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The relation L=λ W has been shown to hold for particular queuing systems (L = average number of customers in the system, λ = mean arrival rate, W = mean customer waiting time) and Jewell published a general proof in 1967. This note presents a simple proof that does not depend on arrivalor service-time distributions, on the number of servers in the system, or on the queuing discipline.
Operations Research © 1969 INFORMS