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Transmission des gènes et transmission des caractères

Albert Jacquard
Population (French Edition)
Vol. 31, No. 4/5 (Jul. - Oct., 1976), pp. 857-874
DOI: 10.2307/1531620
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1531620
Page Count: 18
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Transmission des gènes et transmission des caractères
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Abstract

Le concept d'"héritabilité" est avant tout un concept statistique correspondant à une ressemblance entre apparentés; il ne peut être transposé dans le raisonnement génétique qu'au prix de modèles peu réalistes. Les paramètres mesurés caractérisent moins le mécanisme de transmission d'un caractère que l'ensemble des éléments, génétiques ou non, qui interviennent dans sa manifestation. Le cas de l'"intelligence" montre à quels contresens peut conduire l'usage sans précaution du concept d'héritabilité. /// Inheritance is a statistical concept dealing with certain similarities between related individuals, it can only be used in genetics by constructing unrealistic models. The parameters measured do not deal with the mechanism of transmission of the characteristic between different individuals so much as with that of all the elements, genetic and non-genetic, which become apparent in its manifestation. The example of 'intelligence' shows what misapprehensions can arise when the concept of inheritability is used uncritically. /// El concepto de "heredabilidad" es principalmente un concepto estadístico correspondiente al parecido que existe entre personas que tienen algún parentesco y carece de sentido su traslado mecánico el campo de la genética. Los parámetros utilizados corresponden más bien al conjunto de elementos, genéticos o no, que intervienen en la manifestación de este hecho, que al mecanismo de transmisión de una característica. El ejemplo del concepto de "inteligencia" muestra los contrasentidos a que conduce la utilización indiscriminada del concepto de "heredabilidad".

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