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Reproductive Ecology of the Endangered Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes)

Susan K. Jacobson and John J. Vandenberg
Journal of Herpetology
Vol. 25, No. 3 (Sep., 1991), pp. 321-327
DOI: 10.2307/1564591
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1564591
Page Count: 7
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Reproductive Ecology of the Endangered Golden Toad (Bufo periglenes)
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Abstract

In the Cordillera de Tilaran, Costa Rica, golden toads breed explosively with the onset of heavy rains from March to June. During the 1977 and 1982 seasons, males outnumbered females by more than 8 to 1 at breeding pools. Single males attacked pairs in amplexus twice as often as they attacked individual males, yet no amplectant males were displaced. Male body size was not correlated with mating success; however, size assortative mating occurred in 1977. Life history characteristics, such as small clutch size (x̄ = 228 eggs) and large egg size (x̄ = 3.0 mm), are similar to B. holdridgei, another tropical montane toad. Yearly breeding activity had been observed in B. periglenes since at least 1977 until cessation during 1988-1990. Their limited distribution and relatively slow rate to reach maturity exacerbate their apparent recent population decline.

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