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New Hypotheses of Phylogenetic Relationships in Barnadesioideae (Asteraceae) Based on Morphology

Estrella Urtubey and Tod F. Stuessy
Taxon
Vol. 50, No. 4 (Nov., 2001), pp. 1043-1066
DOI: 10.2307/1224720
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1224720
Page Count: 24
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New Hypotheses of Phylogenetic Relationships in Barnadesioideae (Asteraceae) Based on Morphology
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Abstract

Previous molecular sequence and restriction site data have confirmed subfamily Barnadesioideae as basal within Asteraceae. The subfamily consists of 88 species in nine genera: Arnaldoa, Barnadesia, Chuquiraga, Dasyphyllum, Doniophyton, Duseniella, Fulcaldea, Huarpea, and Schlechtendalia. Two morphological cladistic analyses among genera or subgeneric groups within this subfamily have been completed previously, with contrasting results. Because of the importance of understanding relationships in this group of early Asteraceae, especially for insights on character evolution within the family, comprehensive morphological cladistic analyses were conducted at the specific level. Initial investigations utilising 31 characters with all 88 species led eventually to curtailed studies with 52 species. Five different outgroup hypotheses were employed: Acicarpha laxa, A. spathulata, Calycera leucanthema, C. spinulosa (all Calyceraceae), and Schlechtendalia luzulaefolia (Barnadesioideae; as functional outgroup). The results confirm Schlechtendalia as basal within Barnadesioideae. Monophyly is also confirmed for all genera, sections Chuquiraga and Acanthophyllae of Chuquiraga, and subgenus Archidasyphyllum of Dasyphyllum. All cladograms show two major groups (although statistical support values are low): (1) Chuquiraga, Doniophyton and Duseniella; and (2) Arnaldoa, Dasyphyllum, Fulcaldea, Huarpea and Barnadesia. Although bilabiate (4 + 1) corollas occur in Schlechtendalia, tubular corollas are believed plesiomorphic for the subfamily because they are pervasive in Calyceraceae as well as in all other basal Barnadesioideae. Pollen with no shallow depressions also are hypothesised as plesiomorphic for Barnadesioideae, even though one depression occurs in Schlechtendalia. A southern South American origin of Barnadesioideae (and the entire family) is re-emphasised. The previously hypothesised ancient lineage of Dasyphyllum subg. Archidasyphyllum, consisting of large trees, appears more derived in the new analyses.

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