Modeling Complex Ecological Economic Systems

Robert Costanza, Lisa Wainger, Carl Folke and Karl-Göran Mäler
Vol. 43, No. 8 (Sep., 1993), pp. 545-555
DOI: 10.2307/1311949
Stable URL:
Page Count: 11
  • Download PDF
  • Cite this Item

You are not currently logged in.

Access your personal account or get JSTOR access through your library or other institution:


Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

Modeling Complex Ecological Economic Systems
We're having trouble loading this content. Download PDF instead.

Notes and References

This item contains 85 references.

References cited
  • Allen, T. F. H., and T. B. Starr. 1982. Hierar- chy. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Arrow, K. 1962. The economic implications of learning by doing. Review of Economic Studies. 29: 155-173.
  • Arthur, W. B. 1988. Self-reinforcing mecha- nisms in economics. Pages 9-31 in P. W. Anderson, K. J. Arrow, and D. Pines, eds. The Economy as an Evolving Complex Sys- tem. Addisson-Wesley, Redwood City, CA.
  • Axelrod, R. 1984. Evolution of Cooperation. Basic Books, New York.
  • Bak, P., and K. Chen. 1991. Self-organized criticality. Sci. Am. 264: 46.
  • Banerjee, A., and J. W. Weibull. 1991. Evolu- tionary selection and rational behavior. Research Papers in Economics 4, Depart- ment of Economics, University of Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Berkes, F., and C. Folke. In press. Investing in cultural capital for a sustainable use of natural capital. In A. M. Jansson, C. Folke, R. Costanza, and M. Hammer, eds. Invest- ing in Natural Capital: The Ecological Eco- nomic Approach to Sustainability.
  • Boulding, K. E. 1981. Evolutionary Econom- ics. Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.
  • Brown, G. M., and J. Roughgarden. 1992. An ecological economy: notes on harvest and growth. Beijer Discussion Paper Series 12, Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Brown, G. M., and J. Swierzbinski. 1985. En- dangered species, genetic capital and cost- reducing R&D. Pages 111-127 in D. O. Hall, N. Myers, and N. S. Margaris, eds. Economics of Ecosystems Management. Dr. W. Junk Publ., Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Cabe, R., J. Shogren, A. Bouzaher, and A. Carriquiry. 1991. Metamodels, response functions, and research efficiency in eco- logical economics. Working paper 91-WP 79, Center for Agricultural and Rural De- velopment, Iowa State University, Ames.
  • Clark, C. W. 1976. Mathematical Bio- economics. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • ---. 1981. Bioeconomics of the ocean. Bio- Science 31: 231-237.
  • ---. 1985. Bioeconomic Modelling and Fish- eries Management. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • Clark, C. W., and G. R. Munro. 1975. The economics of fishing and modern capital theory: a simplified approach. J. Environ. Econ. Manage. 2: 92-106.
  • Colwell, R. K. 1974. Predictability, constancy, and contingency of periodic phenomena. Ecology 55: 1148-1153.
  • Costanza, R. 1987. Social traps and environ- mental policy. BioScience 37: 407-412.
  • Costanza, R., and T. Maxwell. 1991. Spatial ecosystem modeling using parallel proces- sors. Ecol. Model. 58: 159-183
  • ---. In press. Resolution and predictability: an approach to the scaling problem. Land- scape Ecol.
  • Costanza, R., B. Norton, and B. J. Haskell, eds. 1992. Ecosystem Health: New Goals for Environmental Management. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  • Costanza, R., F. H. Sklar, and M. L. White. 1990. Modeling coastal landscape dynam- ics. BioScience 40: 91-107
  • Day, R. H. 1989. Dynamical systems, adapta- tion and economic evolution. MRG Work- ing Paper no. M8908, University of South- ern California, Los Angeles.
  • Day, R. H., and T. Groves, eds. 1975. Adaptive Economic Models. Academic, New York.
  • Debreu, G. 1974. Excess demand functions. Journal of Mathematical Economics 1: 15-23.
  • Duchin, F. 1988. Analyzing structural change in the economy. Pages 113-128 in M. Ciaschini, ed. Input-Output Analysis: Cur- rent Developments. Chapman and Hall, New York.
  • ---. 1992. Industrial input-output analysis: implications for industrial ecology. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 89: 851-855.
  • Eriksson, K.-E. 1991. Physical foundations of ecological economics. Pages 186-196 in L. O. Hansson and B. Jungen, eds. Human Responsibility and Global Change. Univer- sity of Güteborg Press, Giiteborg, Sweden.
  • Gallopin, G. C. 1989. Global impoverishment, sustainable development and the environ- ment: a conceptual approach. International Social Science Journal 121: 375-397.
  • Günther, F., and C. Folke. In press. Character- istics of nested living systems. Journal of Biological Systems.
  • Hannon, B., and C. Joiris. 1987. A seasonal analysis of the southern North Sea ecosys- tem. Ecology 70: 1916-1934.
  • Hofmann, E. E. 1991. How do we generalize coastal models to global scale? Pages 401-417 in R. F. C. Mantoura, J. M. Mar- tin, and R. Wollast, eds. Ocean Margin Processes in Global Change. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • Holland, J. H., and J. H. Miller. 1991. Artificial adaptive agents in economic theory. Ameri- can Economic Review 81: 365-370.
  • Holling, C. S. 1964. The analysis of complex population processes. Can. Entomol. 96: 335-347.
  • ---. 1966. The functional response of in- vertebrate predators to prey density. Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. 48.
  • ---. 1987. Simplifying the complex: the paradigms of ecological function and struc- ture. European Journal of Operational Re- search 30: 139-146.
  • ---. 1992. Cross-scale morphology, geom- etry and dynamics of ecosystems. Ecol. Monogr. 62:447-502
  • Kaitala, V., and M. Pohjola. 1988. Optimal recovery of a shared resource stock: a dif- ferential game model with efficient memory equilibria. Nat. Res. Model. 3: 91-119.
  • Kauffman, S. A., and S. Johnson. 1991. Coevo- lution to the edge of chaos: coupled fitness landscapes, poised states, and coevolution- ary avalanches. J. Theor. Biol. 149:467-505.
  • Kay, J. J. 1991. A nonequilibrium thermody- namic framework for discussing ecosystem integrity. Environ. Manage. 15: 483-495.
  • Keynes, J. M. 1936. General Theory of Em- ployment, Interest and Money. Harcourt Brace, London, UK.
  • Klein, L. R. 1971. Forecasting and policy evalu- ation using large-scale econometric models: the state of the art. Pages 133-177 in M. D. Intriligator, ed. Frontiers of Quantitative Economics. North-Holland Publ., Amster- dam, The Netherlands.
  • Levins, R. 1966. The strategy of model building in population biology. Am. Sci. 54:421-431.
  • Lindgren, K. 1991. Evolutionary phenomena in simple dynamics. Pages 295-312 in C. G. Langton, C. Taylor, J. D. Farmer, and S. Rasmussen. Artificial Life. Addison-Wesley, Redwood City, CA.
  • Lines, M. 1989. Environmental noise and nonlinear models: a simple macroeconomic example. Economic Notes 19: 376-394.
  • ---. 1990. Stochastic stability consider- ations: a nonlinear example. International Review of Economics and Business 37: 219-233.
  • Lucas, R. E. 1975. An equilibrium model of the business cycle. Journal of Political Economy 83:1113-45.
  • Mäler, K.-G. 1991. National accounts and en- vironmental resources. Environmental and Resource Economics 1: 1-15.
  • Mandelbrot, B. B. 1977. Fractals: Form, Chance and Dimension. W.H. Freeman, San Fran- cisco, CA.
  • ---. 1983. The Fractal Geometry of Na- ture. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, CA.
  • Maxwell, T., and R. Costanza. In press. An approach to modelling the dynamics of evo- lutionary self-organization. Ecol. Model.
  • Maynard-Smith, J. 1979. Game theory and the evolution of behavior. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 205: 475-488.
  • ---. 1982. Evolution and the Theory of Games. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Maynard-Smith, J., and G. R. Price. 1973. The logic of animal conflict. Nature 246: 15-18
  • Milne, B. T. 1991. Lessons from applying fractal models to landscape patterns. Pages 199-235 in M. G. Turner and R. Gardner, eds. Quan- titative Methods in Landscape Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Nicolis, G., and I. Prigogine. 1977. Self-organi- zation in Non-equilibrium Systems. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • ---. 1989. Exploring Complexity. W.H. Freeman, New York.
  • Norgaard, R. B. 1989. The case for method- ological pluralism. Ecological Economics 1: 37-57.
  • Norton, B. G., and R. E. Ulanowicz. 1992. Scale and biodiversity policy: a hierarchical ap- proach. Ambio 21: 244-249.
  • Olsen, L. F., and W. M. Schaffer. 1990. Chaos versus noisy periodicity: alternative hypoth- eses for childhood epidemics. Science 249: 499-504.
  • O'Neill, R. V., D. L. DeAngelis, J. B. Waide, and T. F. H. Allen. 1986. A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems. Princeton Univer- sity Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • O'Neill, R. V., A. R. Johnson and A. W. King. 1989. A hierarchical framework for the analysis of scale. Landscape Ecol. 3: 193-205.
  • O'Neill, R. V., and B. Rust. 1979. Aggregation error in ecological models. Ecol. Model. 7: 91-105.
  • Prigogine, I. 1972. Thermodynamics of evolu- tion. Physics Today 23: 23-28.
  • Rastetter, E. B., A. W. King, B. J. Cosby, G. M. Hornberger, R. V. O'Neill, and J. E. Hobble. 1992. Aggregating fine-scale ecological knowledge to model coarser-scale attributes of ecosystems. Ecological Applications 2: 55-70.
  • Robinson, J. B. 1991. Modelling the interac- tions between human and natural systems. International Social Science Journal 130: 629-647.
  • ---. Of maps and territories: the use and abuse of socio-economic modelling in sup- port of decision-making. Technological Fore- cast and Social Change.
  • Rosser, J. B. 1991. From Catastrophe to Chaos: A General Theory of Economic Dis- continuities. Kluwer, Amsterdam, The Neth- erlands.
  • ---. 1992. The dialogue between the eco- nomic and ecologic theories of evolution. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organi- zation 17: 195-215.
  • Schneider, E. D., and J. J. Kay. In press. Life as a manifestation of the second law of ther- modynamics. International Journal ofMath- ematical and Computer Modelling.
  • Schumpeter, J. A. 1950. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Harper & Row, New York.
  • Selten, R. 1980. A note on evolutionary stable strategies in asymmetrical animal conflicts. J. Theoret. Biol. 84: 93-101.
  • Shugart, H. H. 1989. The role of ecological models in long-term ecological studies. Pages 90-109 in G. E. Likens, ed. Long-Term Studies in Ecology: Approaches and Alter- natives. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Shugart, H. H., G. B. Bonan, D. L. Urban, W. K. Lavenroth, W. J. Parton, and G. M. Hornberger. 1991. Computer models and long-term ecological research. Pages 221-239 in P. G. Risser, ed. Long-term Ecological Research: An International Per- spective. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • Solow, R. M. 1956. A contribution to the theory of economic growth. Quarterly Jour- nal of Economics 70: 65-94.
  • Sonnenschein, H. 1974. Market excess demand functions. Econometrica 40: 549-563.
  • Sugihara, G., and R. M. May. 1990. Nonlinear forecasting as a way of distinguishing chaos from measurement error in time series. Nature 344: 734-741
  • Taub, F. B. 1987. Indicators of change in natu- ral and human impacted ecosystems: status. Pages 115-144 in S. Draggan, J. J. Cohrssen, and R. E. Morrison, eds. Preserving Eco- logical Systems: The Agenda for Long-term Research and Development. Praeger, New York.
  • ---. 1989. Standardized aquatic microcosm: development and testing. Pages 47-92 in A. Boudou and F. Ribeyre, eds. Aquatic Ecotoxicology: Fundamental Concepts and Methodologies. vol II. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • Turner, M. G., R. Costanza, and F. H. Sklar. 1989. Methods to compare spatial patterns for landscape modeling and analysis. Ecol. Model. 48: 1-18.
  • Vitousek, P., P. R. Ehrlich, A. H. Ehrlich, and P. A. Matson. 1986. Human appropriation of the products of photosynthesis. BioScience 36: 368-373.
  • von Bertalanffy, L. 1968. General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Appli- cations. George Braziller, New York.
  • von Neuman, J. 1928. Sur Theorie der Gesell- schaftsspield. Mathematische Analen 100: 295-320.
  • von Neuman, J., and O. Morgenstern. 1944. Theory of Games and Economic Behavior. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Wulff, F., and R. E. Ulanowicz. 1989. A com- parative anatomy of the Baltic Sea and Chesapeake Bay ecosystems. Pages 232-256 in F. Wulff, J. G. Field, and K. H. Mann, eds. Network Analysis of Marine Ecology: Meth- ods and Applications. Springer-Verlag, NY.
  • Wroblewski, J. S., and E. E. Hofmann. 1989. U.S. interdisciplinary modeling studies of coastal-offshore exchange processes: past and future. Prog. Oceanogr. 23: 65-99.