Access

You are not currently logged in.

Access your personal account or get JSTOR access through your library or other institution:

login

Log in to your personal account or through your institution.

The Challenge of a Model Penal Code

Herbert Wechsler
Harvard Law Review
Vol. 65, No. 7 (May, 1952), pp. 1097-1133
DOI: 10.2307/1337048
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1337048
Page Count: 37
Subjects: Law
  • Download PDF
  • Add to My Lists
  • Cite this Item
The Challenge of a Model Penal Code
We're having trouble loading this content. Download PDF instead.

Notes and References

This item contains 105 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 1
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • 56A.B.A. REP.25, 494, 5I3 (1931).
    • Report in Relation to the Future Work of the Institute, 12PROCEEDINGS A.L.I.369 et seq. (1935).
    • A.L.I., A SURVEY AND STATEMENT OF THE DEFECTS IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE (1925).
    • A.L.I., CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE (1931).
  • 3
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Gausewitz, Considera- tions Basic to a New Penal Code, 11 Wis. L. REV. 346, 480 (1936)
    • Glueck, Principles of a Rational Penal Code, 41HARV. L. REV.453 (1928)
    • CRIME AND COR- RECTION72 (1952)
    • J. Hall, Criminology and a Modern Penal Code, 27J. CRIM. L. & CRIMINOLOGY1 (1936)
    • Harno, Rationale of a Criminal Code, 85U. OF PA. L. REV. 549 (1937).
  • 4
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Pound, Toward a Better Criminal Law, 21A.B.A.J.499 (1935).
    • J. HALL, GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINAL LAW (1947)
    • Wechsler, Book Review, 49COL. L. REV.425 (1949).
  • 5
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • CRIMINAL JUSTICE IN CLEVELAND (Pound and Frankfurter ed. 1922)
    • Harno, Some Significant Developments in Criminal Law and Procedure in the Last Century, 42J. CRIM. L. & CRIMINOLOGY427, 442 (1951).
  • 6
    UNITED STATES: NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LAW OBSERVANCE AND ENFORCE- MENT, REPORT (1931).
  • 7
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • PROCEEDINGS OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL'S CONFERENCE OF CRIME (1934)
    • PROCEEDINGS OF THE GOVERNOR'S CONFERENCE ON CRIME, THE CRIMINAL AND SOCIETY (N.Y. 1935)
    • PETERSON, CRIME COMMISSIONS IN THE UNITED STATES8-9 (1945).
  • 8
    Schwartz, Federal Criminal Jurisdiction and Prosecutors' Discretion, 13 LAW & CONTEMP. PROB.64 (1948).
  • 9
    Freed, The Rules of Criminal Procedure: An Appraisal Based on a Year's Experience, 33A.B.A.J.1010 (1947).
  • 10
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • MICHAEL AND WECHSLER, CRIMINAL LAW AND ITS ADMINISTRATION1264 et seq. (1940)
    • PA. STAT. ANN. tit. 18, § 4701 (1945).
  • 11
    This reference contains 10 citations:
    • statute in 4 states
    • justification and excuse in homicide in 27
    • mistake of fact in 11
    • mistake of law in 5
    • insanity in 23
    • duress in 17
    • COLO. STAT. ANN. c. 48, § 3 (1935)
    • GA. CODE ANN.§ 26-301 (1936)
    • ILL. STAT. ANN. C. 38, § 590 (1935)
    • CAL. PEN. CODE§ 26 (1949).
  • 12
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Morissette v. United States, 342 U.S. 246, 251 (1952)
    • Peo- ple v. Weiss, 276 N.Y. 384, 12 N.E.2d 514 (1938)
    • United States v. Murdock, 290 U.S. 389 (1933)
    • Screws v. United States, 325 U.S. 91 (1945).
  • 13
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • N.Y. PEN. LAW §§ 1 et seq.
    • N.Y. CORRECTION LAW §§ 1 et seq.
    • CAL. PEN. CODE§§ 1 et seq. (1949).
  • 14
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • LA. CODE CRIM. LAW & PROC. ANN. (1943)
    • Morrow, The Louisiana Crimi- nal Code of 1942 -Opportunities Lost and Challenges Yet Unanswered, 17TULANE L. REV.1 (1942)
    • Bennett, The Louisiana Criminal Code, 5LA. L. REV.6 (1942).
    • VIIWISCON- SINLEGISLATIVE COUNCIL, REPORT (1950).
  • 15
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • CITIZENS' COMMITTEE ON THE CONTROL OF CRIME, TWELVE MONTHS OF CRIME IN NEW YORK CITY (1938)
    • CRIME IN NEW YORK CITY IN 1939 (1939).
  • 16
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • WHITE, INSANITY AND THE CRIMINAL LAW (1923)
    • ALEXANDER AND STAUB, THE CRIMINAL, THE JUDGE AND THE PUBLIC (1931)
    • ZILBOORG, MIND, MEDI- CINE AND MAN246 et seq. (1943)
    • BARNES AND TEETERS, NEW HORIZONS IN CRIMI- NOLOGY14, 947 (1950).
  • 17
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • GLUECK, CRIME AND JUSTICE (1936)
    • GLUECK, CRIME AND CORREC- TION (1952)
    • WAITE, THE PREVENTION OF REPEATED CRIME (1943)
    • Dession, Psy- chiatry and the Conditioning of Criminal Justice, 47YALE L.J.319 (1938)
    • Lukas, A Criminologist Looks At Criminal Guilt in 2SOCIAL MEANING OF LEGAL CONCEPTS113 (1950)
    • Weihofen, The Metaphysical Jargon of the Criminal Law, 22A.B.A.J.267 (1936).
  • 18
    KINSEY, POMEROY AND MARTIN, SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN THE HUMAN MALE (1948) .
  • 19
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • HOLMES, THE COMMON LAW70 et seq. (1881)
    • Note, A Rationale of the Law of Burglary, 51COL. L. REV.1009, I020-24 (1951)
    • J. HALL, THEFT, LAW AND SOCIETY125-228 (1935).
  • 20
    Chapin v. United States, 157 F.2d 697, 699 (D.C. Cir. 1946).
  • 21
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • 18 U.S.C. § 1341 (Supp. 1951)
    • United States v. Rowe, 56 F.2d 747 (2d Cir. 1932)
    • Knickerbocker Merchandising Co. v. United States, 13 F.2d 544 (2d Cir. 1926).
  • 22
    Commonwealth v. Pierce, 138 Mass. 165 (1884).
  • 23
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Wechsler and Michael, A Rationale of the Law of Homicide, 37COL. L. REV.701, 746-5I, I26I, I274-76 (1937)
    • J. HALL, GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINAL LAW215-39 (1947).
  • 24
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Sayre, Public Welfare Offenses, 33COL. L. REV.55 (1933)
    • J. HALL, op. cit. supra note 23, at 279-322
    • Morissette v. United States, 342 U.S. 246, 251 (1952).
  • 25
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Sayre, supra note 24, at 73-75, 80-83
    • Perkins, Ignorance and Mistake in Criminal Law, 88U. OF PA. L. REV.35, 58-62 (1939)
    • L. Hall and Seligman, Mistake of Law and Mens Rea, 8U. OF CHI. L. REV.641 (1941).
  • 26
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • United States v. Peoni, 100 F.2d 401 (2d Cir. 1938)
    • Nye & Nissen v. United States, 336 U.S. 613, 619 (1949).
  • 27
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • O'Brian, Loyalty Tests and Guilt by Association, 61HARV. L. REV. 592, 599-602 (1948)
    • Note, Guilt by Association-Three Words in Search of a Meaning, 17U. OF CHI. L. REV.148, I52-54 (1949)
    • Krulewitch v. United States, 336 U.S. 440, 445 (1949).
    • Dennis v. United States, 341 U.S. 494, 572-77 (1951).
  • 28
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • 10 C. & F. 200, 8 Eng. Rep. 718 (H.L. 1843).
    • N.Y. PEN. LAW § 1120.
  • 29
    Parsons v. State, 81 Ala. 577, 2 So. 854 (1887).
  • 30
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Weihofen and Overholser, Commitment of the Mentally Ill, 24TEXAS L. REV.307 (1946)
    • Note, Analysis of Legal and Medical Considerations in Commit- ment of the Mentally Ill, 56YALE L.J.1178 (1947).
  • 31
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • GUTTMACHER, SEX OFFENSES120 et seq. (1951)
    • GROUP FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF PSYCHIATRY, REPORT NO. 9, PSYCHIATRICALLY DEVIATED SEX OF- FENDERS (1950)
    • REPORT OF THE NEW JERSEY COMMISSION ON THE HABITUAL SEX OFFENDER (1950)
    • REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR'S STUDY COMMISSION ON THE DEVIATED CRIMINAL SEX OFFENDER (Mich. 1951)
    • PLOSCOWE, SEX AND THE LAW216 et seq. (1951).
  • 32
    Note, Legislation for the Treatment of Alcoholics, 2STAN. L. REV.515 (1950).
  • 33
    MASS. ANN. LAWS C. 123, § 113 (1949).
  • 34
    MARSH, PROSTITUTES IN NEW YORK CITY: THEIR APPREHENSION, TRIAL AND TREATMENT (1941).
  • 35
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • N.Y. PEN. LAW §§ 1290, 1290-a
    • MASS. ANN. LAWS c. 266, § 30 (SuPP. 1950)
    • CAL. PEN. CODE§ 484 (1949)
    • LA. CODE CRIM. LAW AND PROC. ANN. art. 740-67 (1943)
    • Stumberg, Criminal Ap- propriation of Movables-A Need for Legislative Reform, 19TEXAS L. REV.117, 300 (1941).
  • 36
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Winters v. New York, 333 U.S. 507, 520, 532-39 (1948)
    • Martin v. Hunter's Lessee, 1 Wheat. 304, 374 (U.S. 1816)
  • 37
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • CAL. PEN. CODE§ 1168 (1949)
    • N.Y. PEN. LAW §§ 1945, 2188
    • W. VA. CODE ANN.§ 6128 (1949)
    • Beattie and Tolman, State Sentencing Prac- tices and Penal Systems in REPORT TO THE JUDICIAL CONFERENCE OF THE COMMITTEE ON PUNISHMENT FOR CRIME81 (1942).
  • 38
    This reference contains 7 citations:
    • ME. REV. STAT. C. 117, § 1 (1944)
    • MICE. COMP. LAWS§ 750.316 (1948)
    • MINN. STAT. ANN.§ 619.07 (West1947)
    • S.D. CODE§ 13.2012 (1939)
    • WIS. STAT. § 340.02 (1949).
    • N.D. REV. CODE§ 12-2713 (1943)
    • R.I. GEN. LAWS c. 606, § 2 (1938).
  • 39
    Wechsler and Michael, A Rationale of the Law of Homicide, 37COL. L. REV.1261, I294-98 (1937).
  • 40
    N.Y. PEN. LAW § 2011
  • 41
    Note, 1A.L.R.1163 (1919).
  • 42
    ILL. ANN. STAT. C. 38, § 389 (Supp. 1951)
  • 43
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • People v. Hope, 257 N.Y. 147, 177 N.E. 402 (1931)
    • Cox v. State, 203 Ind. 544, 177 N.E. 898 (1931)
    • People v. Knowles, 35 Cal.2d 175, 217 P.2d 1 (1950)
    • Note, 38CALIF. L. REV.920 (1950).
  • 44
    This reference contains 10 citations:
    • GA. CODE ANN.§§ 26-1001 et seq. (1935)
    • ILL. ANN. STAT. C. 38, §§ 337 et seq. (1935)
    • KY. REV. STAT.§ 435.010 (1948)
    • LA. CODE CRM. LAW & PROC. ANN. art. 740-30 (1943)
    • ME. REV. STAT. C. 117, §§ 1-4 (1945)
    • MISS. CODE ANN. tit. 11, C. 1, § 2215 (1942)
    • OKLA. STAT. tit. 21, § 701 (1951)
    • S.C. CODE C. 68, § 1101 (1942)
    • S.D. COMP. LAWS§ 13.2007 (1939)
    • TEX. PEN. CODE ANN. art. 1256 (1948).
  • 45
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • PA. STAT. ANN. tit. 18, § 4701 (1945).
    • Pa. Laws 1794, C. 257, §§ 1, 2.
    • Wechsler and Michael, A Rationale of the Law of Homicide, 37COL. L. REV.701, I26I (1937).
  • 46
    Andres v. United States, 333 U.S. 740, 752- 70 (1948).
  • 47
    ROYAL COMMISSION ON CAPITAL PUNISHMENT, MINUTES OF EVI- DENCE (1949-I950).
  • 48
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • Commonwealth v. Jones, 355 Pa. 522, 50 A.2d 317 (1947)
    • People v. Caruso, 246 N.Y. 437, 159 N.E. 390 (1927)
    • State v. Cordasco, 2 N.J. 189, 66 A.2d 27 (1949)
    • Fisher v. United States, 328 U.S. 463 (1945)
    • CARDOZO, LAW AND LITERATURE99 (1931) .
  • 49
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Commonwealth v. DePofi, 362 Pa. 229, 66 A.2d 649 (1949)
    • Com- monwealth v. Wooding, 355 Pa. 555, 50 A.2d 328 (1947)
    • State v. Martin, 92 N.J.L. 436, 106 Atl. 385 (1919).
  • 50
    N.Y. PEN. LAW §§ 402-05.
  • 51
    Id. § 400.
  • 52
    CAL. PEN. CODE§ 459 (1949).
  • 53
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Note, A Rationale of the Law of Burglary, 51COL. L. REV.1009 (1951)
    • Note, Statutory Burglary - The Magic of Four Walls and A Roof, 100U. OF PA. L. REV.411 (1951).
  • 54
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • N.J., STAT. ANN. §§ 2:134-1
    • ORE. COMP. LAWS ANN.§§ 23-519, 523, 537 (1940)
  • 55
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • FLA. STAT. ANN.§§ 811.01, 812.04, 817.01 (1944)
    • IOWA CODE § 709.2
  • 56
    N.Y. PEN. LAW §§ 2120-29, 850-52.
  • 57
    Robinson v. United States, 324 U.S. 282 (1945).
  • 58
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • IOWA CODE§ 698.1 (1950)
    • MASS. GEN. LAWS C. 265, §§ 22, 23 (1932).
  • 59
    CAL. PEN. CODE§ 264 (1949).
  • 60
    N.Y. PEN. LAW § 2010.
  • 61
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • N.Y. Laws 1950, c. 525
    • REPORT OF THE GOVERNOR'S STUDY COMMISSION ON THE DEVIATED CRMINAL SEX OFFENDER134 et seq. (Mich. 1951).
  • 62
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Wechsler and Michael, A Rationale of the Law of Homicide, 37COL. L. REV.701, 752-57 (1937).
    • Glueck, Psychiatry and the Criminal Law in CRIME AND CORRECTION138, 141 et seq. (1952)
    • J. HALL, GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINAL LAW477 et seq. (1947).
  • 63
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Zilboorg, Misconceptions of Legal Insanity, 9AM. J. ORTHOPSYCHIA- TRY540, 552 (1939)
    • WERTHAM, THE SHOW OF VIOLENCE152 (1949)
    • 2 STEPHEN, HISTORY OF THE CRIMINAL LAW OF ENGLAND163 (1883)
    • ROYAL COM- MISSION ON CAPITAL PUNISHMENT, MINUTES OF EVIDENCE485, fl 6655 (1949).
  • 64
    MANUAL FOR COURTS- MARTIAL§ 78a (1928)
  • 65
    Zilboorg, Misconceptions of Legal Insanity, 9AM. J. ORTHOPSYCHIATRY 540, 550-52 (1939).
  • 66
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Weihofen, Eliminating the Battle of Experts in Criminal Insanity Cases, 48MICH. L. REV.961 (1950)
    • Overholser, Psychiatric Expert Testimony in Criminal Cases Since McNaghten-A Review, 42J. CRIM. L. & CRIMINOLOGY283 (1951)
    • Tulin, The Problem of Mental Disorder in Crime: A Survey, 32COL. L. REV.933 (1932).
  • 67
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • N.Y. CODE CRIM. PROC. §§ 658-62d
    • MASS. ANN. LAWS C. 123, § 100A (1949).
  • 68
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • LOU, JUVENILE COURTS IN THE UNITED STATES (1927)
    • CONSULICH, JUVE- NILE COURT LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES (2d ed. 1939)
    • S. & E. GLUECK, ONE THOUSAND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS9-14 (1934)
    • TAPPAN, JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 167 (1949)
    • JUVENILE DELINQUENCY, ANNALS (January1949).
  • 69
    MODEL YOUTH CORRECTION AUTHORITY ACT (1940).
  • 70
    This reference contains 6 citations:
    • 18 U.S.C. §§ 5005-24 (Supp. 1951)
    • CAL. WEL. & INST. CODE§§ 1701 et seq. (1944)
    • MASS. ANN. LAWS C. 119, §§ 52 et seq., c. I20 (SuPP. 1948)
    • MINN. STAT. § 260.125 (Supp. 1951)
    • TEX. REV. CIV. STAT. ANN. art. 5143 (Supp. 1951)
    • WIS. STAT. C. 54 (1949).
  • 71
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • N.Y. CODE CRIM. PROC. § 913-e et seq.
    • N.Y. CORRECTION LAW §§ 60, 61.
  • 72
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • BECK, FIVE STATES (A.L.I.1951)
    • Comment, Youth Correction-The Model Act in Operation, 17U. OF CHI. L. REV.683 (1950).
  • 73
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • PA. STAT. ANN. tit. 19, § 1051 (1930)
    • N.Y. PEN. LAW § 2188.
  • 74
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • N.J. STAT. ANN. tit. 2, § 103-7 (1939)
    • N.Y. PEN. LAW §§ 1941, 1942.
  • 75
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • MINN. STAT. ANN.§ 610.28(1) (1947)
    • N.Y. PEN. LAW § 408.
  • 76
    N.Y. PEN. LAW § 1942.
  • 77
    ILL. REV. STAT. C. 38, § 393 (1951)
  • 78
    REPORT OF THE AMERICAN BAR ASSOCIATION COMMISSION ON ORGANIZED CRIME21-24 (1951).
  • 79
    I-IV U.S. ATTORNEY GENERAL'S SURVEY OF RELEASE PROCEDURES (1939).
  • 80
    I948, 118. U.S. BUREAU OF CENSUS, STATISTICAL ABSTRACT OF THE UNITED STATES143 (1951).
  • 81
    Id. at 39.
  • 82
    S. & E. GLUECK, UNRAVELING JUVENILE DELINQUENCY257 et seq. (1950).
  • 83
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • CAL. PEN. CODE§ 2601 (1949)
    • MINN. STAT. ANN.§ 610.34 (1947)
  • 84
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • IOWA CONST. Art. II, § 5 (1857)
    • ORE. CONST. Art. II, § 3 (1859)
    • CAL. PEN. CODE§ 2600 (1949)
    • ORE. COMP. LAWS ANN.§ 23-1406 (1940).
  • 85
    This reference contains 5 citations:
    • N.Y. PEN. LAW § 1045
    • VT. REV. STAT.§ 8242 (1947).
    • N.C. Laws, 1949, c. 299, § 1
    • CONN. GEN. STAT. tit. 64, C. 417, § 1406b (SUPP. 1951)
    • Mass. Acts 1951, C. 203.
  • 86
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Andres v. United States, 333 U.S. 740 (1948).
    • Id. at 767.
  • 87
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Beattie and Tolman, State Sentencing Practices and Penal Systems in REPORT TO THE JUDICIAL CONFERENCE OF THE COMMITTEE ON PUNISHMENT FOR CRIME81 (1942)
    • IU.S. ATTORNEY GENERAL'S SURVEY OF RELEASE PROCEDURES (1939)
    • Note, Indeterminate Sentence Laws - The Adolescence of Peno-correctional Legislation, 50HARV. L. REV.677 (1937).
  • 88
    CAL. PEN. CODE§§ 1168, 3020 (1949).
  • 89
    MICH. COMP. LAWS§ 769.8 (1948).
  • 90
    PA. STAT. ANN. tit. 19, § 1057 (1930)
  • 91
    ILL. ANN. STAT. C. 38, §§ 802, 810, C. I27, § 55b (Supp. 1951).
  • 92
    S.D. CODE§ 13.0601, .0609 (1939).
  • 93
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • LA. REV. STAT. ANN.§ 15:529 (1950)
    • IOWA CODE§ 789.13 (1950)
    • GA. CODE ANN.§ 27-2502 (Supp. 1951)
    • TEX. CODE CRIM. PROC. ANN. arts. 502 (1926), 693 (1941)
  • 94
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Glueck, Principles of a Rational Penal Code in CRIME AND CORREC- TION72, 95-96 (1952)
    • Warner and Cabot, Changes in the Administration of Criminal Justice during the Past Fifty Years, 50HARV. L. REV.583, 607-o8 (1937).
  • 95
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • REPORT TO THE JUDICIAL CONFERENCE OF THE COMMITTEE ON PUNISHMENT FOR CRIME7 (1942)
    • H.R. 2140, 78th Cong., 1st Sess. (1943)
    • Comment, Reform in Federal Procedure: The Federal Corrections and Parole Improvement Bills, 53YALE L.J.773 (1944).
  • 96
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • STEPHEN, A GENERAL VIEW OF THE CRIMINAL LAW OF ENGLAND (1863)
    • A DIGEST OF THE CRIMINAL LAW (1877).
  • 97
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • REPORT OF CRIMINAL CODE COMMISSION: THE DRAFT CODE (1879)
    • 1 STEPHEN, HISTORY OF THE CRIMINAL LAW OF ENGLANDVi (1883)
    • 3 id. at 365-67.
  • 98
    The Criminal Code, 1892, 55 & 56 VICT., C. 29, STAT. OF CANADA 137.
  • 99
    MICHAEL AND WECHSLER, CRIMINAL LAW AND ITS ADMINISTRATION1284 (1940).
  • 100
    A PENAL CODE PREPARED BY THE INDIAN LAW COMMISSIONERS69-I38 (1838).
  • 101
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • MORGAN AND MACPHERSON, THE INDIAN PENAL CODEiii (1861)
    • ACHARYYA, CODIFICATION IN BRITISH INDIA210 (1914).
  • 102
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • LIVINGSTON, A SYSTEM OF PENAL LAW (1833)
    • COMPLETE WORKS ON CRIMINAL JURISPRUDENCE (1873).
  • 103
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • REPORT OF THE FIELD COMMISSION (1865)
    • REPORT OF THE COMMIS- SIONERS (1878).
  • 104
    MODEL YOUTH CORRECTION AUTHORITY ACT (1940).
  • 105
    Dession, Psychiatry and the Conditioning of Criminal Justice, 47YALE L.J.319 (1938).
  • 106
    Fuller, The Case of the Speluncean Explorers, 62HARV. L. REV.616 (1949).