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Long-Term Retention and the Spacing Effect in Free-Recall and Frequency Judgments
John J. Shaughnessy
The American Journal of Psychology
Vol. 90, No. 4 (Dec., 1977), pp. 587-598
Published by: University of Illinois Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1421733
Page Count: 12
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In 2 experiments undergraduate students were presented with a long list of words in which items were repeated varying numbers of times according to either a massed presentation (MP) schedule or a distributed presentation (DP) schedule. Following list presentation, subjects were given either a frequency-judgment test (Experiment I) or a free-recall test (Experiment II). In both experiments, the retention test was given either immediately after or 24 hours after list presentation. As expected, on the immediate test MP items were judged to have occurred less frequently and they were recalled more poorly than DP items. On the delayed frequency judgment test, the spacing effect was slightly (though not significantly) smaller, and these results were considered to be consistent with the prevailing notion that MP items are more poorly registered in memory. The results of the delayed free-recall test, however, were less consistent with this explanation in that there was no difference in the recall of twice-presented MP and DP items.
The American Journal of Psychology © 1977 University of Illinois Press