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Phytoavailability and Toxicity of Trivalent and Hexavalent Chromium to Brassica juncea

Fengxiang X. Han, B. B. Maruthi Sridhar, David L. Monts and Yi Su
The New Phytologist
Vol. 162, No. 2 (May, 2004), pp. 489-499
Published by: Wiley on behalf of the New Phytologist Trust
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1514519
Page Count: 11
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Phytoavailability and Toxicity of Trivalent and Hexavalent Chromium to Brassica juncea
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Abstract

• Brassica juncea is a potential candidate plant for phytoremediation of a number of heavy metals, but little is known about the phytotoxicity of chromium (Cr) for this plant in Cr(III)- and Cr(VI)-contaminated soils. • Chromium distribution and phytotoxicity at the whole plant and cellular levels were studied using chemical, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses. • Bioavailability of Cr in soils was low, but the uptake significantly increased at phytotoxic levels. Chromium from Cr(VI)-contaminated soils was more phytotoxic than from Cr(III)-contaminated soils. Chromium causes growth retardation, reduces the number of palisade and spongy parenchyma cells in leaves, results in clotted depositions in the vascular bundles of stems and roots, and increases the number of vacuoles and electron dense materials along the walls of xylem and phloem vessels. • Our results suggest that B. juncea is not a good candidate for phytoremediation of soils with lower Cr. However, it is able to accumulate significant amounts of Cr in both shoots and roots at higher soil-Cr concentrations despite severe phytotoxic symptoms.

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