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Bacterial Production of Tetrodotoxin in Four Species of Chaetognatha

Erik V. Thuesen and Kazuhiro Kogure
Biological Bulletin
Vol. 176, No. 2 (Apr., 1989), pp. 191-194
DOI: 10.2307/1541587
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1541587
Page Count: 4
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Bacterial Production of Tetrodotoxin in Four Species of Chaetognatha
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Abstract

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) producing bacteria have been isolated from four species of planktonic chaetognaths: Flaccisagitta lyra, Parasagitta elegans, Zonosagitta nagae, and Eukrohnia hamata. TTX production in bacterial isolates from the four species of venomous chaetognath species was indicated by neuroblastoma cell culture bioassay and high performance liquid chromatography. A common species of marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, was identified as most likely responsible for the production of TTX. Extracellular TTX in the culture medium at concentrations of 280-790 pg/ml indicated that V. alginolyticus may be sufficiently capable of replenishing venom TTX within 24 h. It is suggested that this bacterium lives associated with these chaetognaths and is responsible for the production of the TTX in chaetognath venom.

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