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Journal Article

The Individual and Combined Effects of Citrinin and Ochratoxin A in Broiler Chicks

R. O. Manning, T. P. Brown, R. D. Wyatt and O. J. Fletcher
Avian Diseases
Vol. 29, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1985), pp. 986-997
DOI: 10.2307/1590451
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1590451
Page Count: 12

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Topics: Toxicity, Ochratoxins, Kidneys, Toxins, Birds, Lesions, Body weight, Water consumption, Cholesterols, Penicillium
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The Individual and Combined Effects of Citrinin and Ochratoxin A in Broiler Chicks
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Abstract

Citrinin (CTN) and ochratoxin A (OA) were fed alone and in combination to broilers from day of hatch until 3 weeks of age. Dietary concentrations of 300 μg CTN/g and 3.0 μg OA/g were used. Birds fed CTN had significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower body weights than controls on days 14 and 21 and increased water consumption on days 7, 14, and 21. Birds fed OA had significantly lower body weights than controls on days 7, 14, and 21 and increased water consumption on day 14. Birds fed CTN and OA in combination had lower body weights than controls and increased water consumption during the experiment, but the alterations were intermediate in severity when compared with those in birds fed CTN or OA alone. Birds fed OA alone or combined with CTN had higher liver and kidney weights than controls, but birds fed CTN alone had only higher kidney weights. Birds fed both CTN and OA had concentrations of serum constituents similar to those in birds fed OA alone, except the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were not significantly different from those in the controls. Histological evaluation of the kidney indicated no lesions in birds fed CTN alone, but birds fed OA, alone or in combination with CTN, had increased tubular casts and tubular hyperplasia compared with controls. These data suggest that there were no additive or synergistic toxic interactions when 300 μg CTN/g and 3.0 μg OA/g were fed simultaneously to broiler chicks for 3 weeks. However, the severe growth depression resulting from OA and the increased water consumption associated with CTN toxicosis were ameliorated when CTN and OA were fed in combination. These data may be useful in diagnosing field cases of mycotoxicosis where both CTN and OA are involved. /// Se administró citrinina y ocratoxina A solas o combinadas a pollos de engorde desde el nacimiento hasta las 3 semanas de edad. Las concentraciones en el alimento fueron de 300 μg/g de citrinina y 3.0 μg/g ocratoxina A. Los pollos que recibieron citrinina tuvieron una disminución significativa de peso (P≤0.05) en relación a los controls a los 14 y 21 días y un incremento en el consumo de agua a los 7, 14, y 21 días. Comparados con los controles, los pollos alimentados con ocratoxina A tuvieron una disminución significativa de peso a los 7, 14 y 21 días y un incremento en el consumo de agua a los 14 días. Los pollos que recibieron ambas micotoxinas tuvieron una disminución en el peso y un incremento en el consumo de agua durante el experimento, pero las alteraciones no fueron tan graves comparadas con las de los pollos que recibieron cada una de las micotoxinas en forma separada. Se detectó un incremento en el peso del hígado y los riñones en las aves alimentadas con ocratoxina A sola o combinada con citrinina pero solamente se incrementó el peso de los riñones en las aves alimentadas con citrinina sola. Comparado con los controles, se obtuvo un incremento de proteína sérica total, albúmina, globulina, glucosa, colesterol y calcio en aves alimentadas con citrinina sola; las aves alimentadas con ocratoxina sola tuvieron una disminución de proteína total, albúmina, globulina, triglicéridos, calcio, fósforo y sodio; notándose un incremento en la glucosa. Las aves alimentadas simultáneamente con citrinina y ocratoxina tuvieron valores séricos similares a los de las aves alimentadas con ocratoxina sola, con la excepción de los niveles de colesterol y triglicéridos que tuvieron valores similares a los controles. No se observaron lesiones histológicas en los riñones de las aves alimentadas con citrinina sola, pero las aves alimentadas con ocratoxina sola o combinada con citrinina tuvieron cálculos e hiperplasia de los túbulos. Estos datos sugieren que no hubo una interacción tóxica aditiva o sinergística cuando se administraron simultáneamente 300 μg/g de citrinina y 3.0 μg/g de ocratoxina a pollos jóvenes durante 3 semanas. Sin embargo, la disminución severa de peso causada por la ocratoxina y el incremento en el consumo de agua asociado con la citrinina fueron más moderados cuando ambas toxinas fueron administradas simultáneamente. Estos datos pueden ser útiles para el diagnóstico de micotoxicosis en casos de campo cuando la citrinina y la ocratoxina esten involucradas.

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