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Sequence Analysis of Related Low-Pathogenic and Highly Pathogenic H5N2 Avian Influenza Isolates from United States Live Bird Markets and Poultry Farms from 1983 to 1989

David L. Suarez and Dennis A. Senne
Avian Diseases
Vol. 44, No. 2 (Apr. - Jun., 2000), pp. 356-364
DOI: 10.2307/1592550
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1592550
Page Count: 9
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Since scans are not currently available to screen readers, please contact JSTOR User Support for access. We'll provide a PDF copy for your screen reader.
Sequence Analysis of Related Low-Pathogenic and Highly Pathogenic H5N2 Avian Influenza Isolates from United States Live Bird Markets and Poultry Farms from 1983 to 1989
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Abstract

The last highly pathogenic outbreak of avian influenza in the United States was caused by an H5N2 influenza virus in Pennsylvania and New Jersey in 1983-84. Through a combined federal and state eradication effort, the outbreak was controlled. However, in 1986-89, multiple H5N2 viruses were isolated from poultry farms and the live bird markets (LBMs) in the United States. To determine the epidemiologic relationships of these viruses, the complete coding sequence of the nonstructural gene and the hemagglutinin protein subunit 1 of the hemagglutinin gene was determined for 11 H5N2 viruses and compared with previously available influenza sequences. The H5N2 isolates from 1986-89 were all closely related to the isolates from the 1983-84 Pennsylvania outbreak by nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis for both genes, providing additional evidence that the Pennsylvania/83 (PA/83) virus lineage was not completely eradicated. The PA/83 lineage also had a large number of unique amino acid changes not found in other avian influenza viruses, which was suggestive that this lineage of virus had been circulating in poultry for an extended period of time before the first isolation of virus in 1983. High substitution and evolutionary rates were measured by examining the number of nucleotide or amino acid substitutions over time as compared with the index case, CK/PA/21525/83. These rates, however, were similar to other outbreaks of avian influenza in poultry. This study provides another example of the long-term maintenance and evolution of influenza viruses in the U.S. LBMs and provides further evidence of the connection of the LBMs and the Pennsylvania 1983 H5N2 outbreak. /// El último brote de influenza aviar altamente patogéno en los Estados Unidos fue causado por un virus H5N2 de Influenza aviar en Pennsylvania y New Jersey en 1983-1984. A través de esfuerzos federales y estatales el brote fue controlado. Sin embargo, entre 1986 y 1989 se aislaron multiples cepas H5N2 de varias granjas avícolas y de mercados de aves viva. Para determinar la relación epidemiológica de estos virus se determinó el código de la secuencia completa del gen no structural y la subunidad 1 de la proteina hemaglutinina del gen hemaglutinina de 11 virus de influenza aviar H5N2 y se compararon con secuencias disponibles de virus aislados previamente. Mediante el análisis de amino ácidos y de la secuencia de los dos genes se observó que las cepas H5N2 aisladas de 1986 a 1989 estaban todas estrechamente relacionadas con las cepas aisladas en el brote de Pennsylvania en 1983 y 1984, suministrando evidencia adicional de que el linaje del virus Pennsylvania/83 (PA/83) no fue erradicado completamente. El linaje PA/83 también tuvo un gran número de cambios únicos en amino ácidos no encontrados en otros virus de influenza aviar, lo que sugiere que este linaje de virus había estado circulando en avicultura por un largo período antes del primer aislamiento del virus en 1983. Se midieron altos porcentajes de sustitución y evolución mediante el examen del número de sustituciones de nucleótidos ó amino ácidos en el tiempo comparados con el caso CK/PA/21525/83. Estos porcentajes, sin embargo, fueron similares a otros brotes de influenza aviar en avicultura. Este estudio suministra otra muestra del período tan largo de mantenimiento y evolución del virus de influenza en el mercado de aves vivas de Estados Unidos y suministra mayor evidencia de la conección de estos mercados y el brote de Pennsylvania de 1983 producido por un virus H5N2.

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