Freedom of Speech in War Time

Zechariah Chafee, Jr.
Harvard Law Review
Vol. 32, No. 8 (Jun., 1919), pp. 932-973
DOI: 10.2307/1327107
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1327107
Page Count: 42
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Freedom of Speech in War Time
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Notes and References

This item contains 145 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 1
    This reference contains 39 citations:
    • REPORTS OF THE ATTORNEY GENEPAL for 1917 (page 75)
    • 1918 (pages 17, 20-23, 47-57).
    • Atty. Gen. Gregory's Suggestions to the Executive Committee of the American Bar Association, 4AM. BAR ASSOC. JOURN.305 (1918).
    • Henry Schofield, in 9PUBLICA- TIONS OF THE AMERICAN SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 67 (1914).
    • H. W. Biklé, 41AM. L. REG. (N. S.) 1 (1902)
    • 16HARV. L. REV.55 (1902)
    • P. L. Edwards, 58CENT. L. J.383 (1904)
    • Lindsay Rogers, 23YALE L. J.559 (1914)
    • A. V. DICEY, THE LAW OF THE CONSTITUTION, 8 ed., Chap. VI
    • 65UNIV. OF PA. L. REV.170 (1916)
    • Joseph R. Long, "The Freedom of the Press," 5VA. L. REV.225 (1918).
    • 28 HARV. L. REV.445, 453 (1915)
    • 29HARV. L. REV. 640, 648 (1916).
    • W. R. Vance, 2MINN. L. REV.239 (1918)
    • "The Espionage Act Cases," 32HARV. L. REV.417 (1919)
    • "Threats to take the Life of the President," 32 HARV. L. REV.724 (1919)
    • Alexander H. Robbins, 87CENT. L. J.145 (1918)
    • 87CENT. I. J.400 (1918).
    • Judge Charles M. Hough, "Law in War Time — 1917," 31HARV. L. REV.692, 696 (1918).
    • Z.Chafee, Jr., 17 NEW REPUBLIC, 66 (November 16, 1918)
    • "The Debs Case and Freedom of Speech," Ernst Freund, 19NEW REPUBLIC, 13 (May 3, 1919)
    • 19ib. 151 ( May 31)
    • William Hard, "Mr. Burleson, Espionagent," 19NEW REPUBLIC, 42 (May 10, 1919)
    • 19NEW REPUBLIC, 76 (May 17, 1919)
    • Max Eastman, THE LIBERATOR (No- vember, 1918)
    • CLYDE A. DUNIWAY, THE DEVELOPMENT OF FREEDOM OF THE PRESS IN MASSA- CHUSETTS, Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1906
    • ERSKINE MAY, 2CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 2 ed., 1912, Chaps. IX-X
    • Charles A. Beard in 16NEW REPUBLIC, 350 (October 19, 1918).
    • 2STEPHEN, HISTORY OF THE CRIMINAL LAW, Chap. XXIV
    • G. O. TREVELYAN, THE EARLY HISTORY OF CHARLES JAMES FOX
    • PLATO'S APOLOGY OF SOCRATES
    • MIL- TON'S AREOPAGITICA
    • J. B. BURY, A HISTORY OF FREEDOM OF THOUGHT
    • GROTE, PLATO, Chap. VI
    • GRAHAM WALLAS, THE GREAT SOCIETY, 195-98
    • H. J. LASKI, AUTHORITY IN THE MODERN STATE, passim
    • Fabian Franklin, "Some Free Speech Delusions," 2UNPOPULAR REV.223 (October, 1914).
    • 7YALE REV.670 (April, 1918).
    • VISCOUNT MORLEY'S RECOLLECTIONS.
  • 2
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Schenck v. United States, 249 U. S. 47, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 247, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 194 (1919)
    • Frohwerk v. United States, 249 U. S. 204, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 249, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 197 (1919)
    • Debs v. United States, 249 U. S. 211, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 252, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 196 (1919)
    • Sugarman v. United States, 249 U. S. 182, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 191, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 195 (1919).
  • 3
    A. V. DICEY, LAW OF THE CONSTITUTION, 8 ed., 130
  • 4
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • J. B. THAYER, LEGAL ESSAYS, 38
    • 1BRYCE, AMERICAN COMMONWEALTH, 1 ed., 377.
  • 6
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • NEW YORK, CONSTITUTION, 1822, Art. 7, § 8.
    • Schofield in 9 PROC. AM. SOCIOLOG. Soc. 95.
  • 6
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Act of June 15, 1917, c. 30, tit. 1, § 3
    • 40 STAT. AT. L. 217, 219
    • COMP. STAT. 1918, § 10212c
    • Act of May 16, 1918, c. 75.
    • notes 91 and 131, infra.
  • 7
    4AM. BAR ASSOC. JOURN.306.
  • 8
    REPORT OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES (1918), 18.
  • 9
    REPORT OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE UNITED STATES (1918), 20
  • 10
    Robertson v. Baldwin, 165 U. S. 275, 281 (1897).
  • 11
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Selective Draft Law Cases, 245 U. S. 366, 390 (1918)
    • Claudius v. Davie, 175 Cal. 208 (1917).
  • 12
    State v. McClure, 105 Atl. 712 (DEL. GEN. SESS., 1919).
  • 13
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Blackstone's in 29HARV. L. REV.640, 651.
    • 2STORY, CONSTITUTION, § 1886.
  • 14
    4BLACKSTONE, COMMENTARIES, 151.
  • 15
    King v. Dean of St. Asaph, 3 T. R. 428, 431 (1789)
  • 16
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Roscoe Pound, "Equitable Relief against Defamation and Injuries to Per- sonality," 29HARV. L. REV.651.
    • American Malting Co. v. Keitel, 209 Fed. 351 (C. C. A. 2d, 1913)
    • Willis v. O'Connell, 231 Fed. 1004 (S. D. Ala. 1916).
  • 17
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Respublica v. Oswald, 1 Dall. (U. S.) 319, 325 (Pa., 1788)
    • WHARTON'S STATE TRIALS, 322, 323 (Pa., 1797)
    • Respublica v. Dennie, 4 Yeates (Pa.) 267, 269 (1805).
    • Schofield in 9PROC. AM. SOCIOL. SOC.69.
  • 18
    Commonwealth v. Blanding, 3 Pick. (Mass.) 304, 313 (1825).
  • 19
    Patterson v. Colorado, 205 U. S. 454, 462 (1907).
  • 20
    Schenck v. United States, 249 U. S. 47, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 247, 249 (1919).
  • 21
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Masses Pub. Co. v. Patten, 246 Fed. 24, 27 (C. C. A. 2d, 1917)
    • United States v. Coldwell, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 158 (D. C. R. I.) 4.
  • 22
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • 32 GEo. III, c. 60 (1792)
    • page 948, infra.
  • 23
    1BLACKSTONE, COMMENTARIES, 109.
  • 24
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Dean of St. Asaph's Case, 4 Doug. 73, 172 (1784)
    • Scho- field, 9PROC. AM. SOCIOL. SOC.85, note.
  • 25
    Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio, 236 U. S. 230, 241 (1915).
  • 26
    BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 33 (D. C. S. D. Cal., 1917), Bledsoe, J.
  • 27
    John Galsworthy, "American and Briton," 8YALE REV.27 (October, 1918).
  • 28
    COOLEY, CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS, 7 ed., 603, 604.
  • 29
    This reference contains 8 citations:
    • Louthan v. Commonwealth, 79 Va. 196 (1884)
    • Atchison, etc. Ry. v. Brown, 80 Kans. 312, 102 Pac. 459 (1900)
    • St. Louis, etc. Ry. Co. v. Griffin, 106 Texas 477, 171 S. W.703 (1914)
    • Wallace v. Georgia Ry. Co., 94 Ga. 732, 22 S. E. 579 (1894)
    • Ex parte Harrison, 212 Mo. 88, 110 S. W. 709 (1908)
    • State ex rel. Metcalf v. District Court, 52 Mont. 46, 155 Pac. 278 (1916)
    • State ex rel. Ragan v. Junkin, 85 Neb. 1, 122 N. W. 473 (1909)
    • State v. Pierce, 163 Wis. 615, 158 N. W. 696 (1916)
  • 30
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Schenck v. United States, 249 U. S. 47, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 247 (1919)
    • State v. McKee, 73 Conn. 18, 46 Atl. 409 (1900)
    • State v. Pioneer Press Co., 100 Minn. 173, 110 N. W. 867 (1907)
    • Cowan v. Fairbrother, 118 N. C. 406, 418 (1896).
  • 31
    page 961, infra.
  • 32
    Toledo Newspaper Co. v. United States, 247 U. S. 402, 419 (1918).
  • 33
    State v. McKee, 73 Conn. 18, 28, 46 Atl. 409 (1900).
  • 34
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • United States v. Phillips, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 14 (S. D. N. Y., 1917), 5
    • United States v. Goldman, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 41 (S. D. N. Y., 1917), 2
    • United States v. Stokes, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 106 (W. D. Mo., 1918), 12
    • United States v. Pierce, BULL. DEPT. JUST., NO. 52 (S. D. N. Y., 1917), 22, Ray, J.
    • United States v. Nearing, BULL. DEPT. JUST., NO. 192 (S. D. N. Y., 1917), 4, Mayer, J.
  • 35
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • COOLEY, CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS, 7 ed., 605
    • Fraina v. United States, 255 Fed. 28, 35 (C. C. A. 2d, 1918).
  • 36
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • 2MAY, CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND, Chap. IX
    • 2STEPHEN, HISTORY OF THE CRIMINAL LAW, Chap. XXIV.
  • 37
    Frohwerk v. United States, 249 U. S. 204, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 249, 250 (1919).
  • 38
    Schenck v. United States, 249 U. S. 47, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 247 (1919).
  • 39
    Davidson v. New Orleans, 96 U. S. 97, 104 (1877).
  • 40
    note 29, supra.
  • 41
    Schenck v. United States, 249 U. S. 47, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 247, 249 (1919).
  • 42
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • 244 Fed. 535 (S. D. N. Y., 1917)
    • 246 Fed. 24 (C. C. A. 2d., 1917).
  • 43
    MACAULAY, HISTORY OF ENGLAND, Chap. XIX.
  • 44
    C. A. DUNIWAY, FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN MASSACHUSETTS, 89, note.
  • 45
    2STEPHEN, HISTORY OF THE CRIMINAL LAW, 299.
  • 46
    2STEPHEN, HISTORY OF THE CRIMINAL LAW, 353.
  • 47
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Ibid., 353
    • Schofield, in 9PROC. AM. SOCIOL. SOC., 70ff.
  • 48
    Schofield, Ibid., 76, 87.
  • 49
    W. R. Vance, in "Freedom of Speech and of the Press," 2MINN. L. REV.239, 259.
  • 50
    2MAY, CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 2 ed., 9, note.
  • 51
    This reference contains 7 citations:
    • 17 HOW. ST. TR. 675 (1735)
    • LIVINGSTON RUTHERFORD, JOHN PETER ZENGER, New York, 1904.
    • The Har- vard Law School Library contains four of these (London, 1738
    • London, 1752
    • London, 1765
    • New York, 1770
    • William Henry Loyd, in 1GREAT AMERICAN LAWYERS, 1.
  • 62
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • C. A. DUNIWAY, FREEDOM OF THE PRESS IN MASSACHESETTS, 91, 93, 115, 123, 130, and note
    • Ibid., 125.
  • 63
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • 2STEPHEN, HISTORY OF THE CRIMINAL LAW, 300.
    • Schofield, 9PROC. AM. SOCIOL. SOC.75.
  • 54
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • DUNIWAY, supra, Chap. IX
    • Commonwealth v. Clap, 4 Mass. 163 (1808)
    • Com- monwealth v. Blanding, 3 Pick. (Mass.) 304 (1825).
  • 55
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • PA. CONS. 1790, Art. 9, § 7
    • N. Y. SESSION LAWS, 1805, c. 90
    • N. Y. CONS., 1822, Art. VII, § 8
    • MASS. LAWS, 1827, c. 107.
    • Schofield, op. cit., 95-99.
  • 58
    32 GEO. III, c. 60 (1792).
  • 57
    1STAT. AT L., c. 74, 596, Act of July 14, 1798.
  • 58
    3 WOODROW WILSON, HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE, 153.
  • 59
    1STEPHEN, HISTORY OF THE CRIMINAL LAW, 569.
  • 60
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Max Eastman, "The Triia of Eugene Debs," 1LIBERATOR, No. 9(November, 1918), 9.
    • United States v. Phillips, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 14
    • note 61, infra
    • BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 198.
  • 61
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • 31 HOW. ST. TR. 495, 535 (1811)
    • Lord Ellenborough charged, 31 HOW. ST.TR. 367, 408, 413 (1811)
    • United States v. Rose Pastor Stokes, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 106 (W. D. Mo., 1917), 985
    • infra.
  • 62
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • 2MAY, CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY, 38-41
    • note 120, infra
  • 63
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • A. ESMEIN, ÉLÉMENTS DE DROIT CONSTITUTIONNEL, 6 ed. 1145, 1149
    • Ernst Freund in 19NEW REPUBLIC14 (May 3, 1919).
    • Masses Pub. Co. v. Patten, 244 Fed. 535, 536, 543 (1917).
  • 64
    FRANCIS WHARTON, STATE TRIALS OF THE UNITED STATES, 23.
  • 65
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Act of June 25, 1798, 1 STAT. AT L., 570
    • Act of July 14, 1798, 1 STAT. AT L., 596.
  • 66
    PAUL LEICESTER FORD, VII, 245
  • 67
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Schofield, 9PROC. AM. SOCIOL. SOC.86.
    • WHARTON'S STATE TRIALS, — Lyon, 333 (1798)
    • Cooper, 659 (1800)
    • Haswell, 684 (1800)
    • Callender, 688 (1800).
  • 68
    Schofield, op. cit., 91, and 92, note.
  • 69
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • People v. Croswell, 3 Johns. Cas. 337 (1804).
    • Schofield, op. cit., 89ff
  • 70
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • Act of December 26, 1785
    • 12HENING'S STATUTES AT LARGE OF VIRGINIA (1823), c. 34, page 84.
    • 1REVISED CODE OF VIRGINIA (1803), c. 20, page 29.
    • PHILIP FURNEAUX, LETTERS TO BLACKSTONE, 2 ed., 60-63, London, 1771
    • State v. Chandler, 2 Harr. (Del.) 5-53, 576 (1837)
    • Schofield, op. cit., 77.
  • 71
    1KOHLER, LEERBUCH DES BURGERLICHEN RECHTS, § 38.
  • 72
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Schofield, op. cit.
    • Van Vechten Veeder, "Freedom of Public Discussion," 23HARV. L. REV.413 (1910).
  • 73
    Gompers v. United States, 233 U. S. 604, 610 (1914).
  • 74
    United States v. Marie Equi, BULL.,DEPT. JUST., No. 172, 21 (Ore., 1918), Bean, J.
  • 75
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Henry J. Fletcher, "The Civilian and the War Power," 2MINN. L. REV.110
    • Ambrose Tighe, "The Legal Theory of the Minnesota 'Safety Commission' Act," 3MINN. L. REV.1.
  • 77
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • 4 Wall. (U. S.) 2 (1866)
    • 3MINN. L. REV.9
  • 78
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • UNITED STATES CONSTITUTION, Art. I, § 1
    • Marshall, C. J., in McCulloch v. Maryland, 4 Wheat. (U. S.) 316, 405 (1819).
    • Ex parte Merryman, Taney, 246, 260 (1861)
    • Kansas v. Colorado, 206 U. S. 46, 81 (1907).
  • 79
    "The Metaphysics of Toleration,"in his LITERARY ESSAYS, Silver Library edition, II, 208 (Longmans).
  • 80
    17 NEW REPUBLIC, 67.
  • 81
    JOHN CHIPMAN GRAY, NATURE AND SOURCES OF THE LAW, § 48 ff.
  • 82
    Butler v. Perry, 240 U. S. 328 (1916).
  • 83
    Robertson v. Baldwin, 165 U. S. 275, 281 (1897).
  • 84
    This reference contains 7 citations:
    • Baileyv.Alabama, 219 U. S. 219 (1911).
    • Robertson v. Baldwin, supra
    • LaFollette Seamen's Act, Act of March 4, 1915, c. 153, § 16
    • 38 STAT. AT L. 1184
    • U. S. COMP. STAT., 1918, § 8382 a
    • Saratoga v. Saratoga Gas, 191 N. Y. 123, 141, 83 N. E. 693 (1908).
    • Hurtado v. California, 110 U. S. 516 (1884).
  • 85
    Roscoe Pound, "Interests of Personality," 28HARV. L. REV.445, 453-56.
  • 86
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • United States v. Rose Pastor Stokes, BULL. DEPT. JUST., 106, 14 (W. D. Mo., 1917).
    • page 966, infra.
  • 87
    Oliver Wendell Holmes, "The Path of the Law," to HARV. L. REV.457, 467.
  • 88
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • United States v. "The Spirit of '76," BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 33, 2 (S. D. Cal., 1917)
    • United States v. Schoberg, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 149 (E. D. Ky., 1918), Cochran, J.
  • 89
    244 Fed. 535 (S. D. N. Y., 1917).
  • 90
    Act of June 15, 1917, c. 30, Title XII, § 2, 40 STAT. AT L. 230, U. S. COMP. STAT., 1918, § 10401 a.
  • 91
    Act of June 15, 1917, c. 30, Title I, § 3, 40 STAT. AT L. 219, U. S. COMP. STAT., 1917, § 10212 c
  • 92
    Page 935, supra.
  • 93
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Masses Publishing Co. v. Patten, supra, 539
    • United States v. Fontana, BuLL. DEPT. JUST., No. 148 (N. D. 1917), Amidon, J.
    • United States v. Wishek, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 153 (N. D., 1917), Amidon, J.
    • United States v. Henning, BULL. DEEPT. JUST., No. 184 (Wis., 1917), Geiger, D. J.
  • 94
    COOLEY, CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS, 7 ed., 613.
  • 95
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Masses Publishing Co. v. Patten, supra
    • United States v. Scott Nearing, 252 Fed. 223, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 129 (S. D. N. Y., 1918).
  • 96
    Masses Pub. Co. v. Patten, 244 Fed. 535, 540 (1917).
  • 97
    note 91, supra
  • 98
    Beale, infra, 16 HARV. L. REV. 491, 506, note 1
  • 99
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Joseph H. Beale, "Criminal Attempts," 16HARV. L. REV.491
    • Commonwealth v. Peaslee, 177 Mass. 267, 59 N. E. 55 (1901), Holmes, C. J.
    • United States v. Stephens 12 Fed. 52 (Ore. 1882), Deady, D. J.
    • 32HARV. L. REV.417.
  • 100
    United States v. Stephens, supra
  • 101
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Beale, supra, 16 HARV. L. REV. 491, 505
    • REV. STAT.§§ 5323, 5427, March 4, 1909, c. 321 § 332
    • 35 STAT. ATL. 1152
    • U. S. COMP. STAT. 1918, § 10506 (Crim. Code, § 332).
  • 102
    177 Mass. 267, 272, 59 N. E. 55 (1901).
  • 103
    page 936, supra.
  • 104
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Masses Pub. Co. v. Patten, 245 Fed. 102 (C. C. A. 2d, 1917)
    • ibid., 246 Fed. 24 (C. C. A. 2d, 1917)
  • 105
    32HARV. L. REV.417, 420.
  • 106
    Masses v. Patten, 246 Fed. 24, 38, Rogers, J.
  • 107
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Masses v. Patten by Learned Hand, J.
    • United States v. Nearing, 252 Fed. 223, 227 (S. D. N. Y., 1918).
  • 108
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Ibid.
    • 246 Fed. 38
  • 109
    Masses Pub. Co. v. Patten, 246 Fed. 24, 39 (1917), Ward, J.
  • 110
    Masses Pub. Co. v. Patten, 246 Fed. 24, 39 (1917), Roger, J.
  • 111
    United States v. Brinton, BULL. DEPT. JUST. No. 132 (N. D., 1917).
  • 112
    Masses Pub. Co. v. Patten, 246 Fed. 24, 29 (1917).
  • 113
    WALTER NELLES, ESPIONAGE ACT CASES, and in 32HARV. L. REV.417.
  • 114
    BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 106, p. 4 (W. D. Mo., 1917).
  • 115
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 106, p. 4 (W. D. Mo. 1917), passim
    • Rex v. Cuthell 27 How. ST. TR. 642,674(1799).
    • Doe v. United States, 253 Fed. 903 (C. C. A. 8th, 1918).
  • 110
    United States v. Rose Pastor Stokes, supra, p. 8.
  • 117
    Fraina v. United States, 255 Fed. 28 (C. C. A. 2d, 1918).
  • 118
    Rex v. Bertrand Russell, LITTELL'S LrIVNG AGE, Feb. 15, 1919, P. 385.
  • 119
    United States v. Pape, 253 Fed. 270 (1918).
  • 120
    United States v. Rose Pastor Stokes, supra, p. 14
  • 121
    32HARV. L. REV.420, note 22.
  • 122
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Sugarman v. United States, 249 U. S. 130, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 191 (1919)
    • Schenck v. United States, 249 U. S. 47, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 247 (1919)
    • Frohwerk v. United States, 249 U. S. 204, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 249 (1919).
  • 123
    249 U. S. 47, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 247, 249
  • 124
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • 177 Mass. 267, 272, 59 N. E. 55 (1901)
    • 963, supra.
  • 125
    Debs v. United States, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 252 (1919).
  • 126
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Ibid.
    • 249 U. S. 211, 39 Sup. Ct. Rep. 252, 254
  • 127
    United States v. Debs, BULL. DEPT. JUST., No. 155 (N. D. Oh., 1918).
  • 128
    Ibid., 15
  • 129
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Ernst Freund, "The Debs Case and Freedom of Speech," 19NEW REPUBLIC, 13 (May 3, 1919)
    • 19ibid. 151 ( May 31,1919).
  • 130
    Oliver Wendell Holmes, "Natural Law," 32HARV. L. REV.40 (1918).
  • 131
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Z. Chafee, Jr., "Freedom of Speech," 17NEW REPUBLIC, 66 (Nov. 16, 1918). Title I, § 3
    • Act of May 16, 1918, 40 STAT. AT L., 219, c. 75, § 1, U. S. COMP. STAT. 1918, § 10212 c
  • 132
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Masses Pub. Co. v. Patten, 246 Fed. 24, 27 (1917), Rogers, J.
    • note 1, supra.
  • 133
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Ex Parte Jackson, 96 U. S. 727 (1877)
    • Public Clearing House v. Coyne, 194 U. S. 497, 507 (1904).
  • 134
    Masses Pub. Co. v. Patten, 245 Fed. 102, 106 (1917), Hough, J.
  • 136
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • H. J. Laski in 31HARV. L. REV.186
    • AUTHORITY IN THE MODERN STATE, p. 378.
  • 137
    Mr. Burleson.COLLIER'S WEEKLY, May 17, 1919, p. 16.
  • 138
    952, supra.
  • 139
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • CHARLES RECHT, AMERICAN DEPORTATION AND EXCLUSION LAWS
    • Boston, League for Democratic Control, 1919.
  • 140
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Act of Feb. 5, 1917, 39STAT. AT L. c. 29, § 19, p. 889
    • U. S. COMP. STAT.1918, § 4289¼ jj
    • Act of Oct. 16, 1918, c. 186.
  • 141
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • United States v. Wusterbarth, 249 Fed. 908 (N. J., 1918), Haight, J.
    • United States v. Darmer, 249 Fed. 989 (W. D. Wash., 1918), Cushman, J.
  • 142
    This reference contains 7 citations:
    • State v. Holm, 166 N. W. 181 (Minn., 1918)
    • State v. Spartz, 167 N. W. 547 (Minn., 1918)
    • State v. Tachin, 106 Atl. 145 (N. J., 1919).
    • Star v. Brush, 170 N. Y. Supp. 987 (1918)
    • 172 N. Y. Supp. 851 (1918)
    • Van Lonkhuyzen v. Daily News, 195 Mich. 283, 161 N. W. 979 (1917), 170 N. W. 93 (1918).
    • Samson v. Columbia, 101 N. Y. Misc. 146, 167 N. Y. Supp. 202 (1917).
  • 143
    This reference contains 7 citations:
    • Realm Consolidation Act, 1914, 5GEO.5, c. 8, § 1
    • Rex v. Halliday, [1917] A. C. 260
    • 31HARV. L. REV.296.
    • Norman v. Mathews, 32 T. L. R. 303, 369 (1915)
    • Fox v. Spicer, 33 T. L. R. 172 (1917)
    • Rex v. Bertrand Russell, supra, note 128
    • H. J. LASKI, AUTHORITY IN THE MODERN STATE, 101.
  • 144
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • J. F. RHODES, HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES, III, 553, IV, 245-253, 267 note, 467, 473, VI, 78, 96.
    • Official Record of the Rebellion, Series II, Vol. V, 723, 741
    • Ex parte Vallandigham, 1 Wall. (U. S.) 243 (1863)
    • Ambrose Tighe in 3MINN. L. REV.1 (1918).
    • Ex parte Vallandigham, 28 Fed. Cas. 874 (1863)
    • Rhodes, op. cit., IV, 245-52.
  • 145
    Emperor Tiberius, TACITUS, ANNALS, IV, c. 35.
  • 146
    Masses Pub. Co. v. Patten, 245 Fed. 102, 106 (C. C. A. 2d, 1917).
  • 147
    Ronnfeldt v. Philips, 35 T. L. R. 46 (1918, C. A.).