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Studies in Artificial Parthenogenesis. II. Physical Changes in the Egg of Arbacia

L. V. Heilbrunn
Biological Bulletin
Vol. 29, No. 3 (Sep., 1915), pp. 149-203
DOI: 10.2307/1536408
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1536408
Page Count: 55
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Notes and References

This item contains 49 references.

[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Loeb ('08)
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • O. and R. Hertwig in their "Untersuchungen zur Morphologie und Physiologie der Zelle," Heft 5, 1887
    • Ziegler, Arch. f. Ent. Mech., VI., 249 (1898)
    • Moore, Univ. of California Publications in Physiology, IV., 89 (1912)
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Quincke '02
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Findlay, "Osmotic Pressure," London, 1913 (Chapt. IV.)
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    p. 162
  • 2
    Loeb, "Artificial Parthenogenesis and Fertilization," p. 208.
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Loc. cit., p. 210.
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Loc. cit., p. 213.
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • " Kapil- larchemie," p. 9
    • Gibbs, Collected Papers, I., 314-331
  • 2
    This reference contains 4 citations:
    • Gibbs, loc. cit., p. 274
    • (171) and (217)
    • (98)
    • (508)
[Footnotes]
  • 2
    Czapek ('11)
  • 3
    L. c., p. 310.
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Czapek ('11), p. 35.
  • 2
    note p. 166.
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Freundlich, "Kapillarchemie," p. 512.
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Gibbs, l. c., p. 300
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    pp. 165-166
  • 2
    (Heilbrunn, '13) it was pointed out that membrane elevation never occurred when the egg or its cortex was coagulated. Now in concentrated sperm suspensions, it can be shown that a profound coagulation does take place. This was demonstrated by a method which has been developed for revealing the presence of coagulation within the egg. For details of this method see p. 192.
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Loeb, '13a, p. 223.
[Footnotes]
  • 2
    Loeb, '09, p. 55.
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    Loeb, '09, p. 217.
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Freundlich, '09, p. 416
    • Freundlich and Ishizaka, '13
[Footnotes]
  • 1
    This reference contains 3 citations:
    • Science, N.S., XL., 680 (1914)
    • Dreyer and Hanssen, C. R. Acad. Sci., CXLV., 234 (1907)
    • Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc., XII., 201 (1903)
V. References
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  • Czapek. '11 Ueber eine Methode zur direkten Bestimmung der Oberflächenspannung der Plasmahaut von Pflanzenzellen, Jena, 1911, G. Fischer.
  • Delage, Y. '07 L'oxygène, la pression osmotique, les acides et les alcalis dans la parthéno- genese experimentale. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, T. 145, Pp. 218-224.
  • Delage, Y. and Goldschmidt, M. '13 La parthénogenèse naturelle et expérimentale, Paris, 1913.
  • Fischer, A. '99 Fixirung, Färbung und Bau des Protoplasmas, Jena, 1899, G. Fischer.
  • This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Fischer, M. H. '10 Oedema. New York, Wiley.
    • '12 A Further Response to Some Criticisms of the Colloid-chemical Theory of Water Absorption by Protoplasm. Journ. Amer. Med. Assn., Vol. 59, pp. 1429-1433.
  • Fischer, M. H. and Ostwald, Wolfgang. '05 Zur physikalisch-chemischen Theorie der Befruchtung. Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol., Bd. 106, pp. 229-266.
  • Fol, H. '79 Recherches sur la fécondation et le commencement de l'hénogénie chez divers animaux. Mem. d. l. Soc. de Phys. et d'Hist. Nat. de Genève, T. 26.
  • Freundlich, H. '09 Kapillarchemie, Leipzig, 1909.
  • Freundlich, H., and Ishizaka, N. '13 The Velocity of Coagulation of Aluminium Hydroxide Sols as Measured by Changes in the Viscosity. Trans. Faraday Society, Vol. 9, pp. 66-79.
  • Gibbs, J. Willard. '75-'78 On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances. Republished in the Scientific Papers of J. Willard Gibbs, London and New York, 1906.
  • This reference contains 2 citations:
    • Heilbrunn, L. V. '13 Studies in Artificial Parthenogenesis-I. Membrane Elevation in the Arbacia Egg. BIOL. BULL., Vol. 24, pp. 345-361.
    • '15 The Measurement of Oxidations in the Sea-urchin Egg. Science (in press).
  • Herxheimer, G. Mikroskopische Technik, in Abderhalden's Handbuch der biochemischen Arbeitsmethoden, Bd. VII., pp. 632-714 (see pp. 679-680).
  • Kite, G. L. '13 Studies on the Physical Properties of Protoplasm. I. The Physical Prop- erties of the Protoplasm of Certain Animal and Plant Cells. Amer. Journ. Physiol., Vol. 32, pp. 146-164.
  • Lepeschkin, W. W. 'ii Zur Kenntnis der chemischen Zusammensetzung der Plasmamembran. Ber. d. deutsch. bot. Ges., Bd. 29, pp. 247-261.
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    • Lillie, Ralph S. '10 The Physiology of Cell Division-II. The Action of Isotonic Solutions of Neutral Salts on Unfertilized Eggs of Asterias and Arbacia. Amer. Journ. Physiol., Vol. 26, pp. 106-133.
    • 'ii The Physiology of Cell Division-IV. The Action of Salt Solutions Followed by Hypertonic Sea-water on Unfertilized Sea-urchin Eggs and the R61e of Membranes in Mitosis. Journ. Morph., Vol. 22, pp. 695-730.
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    • Loeb, Jacques. '08 Ueber den Mechanismus der Agglutination. Kolloid-Zeitsch., Bd. 3, pp. 13-114.
    • '09 Die chemische Entwicklungserregung des tierischen Eies, Berlin, 1909, Springer.
    • '13a Artificial Parthenogenesis and Fertilization. Chicago, 1913, University of Chicago Press.
    • '13b Reversibility in Artificial Parthenogenesis. Science, N.S., Vol. 38, pp. 749-751.
  • Loewe, S. '13 Membran and Narkose. Weitere Beiträge zu einer Kolloidchemischen Theorie der Narkose. Biochem. Zeitschr., Bd. 57, pp. 161-260.
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    • Lyon, E. P. 'o2 Effects of Potassium Cyanide and of Lack of Oxygen upon the Fertilized Eggs and the Embryos of the Sea-urchin (Arbacia punctulata). Amer. Journ. Physiol., Vol. 7, pp. 56-75.
    • '07 Results of Centrifugalizing Eggs. Arch. f. Entwicklungsmech., Bd. 23, pp. 151-173.
  • McClendon, J. G. '10 On the Dynamics of Cell Division-II. Changes in Permeability of De. veloping Eggs to Electrolytes. Amer. Journ. Physiol., Vol. 27, pp. 240-275.
  • Ostwald, Wolfgang. '07 Uber das Vorkommen von oxydativen Fermenten in den reifen Geschlechts- zellen von Amphibien und fiber die Rolle dieser Fermente bei den Vorgdingen der Entwicklungserregung. Biochem. Zeitsch., Bd. 7, pp. 409-472.
  • Pictet, C. '91 Recherches sur la spermatogénèse chez quelques Invertebréditer- ranée. Mitth. d. zool. Stat. z. Neapel, Bd. 10, pp. 75-152 (see pp. 100-105).
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    • Quincke, G. '77 Ueber Diffusion und die Frage, ob Glas für Gase undurchdringlich ist. Poggendorff's Annalen, Bd. 160, pp. 118-123.
    • '02 Ueber unsichtbare Flüssigkeitsschichten und die Oberflächenspannung flüssiger Niederschlige bei Niederschlagsmembranen, Zellen, Colloiden und Gallerten, Ann. d. Physik, 4te Folge, Bd. 7, pp. 631-682, 701-744.
  • Reinke, F. '95 Untersuchung über Befruchtung und Furchung des Eies der Echinodermen. Sitzungsber. d. Akad. d. Wiss. z. Berlin, 1895, pp. 625-637.
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  • Robertson, T. B. '12 Studies in the Fertilization of the Eggs of a Sea-Urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) by Blood-Sera, Sperm-Extract and Other Fertilizing Agents. Arch. f. Entwicklungsmech., Bd. 35, pp. 64-130.