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Duplicated Genes Evolve Independently after Polyploid Formation in Cotton
Richard C. Cronn, Randall L. Small and Jonathan F. Wendel
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Vol. 96, No. 25 (Dec. 7, 1999), pp. 14406-14411
Published by: National Academy of Sciences
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/121417
Page Count: 6
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Of the many processes that generate gene duplications, polyploidy is unique in that entire genomes are duplicated. This process has been important in the evolution of many eukaryotic groups, and it occurs with high frequency in plants. Recent evidence suggests that polyploidization may be accompanied by rapid genomic changes, but the evolutionary fate of discrete loci recently doubled by polyploidy (homoeologues) has not been studied. Here we use locus-specific isolation techniques with comparative mapping to characterize the evolution of homoeologous loci in allopolyploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and in species representing its diploid progenitors. We isolated and sequenced 16 loci from both genomes of the allopolyploid, from both progenitor diploid genomes and appropriate outgroups. Phylogenetic analysis of the resulting 73.5 kb of sequence data demonstrated that for all 16 loci (14.7 kb/genome), the topology expected from organismal history was recovered. In contrast to observations involving repetitive DNAs in cotton, there was no evidence of interaction among duplicated genes in the allopolyploid. Polyploidy was not accompanied by an obvious increase in mutations indicative of pseudogene formation. Additionally, differences in rates of divergence among homoeologues in polyploids and orthologues in diploids were indistinguishable across loci, with significant rate deviation restricted to two putative pseudogenes. Our results indicate that most duplicated genes in allopolyploid cotton evolve independently of each other and at the same rate as those of their diploid progenitors. These indications of genic stasis accompanying polyploidization provide a sharp contrast to recent examples of rapid genomic evolution in allopolyploids.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America © 1999 National Academy of Sciences