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Geographical Reference Systems
The Geographical Journal
Vol. 137, No. 1 (Mar., 1971), pp. 1-13
Published by: geographicalj
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1795355
Page Count: 13
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Locations and areas on the surface of the Earth may be labelled by Geographical Reference Systems. The most commonly used system is latitude and longitude, which is well adapted to a spherical earth. Area referencing by the graticule is cumbersome, and many alternatives have been proposed, such as Marsden Squares, the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, Geo-Code and the Global Reference Code (GRC). These, and some other systems, are described. Many systems are not equal-area, which is a disadvantage when plotting or analysing distributions. Geo-Code makes effective use of a standard 80-column punch-card, while the Global Reference Code makes good use of the power of a modern computer. No existing system for areas seems so good that it could be adopted as a world standard. For point location, latitude and longitude are likely to remain in wide use.
The Geographical Journal © 1971 The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers)