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Directionality of Avian Vocalizations: A Laboratory Study

Malcolm L. Hunter, Jr., Alejandro Kacelnik, John Roberts and Maxime Vuillermoz
The Condor
Vol. 88, No. 3 (Aug., 1986), pp. 371-375
DOI: 10.2307/1368885
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1368885
Page Count: 5
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Directionality of Avian Vocalizations: A Laboratory Study
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Abstract

Pure tones of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 kHz were broadcast from the body of a dead starling Sturnus vulgaris, and sound pressure levels were measured through 360° in three planes. At high frequencies (8 and 10 kHz) there were large troughs in sound pressure levels in the acoustic "shadow" of the bird's body. A physical model based on sound interference phenomena predicts similar patterns of sound pressure levels.

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