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The Structural Constitution: Unitary Executive, Plural Judiciary

Steven G. Calabresi and Kevin H. Rhodes
Harvard Law Review
Vol. 105, No. 6 (Apr., 1992), pp. 1153-1216
DOI: 10.2307/1341727
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1341727
Page Count: 64
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The Structural Constitution: Unitary Executive, Plural Judiciary
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Abstract

For many years, legal scholars have engaged in two debates concerning the power of Congress over coordinate departments of the national government. The first concerns the scope of Congress's power to insulate executive department officials from presidential control. The second concerns the scope of Congress's power to restrict the jurisdiction of the federal courts. Scant attention, however, has been paid to the relationship between the Article II "unitary executive" and the Article III "jurisdiction-stripping" debates. In this Article, Professor Calabresi and Mr. Rhodes consider the implications of each debate for the other. The authors examine the textual provisions relevant to each debate and then explain how certain positions in one debate may compel results in the other. They conclude that theories of broad congressional power to restrict federal court jurisdiction strongly suggest limited congressional power to restructure the executive department and that theories of limited congressional jurisdiction-stripping power compel a unitary executive. Finally, the authors observe that recent Supreme Court decisions construing Article II may require recognition of broad congressional power under Article III to restrict the jurisdiction of the federal courts.

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