B. De Quiros, Modern Theories of Crime